The Baroque Era lasted began around 1600 in Rome and spread in Europe What was going on in the world 1607: the English settle in Jamestown 1610: Galileo confirms the Earth is round 1643 -1715: Louis XIV rules France 1687: Sir Isaac Newton publishes his “Laws of Universal Gravitation” 1732: George Washington was born 1744 -1748: French & Indian War What does the word BAROQUE mean? Baroque is a French word of Portuguese origins that means an “irregularly shaped pearl”. In Italy Baroque implies strangeness, irregularity and extravagance. This style includes light usage, incorporation of nature and dynamic movement. It is particularly reflected in opulent and dramatic churches with irregular shapes and extravagant ornamentation. Caravaggio He was criticized for depicting religious figures with stark realism in contrast to the idealized practice of the Renaissance, as well as depicting the poor and downtrodden in a realistic manner. He also brought a dramatic sense of light and space, and a mastery of chiaroscuro to his work. His approach influenced the later Baroque painters like Rubens and Rembrandt. CARAVAGGIO Bacchus c. 1597 Galleria degli Uffizi, Firenze Oil on canvas 37 3/8 x 33 1/2 in Bacchus, one of Caravaggio's baroque paintings, depicts the youthful Roman god of wine. This painting resides in Florence at the Uffizi Gallery. The inedible fruit in the painting is thought to depict the idea that time moves quickly and life is short. This aspect of nature was new to art in the Baroque. Caravaggio Amor Vincit Omnia c. 1601-02 Staatliche Museen, Berlino Oil on canvas 75 1/4 x 58 1/4 in CARAVAGGIO The Crucifixion of Saint Peter 1600-1601 Santa Maria del Popolo, Roma Oil on canvas 90 1/2 x 70 in Caravaggio, The Sacrifice of Isaac (1598-99), Galleria degli Uffizi, Firenze Caravaggio use of perspective brings the viewer into the actions and engages the viewers emotions while intensifying the scene through the use of dramatic light and dark contrast. Using theatrical light from a single source on the subject, he concentrates the viewer’s attention on the power of the event and the subjects response. Caravaggio favored dark backgrounds. Annibale Carracci Annibale Carracci, like Caravaggio, brought new drama and light to religious scenes. But, unlike Caravaggio, Carracci worked in Fresco, considered highly important at the time, and brought more intense colors into play, carrying forward the approach of the late Renaissance painters from Venice. Annibale Carracci, The Dead Christ Mourned, 1604 National Gallery, London Unusually, this picture shows only women mourners. Christ rests on the Virgin’s lap. Saint Mary Magdalene is probably the prominent kneeling figure on the right. Annibale Carracci, Loves of the Gods, Farnese Gallery 1597-1601 Bernini’s St. Peter’s The Piazza and Colonnade: The Plaza was designed to imitate two arms reaching out from St. Peters to embrace the world and welcome the pilgrims visiting the Vatican In Italy, the Baroque style is reflected in opulent and dramatic churches with irregular shapes and extravagant ornamentation. Basilica di Santa Croce, Lecce The High Altar with the Doctors of the Church and the Cathedra Petri Inside St. Peter’s Baldacchino 1624-33 Gilt bronze, Height approx. 100 ft. Bernini, The Ecstasy of St. Theresa, 1651, Santa Maria della Vittoria, Roma The sculptor represents the Saint fainting on a cloud, her heart having been pierced by an angel’s dart that infused her with divine love. Since the Counter-reformation stressed the value of church members reliving Christ’s passion. Bernini induces an intense religious experience in worshippers by creating not only the statue but the chapel and all the decorations that surround it. By his skill Bernini made the marble flesh seem to quiver with life, emotion, drama, and passion.