November 2010
With the contribution of the
LIFE financial instrument of the
European Community
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
This document was created as a part of the LIFE07ENV/IT/000357 - LACRe project, www.lacre.eu
This document was compiled with the collaboration of:
Province of Livorno
Giovanna Rossi
Carlo Garzelli
Laura Massei
Nicoletta Rossi
Stefano Simm
Province of Ferrara
Monia Barca
Domenico Casellato
Stefania Sacco
Elisa Trombin
Impronta Etica
Marisa Parmigiani
Marjorie Breyton
Elisa Petrini
Francesca Zarri
A21 Locale
Antonio Kaulard
Annalisa Bandieri
Emanuele Burgin
Eriuccio Nora
Mauro Bigi
Manuela Belli
Nicoletta Tranquillo
Alessandra Vaccari
With the financial contribution of the EC
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
2 PARTNERSHIP, A PATH OF SHARED RESPONSIBILITY ................................................................................6
2.1 A tool to support territorial governance ....................................................................................................6
2.2 A virtuous circle of corporate social responsibility...................................................................................6
3 THE CREATION OF A PUBLIC-PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP FOR CLIMATE........................................................10
3.1 Partnership model ....................................................................................................................................10
3.2 The actors: promoters, facilitators and members...................................................................................12
3.3 Phase I: Partnership conception..............................................................................................................12
3.4 Fase II: Partnership development ............................................................................................................17
3.5 Fase III: Defining the Plan of Action.........................................................................................................19
3.6 Phase IV: Partnership enforcement, monitoring and conclusion ...........................................................22
3.7 Alternative routes and approaches..........................................................................................................25
4.1 An account of the partnership conception..............................................................................................27
4.2 Support of companies, the Commitment Charter...................................................................................28
4.3 Company procedures and work methods ...............................................................................................33
4.4 Summary of initial results .........................................................................................................................33
5 GLOSSARY...............................................................................................................................................37
6 PROJECT PARTNERS ...............................................................................................................................42
Province of Livorno.........................................................................................................................................42
Province of Ferrara .........................................................................................................................................42
Impronta Etica ................................................................................................................................................43
Coordinamento Agende 21 Locali Italiane (Local Italian Agenda 21 Coordination) ....................................43
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
1 Introduction: a public-private partnership for climate protection
The LACRe Local Alliance for Climate Responsibility project was founded with the objective of contributing
locally to the battle against climate-changes through the creation of public-private partnerships that focus
upon Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), promoting effective strategies of emission reduction by all those
participating in said partnerships.
This project demonstrates that the attainment of such a goal generates a positive effect which would influence
the entire area of reference by promoting a specialization of local businesses and an improvement of their
placement to the point of creating an authentic “low carbon local economy”, as well as being an influence on a
global level, offering a significant contribution to European policies against climate-change.
The adopted model of reference is the “New Social Partnership”, defined by the Copenhagen Centre as
“people and organisations coming from some public, private and civic entities/bodies which are engaged in
voluntary, mutually beneficial and innovative relations with the aim of dealing/pursuing with social goals by
putting together their own resources and competencies.” Therefore, this deals with finding an innovative way to unite the efforts, commitments and knowledge of
different groups and individuals that can contribute – each in their own way – to the achievement of a common
goal: the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and the development of a local economy with low carbon
rate that is more competitive and ecological. This is what LACRe calls public-private Partnership for climate
There are three basic and innovative aspects featured in the Copenhagen Centre model adopted by LACRe:
the common goal to pursue, innovative measures of collaboration and the resources of every participant in the
The common objective that calls for the involvement of both public and private spheres is the seriousness with
which the environmental question has been tackled on a global level in recent years, becoming one of
development’s crucial junctions. The planet’s very survival depends upon the resolution of this problem and
thus the future and wellbeing of generations to come. In the same manner, on a local level, the wellbeing of a
territory and of those living in it is determined in a significant way by the ability to manage environmental
resources in a knowledgeable and sustainable way. Public measures alone have proven to be insufficient to the
effective and efficient management of the issue, more specifically the externalities derived from the actions of
individuals. In the same manner, the coordinating demands and the necessary investments make it impossible
to think of ascribing to the single actions of individuals for a solution of climate-related problems.
In such a context, a private-public partnership is an innovative tool that would systemize the possibility of
these two elements to take action regarding the issue, valorising the possible existing synergies while creating
win-win conditions for all partners. This means that private participants find it advantageous to contribute with
their own technical and economic resources to the solution of the problem that the public alone would not be
able to solve. This condition holds true particularly in the presence of externalities and interconnections among
motivating factors like climate-change.
