Background: l’Importanza Economica dell’Innovazione. Dati dal Mondo Economia & Ricerca: USA Spesa Industriale Spesa Industriale: USA Spesa Industriale USA Economia & Ricerca: EU Linee Guida del Programma Nazionale di Ricerca sul sito del Miur. Economia & Ricerca: EU Economia & Ricerca: EU Investimenti privati Il Finanziatore (Venture Capital) Il Finanziatore (Venture Capital) Swiss watch industry ... 1968 - dominated industry > 60 years >65% units, >80% profits (Japan <1%) 1969 - Seiko introduces Quartz watches 1970 - Hamilton Watch Co introduces solid state electronics watch with digital display (Pulsar) Swiss industry declined from 65000 to 15000 in 3 years 1980 - Swiss market share <10% 1988 - five out of 6 timepieces had quartz crystal Visione: il futuro Ricerca Interdisciplinare Economia dell’Innovazione Centri di Ricerca – Nuove Imprese Ricerca Interdisciplinare ICT (Knowledge Management) – (HW, SW, Infrastrutture) Ambiente (Energia, Materiali, Gestione dei Rifiuti) Salute – (Medicina Molecolare, Neuroscienze, Tecnologie Biomediche) Life Sciences – (Agroalimentare, Materiali) Economia dell’Innovazione Economia basata su High Tech - Alto Valore Aggiunto Globalizzazione Competenza, conoscenza, creatività – contesto giuridico, fiscale e finanziario favorevole alla creazione e allo sviluppo di nuove imprese – programmi di istruzione e di formazione in materia di imprenditorialità e di gestione dell’innovazione – creazione di infrastrutture "The average worker, I am sorry to say, wants a job in which he does not have to put forth much physical exertion - above all, he wants a job in which he does not have to think." Henry Ford Emphasis on muscle, not mental ability Required less than 'whole bodies' ... Analysis of 7882 jobs in one factory ... Source: K & MD Fisher, The Distributed Mind ICARUS 949 Heavy work requiring strong, able-bodied and practically physically perfect men 3338 Men of ordinary physical development and strength 3595 Requires no physical exertion and could be performed by the slightest, weakest sort of men. In fact, most of them could be satisfactorily filled by women or older children." ... 670 jobs could be performed by legless men, 2637 jobs by one-legged men, 2 by armless men, 715 by one-armed men, and 10 by blind men." Source: K & MD Fisher, The Distributed Mind ICARUS Knowledge & Information Explicit - e-Forums, networks, books, education Tacit - conversation, SIGs, experience & exposure The intangibles ... the real value of an organization '60-70% of LSE market capitalisation = Goodwill (and intangibles)' Coca-Cola ($164.8bn / $158.2 bn) = 96 % American Express = 84%, IBM = 83%, Kellogg's = 97% The 'assetless corporation' (e.g. SKG @ $bn 2.7) IP ... the only property that matters ICARUS The Value of Knowledge Management Dow Chemicals increased annual licensing revenues by $100 million Skandia Insurance reduced startup time of opening corporate office in Mexico from 7 years to 3 months Chevron realised $150 million annual savings in power and fuel from knowledge sharing in energy use management Texas Instruments avoided building $500 million wafer fabrication plant by leveraging internal knowledge and best practices Source: Ling, 1999 ICARUS 1) Legame fra Ricchezza & R&D Aumento spesa R&D Totale Impatto della tecnologia: prodotto/processo Ubiquità: distribuzione microprocessori 3) Valore della proprietà intellettuale Centri di Ricerca – Nuove Imprese Spazio Europeo della ricerca basato su – Centri di eccellenza – Reti internazionali – Centri di ricerca virtuali – Network per ricercatori, imprenditori ed investitori Imprenditori e Finanziatori Entrepreneural Business- plans 30.000 to 40.000 new high tech “start up”business plans are generated, leading to some 3000 - 4000 new high- tech starts- up p. a. Private equity investors There are 3000 - 4000 professional private equity investors (Institutional, VC´s and Business angels a. o.), of which an increasing number makes high tech investments – and the number is growing ! Science Parks and Incubators The number now exceeds 300 . Each hosting 10 - 30 small high tech companies looking for finance. The number of Science Parks and Incubators is still growing ! L’Imprenditore: uno stile di vita Libertà e Autonomia Controllo e Responsabilità (Alan Gibb) “Tuttofare” Informalità Intuizione Fiducia Networking Personale Lavoro – Vita sociale For example ... “I think there is a world market for about 5 computers.” Thomas J Watson, chairman of IBM 1943 “There is no reason for any individual to have a computer in their home.” Ken Olsen, president of Digital Equipment Corporation, 1977 “Who the hell wants to hear actors talk ?” Harry Warner, Warner Brothers, 1927 “There is no likelihood that man can ever tap the power of the atom.” Robert Millikan, Nobel Prize Winner in physics, 1920 ICARUS For example ... “What use could the company make of an electric toy ?" Western Union, turning down rights to the telephone (1878) "Video won’t be able to hold on to any market it captures after the first six months. People will soon get tired of staring at a plywood box every night." Daryl F Zanuck, 20th Century Fox, commenting on television (1946) "Groups with guitars are on their way out" Decca records turning down The Beatles (1962) ICARUS SURF OR SINK !