Amaze Astonish Move the Emotions (monody = 17th-c. Italian solo song) Florence, Italy (monody = 17th-c. Italian solo song) A. Florentine Camerata: Florence, 1570s B. Host: Giovanni de’ Bardi C. Theorist: Vincenzo Galilei Dialogue on Ancient and Modern Music •Complaint: Music (esp. polyphony) does not touch the emotions •Solution: Music should resemble oration; heightened speech D. Composers: Jacopo Peri & Giulio Caccini •Euridice (1600-01) E. The Music of the Florentine Camerata: Caccini’s Monody vs. Peri’s Caccini’s Monody: Has oratorical elements, (length, accent, elision), yet preserves songlike/musical qualities vs. Peri’s Monody: Stresses speechlike qualities A. Recitative (speechlike) vs. Aria (songlike) (late Baroque, by 1700) •Rhyme: Rhymed or Unrhymed? •Performing Forces? •Presentation of text: Rapid or Slow? •Melodic character: interesting, memorable contour or speechlike repeated notes? •Meter: Regular and obvious or Irregular/obscure A. Recitative vs. Aria (late Baroque, by 1700) B. Stile Rappresentativo (early Baroque, 1600-50) Stile rappresentativo________Arioso_________________Aria (speechlike) (songlike) C. The “Problem” with Opera: Verisimilitude (“Realistic-ness”) vs. Musical Satisfaction A. Opera Defined Drama: acted, scenery etc. Sung throughout B. Conventions of Early Opera A. Opera Defined B. Conventions of Early Opera C. Monteverdi’s Compositions D. Monteverdi’s Orfeo (1607) 1. Monteverdi’s Solution to the Verisimilitude Problem 2. A Sample Scene: “Tu se’ morte” (You are dead) 1. Monteverdi’s Solution to the Verisimilitude Problem Arias (memorable melodies) 1. Monteverdi’s Solution to the Verisimilitude Problem Instrumental Music 1. Monteverdi’s Solution to the Verisimilitude Problem -Old-fashioned madrigals -Dance 1. Monteverdi’s Solution to the Verisimilitude Problem Duets 1. Monteverdi’s Solution to the Verisimilitude Problem Vocal Virtuosity Tu se' morta, mia vita, ed io respiro? Tu se da me partita Per mai più non tornare, ed io rimango? You are dead, my life, but I still breathe? You have left me Never to return yet I remain? No, che se i versi alcuna cosa ponno, N'andrò sicuro a'più, profundi abissi E, intenerito il cor del re de l'ombre, No, if my verses possess any power, I shall go undaunted into the deep abyss And having softened the heart of the king of Hades, Meco trarrotti a reverder le stelle; O, se ciò negherammi empio destino, Rimmarrò teco in compagnia di morte. Addio terra, addio cielo e sole, addio! Will transport you to again see the stars. O, if cruel destiny works against me, I will remain with you in the company of death. Farewell earth, farewell heaven & sun, farewell!