The development of socially responsible behaviour by companies is an essential element along the path of
sustainable development in the area. Such an inclination from companies should not only be encouraged, it
must be integrated and channelled in such a way that is coherent with the governmental policies in the area.
More specifically the reference is to the governmental policies in the sphere of climate protection, that is
reputed to be a public asset par excellence due also to the costly and dangerous externalities that it creates.
From the awareness and sharing of this necessity comes the origin of the will, on the part of Public
Administration, to involve private companies in responsible management and safeguarding of local public
Some significant experiences regarding corporate social responsibility have demonstrated the potential and
efficiency of public-private partnerships in the realization of common interventions. An essential condition is
the pursuit of balance among some key elements: context, goals, partnership participants and expected
results. The added value is found in the choice of sharing specific skills, resources and knowledge as well as in
the contribution of various people to find innovative solutions to problems that come up.
The LACRe began from these experiences to then take them one step further and experiment public-private
partnerships in an absolutely innovative sphere: environmental protection and more specifically in the
greenhouse gases reduction. This is an extremely important experiment, given the number of environmental
issues that still threaten the environment and find public and private individuals playing roles similar to those
played in regards to climate (i.e. water pollution, soil contamination etc).
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
The goal of this document is to offer a step by step guide to anyone who wishes to try their hand at adopting
such a tool in order to involve people and businesses of a given area in the achievement of mutual goals,
especially of an environmental nature.
Targets of reference are the public government authorities located throughout any given territory from the local
to regional level while keeping direct contact with the area. Governmental public bodies have been chosen as
references throughout this guideline, but this does not mean that the ARPA (regional environmental protection
agencies), Mountain Communities or other public corporations should be denied the opportunities to try such
an experience. Since the main purpose of this document is to educate and support, we have chosen a simple,
easy-to-follow outline that provides alternatives even where conditions are not ideal.
Firstly a chapter features an in-depth look at methods related to the key theme of corporate social
responsibility (Chapter 2) and the “Circles of Responsibility” that were the technical inspiration from which the
LACRe project came into being. Then chapter 3 outlines the stages and necessary steps for the creation of a
public-private partnership for climate protection. Section 3.1. explains why a private-public partnership is the
ideal tool to deal with the challenges brought on by climate change; section 3.2 describes those suited to
developing a Partnership for climate and classifies them as Promoters, Facilitators and Participants, describing
specific roles within the partnership. Sections 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 describe the four steps with which the
partnership is built and enforced: the conception of the partnership, development, outline of the plan of action
and enforcement, monitoring and conclusion of partnership.
Lastly, Chapter 4 reports the description of two experiences carried out in Livorno and Ferrara in which the
indications provided in the previous chapter are applied on two real territories.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
2 Partnership, a path of shared responsibility
2.1 A tool to support territorial governance
From Kyoto to Copenhagen, the countries on our planet have systematically expressed the desire to reduce
greenhouse gases emissions in order to mitigate the effects of climate change. In 1997, many states signed
and adhered to a binding commitment in Kyoto, fully aware of some rather remarkable absences (United
States, China and Australia) which threatened its real effectiveness. Since then, during various phases,
European countries have cultivated the aspiration of becoming leaders on the world’s horizon to the point of
deciding unilaterally in 2008 to develop and tackle a commitment to the ambitious 20-20-20 project by the year
2020: a 20% reduction in greenhouse gases emissions (in comparison with those in 1990), a 20% increase in
energy efficiency and the attainment of the target of 20% renewable energy sources.
There are many problematic aspects to this approach. Mitigation is mentioned, that is to say the control of
emissions, and not adapting to climate changes. There is also the discussion of emissions interpreted as a
direct result of combustion, ignoring the fact that energy is needed to produce goods and it really doesn’t
matter much to global warming if these goods are produced on another part of the planet: it would be worth
the while adopting a more integrated vision, that of the Life Cycle Assessment. As far as the 20% mark is
concerned, it will surely be insufficient to stop climate change, unless this measurement includes the great
emitters themselves (today USA and China) and would be followed by other even more ambitious goals in
years to come. Some heads of state have already declared that a 20% reduction cannot be attained without
paying the price of a serious economical penalty: like a nemesis, the recession came along anyway, and
certainly not due to 20-20-20 and the EU’s emissions have dropped 17.3% in comparison with 1990. The
decrease registered in 2009 was remarkable as well: -6.9% in comparison with the previous year.
