S + Have/Has + past Participle
Present => some kind of link to the
present time
Perfect => some link to the past time
Recent events
=> recently, lately, in the last few
• There have been a lot of protests among
teachers recently
• The economic crisis has hit almost
everybody lately
• Technology has transformed learning
methods in the last few years
2. Indefinite past
=> just, already, yet
• I have come to repair my car
• The train has already left.
Have you read this book yet?
• They have just had lunch: they can’t be hungry again!
• Where have you been? – I’ve been away for some days
3. Result
• It hasn’t stopped raining. We can’t go
for a picnic!
• They have painted their house grey.
It looks awful.
4. Experiences
=> in my life, ever, never, before, up to
now, up till now, so far
• Have you ever been to London?
• Yes, I’ve been there a few times
• (When did you go?)
5. Period of time including past and
=>today, this week, this month…
• She has bought a lot of new clothes this
• I have had three cups of coffee this
• You have worked hard today. Let’s have a
6. Duration of state
(be, have, know,
opinion, perception, feeling…)
=> how long, for, since
• How long have you been here?
• We have known each other for a few years
• They have had that car since last
• Simple past
• Present Perfect
I met Susan two minutes
I have just met Susan
I went to London last
They got married in
I have been to London
They have been married
for two years
Talking about duration
Duration of state =>
Present perfect
Duration of action =>
Present Perfect
• I have been here for
two hours
• I have been waiting
for two hours
• I have wanted to move
to this country all my
NB He hasn’t worked
here for a long time,
as he retired in 2001.
Present Perfect Continuous
S + Have/has BEEN +V-ing (Gerund)
• Duration of action
He’s been talking for hours
• Result of prolonged recent activity
You’re sweating! - I’ve been playing tennis.
• Long recent actions
He’s been playing on the Playstation all afternoon.
NB No continuous in negative sentences:
I haven’t played tennis for three years.
“da molto”
+ He has been working here for a long time /for long
? Has he been working here for long?
- He hasn’t worked here for a long time: he retired in 2001.
(false duration )
He hasn’t been working here for long: He started three
months ago. (False negative)
Personal/ Impersonal forms
• Aspetto da due ore
= I’ve been waiting for two
• Ha la moto nuova da due
= He has had a new motorbike
for two days
• Non ci vediamo da tre mesi
= We haven’t met for 3
• Sono due ore che aspetto
= ****
• Sono due giorni che ha la
moto nuova…
= It’s two days since he
bought his new motorbike
• Sono tre mesi che non ci
= It’s three months since we
last met
• Italian
• English
E’ arrivato da dieci
• He arrived ten
minutes ago
E’ morto da due anni
• He died two years

Present Perfect Continuous