Background: l’Importanza
Economica dell’Innovazione.
Dati dal Mondo
Economia & Ricerca: USA
Spesa Industriale
Spesa Industriale: USA
Spesa Industriale USA
Economia & Ricerca: EU
Linee Guida del Programma Nazionale di Ricerca sul sito
del Miur.
Economia & Ricerca: EU
Economia & Ricerca: EU
Investimenti privati
Il Finanziatore (Venture Capital)
Il Finanziatore (Venture Capital)
Swiss watch industry ...
1968 - dominated industry > 60 years
>65% units, >80% profits (Japan <1%)
1969 - Seiko introduces Quartz watches
1970 - Hamilton Watch Co introduces solid state
electronics watch with digital display (Pulsar)
Swiss industry declined from 65000 to 15000 in 3 years
1980 - Swiss market share <10%
1988 - five out of 6 timepieces had quartz crystal
Visione: il futuro
 Ricerca Interdisciplinare
 Economia dell’Innovazione
 Centri di Ricerca – Nuove Imprese
Ricerca Interdisciplinare
 ICT (Knowledge Management) – (HW, SW,
 Ambiente (Energia, Materiali, Gestione dei
 Salute – (Medicina Molecolare,
Neuroscienze, Tecnologie Biomediche)
 Life Sciences – (Agroalimentare, Materiali)
Economia dell’Innovazione
 Economia basata su High Tech - Alto Valore
 Globalizzazione
 Competenza, conoscenza, creatività
– contesto giuridico, fiscale e finanziario favorevole alla
creazione e allo sviluppo di nuove imprese
– programmi di istruzione e di formazione in materia di
imprenditorialità e di gestione dell’innovazione
– creazione di infrastrutture
"The average worker, I am sorry to say, wants a job in
which he does not have to put forth much physical
exertion - above all, he wants a job in which he does not
have to think."
Henry Ford
Emphasis on muscle, not mental ability
Required less than 'whole bodies' ...
Analysis of 7882 jobs in one factory ...
Source: K & MD Fisher, The Distributed Mind
949 Heavy work requiring strong, able-bodied and
practically physically perfect men
3338 Men of ordinary physical development and
3595 Requires no physical exertion and could be
performed by the slightest, weakest sort of men. In
fact, most of them could be satisfactorily filled by
women or older
... 670 jobs could be performed by legless men, 2637
jobs by one-legged men, 2 by armless men, 715 by
one-armed men, and 10 by blind men."
Source: K & MD Fisher, The Distributed Mind
Knowledge & Information
Explicit - e-Forums, networks, books, education
Tacit - conversation, SIGs, experience & exposure
The intangibles ... the real value of an organization
'60-70% of LSE market capitalisation
= Goodwill (and intangibles)'
Coca-Cola ($164.8bn / $158.2 bn) = 96 %
American Express = 84%, IBM = 83%, Kellogg's = 97%
The 'assetless corporation' (e.g. SKG @ $bn 2.7)
IP ... the only property that matters
The Value of Knowledge Management
Dow Chemicals increased annual licensing revenues by
$100 million
Skandia Insurance reduced startup time of opening
corporate office in Mexico from 7 years to 3 months
Chevron realised $150 million annual savings in power
and fuel from knowledge sharing in energy use
Texas Instruments avoided building $500 million wafer
fabrication plant by leveraging internal knowledge and
best practices
Source: Ling, 1999
1) Legame fra Ricchezza & R&D
Aumento spesa R&D Totale
Impatto della tecnologia: prodotto/processo
Ubiquità: distribuzione microprocessori
3) Valore della proprietà intellettuale
Centri di Ricerca – Nuove
 Spazio Europeo della ricerca basato su
– Centri di eccellenza
– Reti internazionali
– Centri di ricerca virtuali
– Network per ricercatori, imprenditori ed
Imprenditori e Finanziatori
Entrepreneural Business- plans
30.000 to 40.000 new high tech “start up”business plans are
generated, leading to some 3000 - 4000 new high- tech starts- up p. a.
Private equity investors
There are 3000 - 4000 professional private equity investors
(Institutional, VC´s and Business angels a. o.), of which an increasing
number makes high tech investments – and the number is growing !
Science Parks and Incubators
The number now exceeds 300 . Each hosting 10 - 30 small high tech
companies looking for finance. The number of Science Parks and
Incubators is still growing !
L’Imprenditore: uno stile di vita
 Libertà e Autonomia
 Controllo e Responsabilità (Alan Gibb)
 “Tuttofare”
 Informalità
 Intuizione
 Fiducia
 Networking Personale
 Lavoro – Vita sociale
For example ...
“I think there is a world market for about 5
computers.” Thomas J Watson, chairman of IBM
“There is no reason for any individual to have a
computer in their home.” Ken Olsen, president of
Digital Equipment Corporation, 1977
“Who the hell wants to hear actors talk ?” Harry
Warner, Warner Brothers, 1927
“There is no likelihood that man can ever tap the
power of the atom.” Robert Millikan, Nobel Prize
Winner in physics, 1920
For example ...
“What use could the company make of an electric toy
Western Union, turning down
rights to the telephone (1878)
"Video won’t be able to hold on to any market it
captures after the first six months. People will soon
get tired of staring at a plywood box every night."
Daryl F Zanuck, 20th Century Fox, commenting on
television (1946)
"Groups with guitars are on their way out"
Decca records turning down The Beatles (1962)

Background: l`Importanza Economica dell`Innovazione.