If it is true that the recession contributed to making emissions drop, even if in Europe (not in Italy) these
emissions were dropping at a remarkable rate for several years anyway, it would be foolish to believe that
economic recovery will make everything the same as before. The economy will recover thanks to new
industries with a low carbon emission rate and not thanks to the polluters from our past. Therefore, a new
scenario opens up: in which energy efficiency and environmental sustainability will become (actually, they
already are… in part) decisive factors for success.
On one hand we have companies with their global competition and on the other hand we have Public
Administrations that stand at the crossroads of the invocation of intervention from above and the assumption
of their own responsibility to obtain general goals, starting from the base. The LACRe project is moving along
in accordance with the latter approach, surpassing the former, classic and outdated idea of obtaining each
goal through a list of actions directly ascribable to Local Governments. LACRe is trying to give room to the
ambition of a real partnership between public and private companies, where the more conscious elements of
both can unite their efforts and create great, innovative and imitable examples.
The Kyoto Protocol and 20-20-20 strategy are both promoting territorial goals: they measure the reduction
from total overall emissions produced by an area and not from a specific production category. Therefore, these
are not to be seen as somebody else’s task. Therefore, these goals must not only be split up by country but
(later) by region, and provinces as well. It is here that the concept of city takes on the feature of being a
“civitas” and not simply an “urbe”. In the “civitas”, the city is seen as a community of people, relationships and
activities that are not closed off by medieval walls but a place where private citizens and public entities win and
lose together.
There is a great need to elevate our awareness level. The public authorities should work to simplify their
planning and authorizing procedures, recognizing deadlines and certainty of regulations as essential elements.
The private companies should be more aware of the fact that there are a thousand ways to save energy, to use
it more efficiently and thus in a more advantageous way, economically speaking, through such measures as
management improvements or investments that have time boundaries which often prove to be briefer than
even imagined. It is probable that as this path unwinds, everyone will become completely convinced that there
is no need of miracles for the quality of our environment, only a systematic revision of the efficiency of our
production and consumption processes: or even – along the horizon – a model will become one of energy
generation that is more credible and nearer to the places and times of consumption.
2.2 A virtuous circle of corporate social responsibility
The historic phase that we are experiencing highlights the simultaneousness of four phenomena of crisis that
are profoundly connected: economic-financial crisis, energy crisis, environmental crisis and food crisis. These
are the results of a developmental model that is no longer sustainable.
The seriousness of the crisis and the related risk of decline call for changes that could also bring about a new
opportunity: in fact, these are ideal occasions to think our priorities and methods of economic-social
development, entrusting the demand of recreating a public space of negotiation to individual needs and
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
interests and common goods; placing the individual at the heart of the matter as the carrier of needs, values
and cultural expression.
Such a crisis brings the attention (inevitably) upon the ability of looking upon the economy, development and
the market from a broad viewpoint that is lasting in time, taking the future of our society and our planet into full
account. The themes of responsibility, the planning method and innovation are central to this new model based
upon sustainability.
This is a process of transformation which will require a transaction that will not be simple or brief. However, it is
not possible to consider these elements individually during this process. From this viewpoint, such a
transformation involves not only an investment on the part of businesses but – above all – a new, great
opportunity to base a company competitiveness upon innovation and the creation of more efficient
relationships with its internal and external stakeholders, mostly in the area of reference.
More recent studies of Corporate Responsibility present this relational aspect as an element of competitive and
qualified development, capable of characterizing the production process in its ability to relate with society and
its protagonists. There is particular reference to the considerations developed by Edward Freeman in which he
defines CSR as “Company Stakeholder Responsibility”, a manner of operating that can be applied to all
organizations (thus, not only commercial activities) and their ability of broadening the confines of their financial
statements in order to align their knowledge, expectations and goals in a proactive and dynamic way so that all
participants are given the means to fully carry out their roles as carriers of interest, in a relationship of
collaboration and exchange, a dialogue of “mutual responsibility”. Furthermore, the considerations of Simon
Zadek in “Responsible Competitiveness” can be highlighted along with those of Michael Porter regarding
social strategy. At the same time, these considerations point out the necessity of going from the involvement of
stakeholders (“stakeholder engagement”) to the inclusion of the stakeholders themselves (“stakeholder
The proposal of “Circles of Responsibility” is carried out by experience and theoretic analysis. This way of
confronting and overcoming problems through the activation of Circles, regarding the way with which every
individual concurs with their own portion of activity in function of their own roles and possibilities, is inherent to
the idea itself of “economic district” as well as of cooperation and it was used in Post World War II as a means
of important development for many territories. The systems of small and medium enterprises with an economy
that is diffused throughout the territory, such as the cooperative entrepreneurial experiences, are based upon
two fundamental principles: “doing it together” and the acceptance of “mutual responsibility”.
It is obvious how such principles acquire a strong strategic value in today’s global recession, financial and
environmental crisis and can constitute important factors for the affirmation of a new developmental idea along
with a stronger social and civic cohesion.
The origin and growth of this model of responsible development is found in the strategic vision of sustainable
territorial competitiveness, making the territory the point of evaluation of the choice processes and mutual
responsibility inherent in working together.
In this meaning, “territory” is naturally separate from any dimensional qualification, but is defined as the place
in which various players see themselves as being homogeneous, in which they identify themselves and to
which they feel responsible - towards themselves and others.
The relationship between a company and the territory from which it is a part can only be interpreted in terms of
mutual interdependence: business is a determining factor for the maintenance of competitive conditions (social
and economic) and sustainability (environmental) of the territory and, at the same time, a subject which is very
much influenced by the starting conditions of the territorial context in its own competitive potential (economic,
social and environmental in this case as well).
This conception of a more extensive and inclusive social responsibility begins with the business and spreads to
the entire area of reference, the many players who can have leading roles as well as to public goods and
resources that are an element of the territory’s wealth. All of this can facilitate an approach from the small and
medium enterprises making up the most part of Italy’s economic fabric, defining its peculiarity.
The reference to the territorial dimension as a place and context in which to develop social responsibility does
not determine the overtaking of Corporate Social Responsibility policies in each business. To the contrary, they
remain essential in terms of strategies, choices and actions aimed towards good practical standards – from
governance to employees, customers, suppliers, the community etc. – upon which they are called into
discussion with interlocutors to be objects of assessment. A policy of social responsibility cannot be
completely and efficiently brought into being without a receptive reference context, that is to say without that
“social maturity” which is a sine qua non condition for a responsible competitive development that
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
necessitates a suitable environment (transparent and law-abiding) at the same time in which competition is a
stimulus to innovation.
The culture of reference of a social system is the motivational element that puts the various players into action.
This is why a shared culture, paying close attention to social and environmental aspects, is an essential factor
of the development of a real and effective social responsibility.
The purpose of the LACRe project is to develop an example of “Circle of Responsibility” focused upon
environmental issues as the central element of responsibility and the link to the territory. This concept is based
upon the collaborative participation of various social players who are driven by the diffused culture of social
responsibility and work together to plan, create and assess joint actions which will be strengthened in a most
natural way. The term “Circles of Responsibility” means the creation of a temporary network between
businesses and various interlocutors collaborating amongst themselves to manage areas of project
intervention (or critical situations), each of which participate based upon their respective skills and
responsibilities. A manner of relating and acting that enables the growth and strengthening of the initiative
through mutual exchange. These are open, multifaceted and changeable “Circles”. This is the very reason why
skills, experiences, innovation and investments can circulate in such an excellent manner.
The development of “Circles of Responsibility” is considered a very important and useful tool for the purpose
of the shared creation of social value as well as of the conditions of responsible competitiveness, beginning
with the mutual acknowledgement of various participants who shape themselves as each others’ stakeholders.
Working together and sharing the responsibility of actions and results means carrying out positive interventions
together that go beyond what is required by law as well as developing regulatory obligations in a different
“Mutual responsibility” is to be intended here as individual responsibility – identifiable and verifiable – of each
and every participant to obtain the common goal, and not as a way to make the individual not subject to this
commitment. On the other hand, being and seeing oneself as a “stakeholder” means taking the responsibility
to act as such, demonstrating that he or she possesses the ability. The social actor must not and cannot limit
actions to simply demanding “rights”, in a neo-corporative logic of exclusive tutelage of personal interest.
“Circles of Responsibility” are based upon the concept that cooperation among the actors is the only way to
determine the best possible relationships. Above all, these circles hinge on the idea that with mutual exchange,
the more participants there are, the more the value created. “Circles” must be conceived as the evolution of
horizontal subsidiaries capable of obtaining expected results where other solutions failed, as in the case of
safeguarding public assets – the first of which is the environment – and where the civic activism of citizens has
become a social corporate responsibility of companies, as well as one for Public Administrations, business
associations and Chamber organizations.
The development of an efficient and effective corporate social responsibility on a systemic level depends upon
the fact that other essential aspects of the economic system work in a suitable manner and – more specifically
– the balance between collective responsibility (i.e. functions of public institutions) and individual responsibility.
The developmental system of a culture and a sensibility that support corporate social responsibility policies
and the development of the territory is a process of integration among the functions of various institutions: in
some cases, the entrepreneurial world could take the first step and propose policies and solutions linked to
local development. However, an efficient mechanism that is sustainable (above all) is developed in a context in
which: a diffused culture of responsibility on an individual level, an elevated level of participation to public life,
an efficient political class and a substantial social equity are the support and result for corporate socially
responsible behaviour at the same time.
In other terms, corporate social responsibility is generated by the fact that a corporation is a place in which
people live and work, interacting with other social institutions.
Moreover, Public Administration – the one in that particular place – could become a dependable partner for
corporations that are socially responsible or wish to become so, as it can provide decisive support to the
realization of excellent actions. Vice-versa, companies could become partners of the local administration and
contribute to the creation of joint projects and the attainment of common goals.
From a Corporate Social Responsibility viewpoint, local administrations have taken the role of a socially
responsible organization from time to time, of promoters of a new developmental model for the territory
inspired by the principles of sustainability and therefore of the adoption of innovative and socially responsible
policies as well as a unifier of various social players and Promoter of opportunities for participants to come
together face to face and discuss issues on a local level.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
In conclusion, in order to withdraw from self-reference, it can be confirmed that the fact that socially
responsible behaviour on the part of businesses need: the direct commitment of organizations from the civic
society; becoming an element of the area’s responsible competitiveness; create a social capital along with
organizations for local residents to increase awareness (i.e. the ability of the people to make correct choices);
labour unions and representation of the businesses for the support of spreading Socially Responsible policies
among businesses themselves.
One final essential element in the creation of a new social relationship between businesses and the territory –
through a multi-stakeholder approach – is the existence of a “political-value” sharing starting with the
businesses and goes beyond that to involve the entire context of reference.
The LACRe project began with the pursuit of this kind of sharing among Public Administrations, sector-related
organizations and businesses in the territory, that is to say: by the need to take action to mitigate climate
change. In this way, LACRe challenged those traditional relationships between Public Administrations and local
economy, searching for new, innovative routes that could facilitate an active collaboration between Public
Organisations and private companies, generating an experience of the “virtuous circle” in order to attain
complex goals, such as those related to climate protection.
Departing from a provincial territorial level, the project has set a broader goal: to experience a new model of
Public-Private Partnership which could be used in other territories at a later date. By doing this, on the one
hand, the effort of creating a “waterfall effect” in the diffusion of a culture of Corporate Social Responsibility
and on the other hand, building a society of wellbeing aimed at promoting an environmental context that is
more safeguarded and liveable, therefore more sustainable.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
3 The creation of a public-private partnership for climate
3.1 Partnership model
The environmental issue that has imposed itself in recent years on a global level - which is one of the crucial
junctions of the planet’s development and survival - is of such an entity that it calls for the joint commitments
and efforts of an entire society on a local as well as global level.
The EC’s goal is to reduce emissions by 20% by 2020 and the warning from the international scientific
community to reduce 350 parts out of 1,000,000 of the CO2 concentration in the air in order to avoid the
gravest upheaval in terrestrial ecosystems needs a commitment from everyone. The Public-Private Partnership
is a tool that enables different elements to share resources and skills more than any other, as to contribute
locally to the attainment of these ambitious goals while promoting a process of streamlining and innovation of
the local production system. Key participants of this process are local government organizations in a given
area, businesses and other actors of local economy starting with Universities, research centres and non-profit
organizations (NPOs).
Private Sector
Public Sector
Non-profit Sector
What they offer
‣ Skills, technology and
‣ Potential of reduction and
‣ Familiarization with final
‣ Knowledge of the territory;
‣ Financing and incentives;
‣ Facilitation and guarantees
regarding agreements.
‣ Trust;
‣ Knowledge of the area of
What they acquire
‣ Strengthening relationships
with stakeholders and
corporate reputation;
‣ Promoting positive values
among employees;
‣ Improving company
‣ Innovating business offers;
‣ Improving knowledge of the
‣ Reinforcing know-how.
‣ Carrying out company social
and environmental policies
‣ Learning new work methods
(reducing bureaucracy);
‣ Improving knowledge of the
‣ Reinforcing company’s role
in civic society.
‣ Obtaining legitimization of
‣ Improving internal and
external communication;
‣ Reinforcing company
programmes through
economic support and
public support;
The success of the Public-Private Partnership is linked to the added contribution that it provides to traditional
systems of social, institutional and market interactions. Its added value is derived from the sharing of skills,
actions, economic resources and innovative solutions that this kind of relationship is capable of achieving.
It is necessary to emphasize that the Partnership process does not have to be a mere summation of individual
contributions from the actors involved, but the result of a collaboration based upon the following variables:
The parameters with which added value is measured, and thus the success or failure of the Partnership
process, are the internal benefits (of each single partner and members of the group) and external benefits
(aimed at the collective group). In terms of internal benefits: access to economical, technical and managerial
resources that each member is capable of offering as a contribution to the improvement of the Partnership’s
operative efficiency. In terms of work methods and enforcement of activities: innovation of suggested solutions
and improvement of provided services and products.
External benefits are broader in scope: they extend to the structural area of the social-economic fabric in which
it is established and developed. Moreover, Partnership includes a resource on an informative level as well, in
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
that it enables partners to acquire more information regarding the context in which it works and – more
specifically – to obtain in-depth knowledge of its stakeholders, beginning with customers/users.
Internal Benefits
shared among partners
External Benefits
for the external community
‣ Increased knowledge and skills (human capital):
‣ Improvement of pre-existing ones
‣ Adoption of new ones through exchanges between
‣ Creation of new methods and solutions
‣ Improvement of operative efficiency (organizational
‣ Accelerated improvement and development of products and
‣ Strengthening of credibility, trust and reputation among
stakeholders (social and relationship resources)
‣ Increase in the possibilities of access to contextual
information and material and immaterial resources
‣ Satisfying collective needs
‣ Strengthening of civil society (civic sense)
‣ Sustainable territorial development
‣ Creation of social and economic wellbeing for the community
‣ More job opportunities
‣ Improvement of quantity/quality of services and
public/local facilities
In this chapter, the main stages of the creation of a Public-Private Partnership are described as well as the
contributions and benefits that the various members can bring about as they have been developed in the
LACRe project. The chapter is structured according to the temporal phases of the formation of the partnership,
with a detailed illustration of the actions to carry out during each stage, questions that one must reflect upon to
ensure the entirety of the operation, a check list of suggestions and things to do/not do to ensure the project’s
Partnership conception
Mapping out who
to involve
Internal initial
Activation of
Drawing and
signature of
Partnership Protocol
Partnership development
Definition of support tools
Local involvement
Defining the Plan of Action
Analysis of GHG emissions
of partners
Individuation of targets of
reduction and improvement
measure to be carried out
Approval of the Partnership’s
Plan of Action
Partnership enforcement, monitoring and conclusion
conclusion and
Evaluation of results
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Monitoring and
Supporting the
realisation of the
plan of action
Lastly, some suggestions are listed for the creation of a simplified partnership process, in case resources
(economic, human or technical) available are not sufficient to ensure a complete, structured process.
3.2 The actors: promoters, facilitators and members
There are many different actors who can develop a Public-Private
Partnership for climate and there are just as many different methods of
organization and financing that govern it. Aside from the specifics of
the single experiences, partners involved could be split up into 3
‣ Promoters
‣ Facilitators
‣ Members
Partnership promoters are the actors in the socio-economic-political
and cultural system that conceive the process and act as engines for
the start-up of the Partnership. They can be a group of people or even
just one individual, depending upon strength and resources available.
In any case, their task is to start up the process, aggregate other
actors that can offer the maximum added value and define the
Partnership’s general goals.
During the LACRe project…
The Initial promoters of the partnership
were the two Provinces of Livorno and
Ferrara, who were joined by other
members (business Associations,
Chamber of Commerce, Developmental
Agencies and Business Consortiums)
which promoted adherence on the part
of the companies located in the
The Facilitators were the technical
structures supporting the promoters and
the technical assistance provided for
within the LIFE project.
The Members were the single
companies who committed to reducing
their emissions through a process that
included the calculation of the carbon
footprint, technical support for detecting
reduction interventions and the periodic
monitoring of results.
Facilitators are all those who can contribute directly to the success of
the Partnership by providing technical support, know-how or
resources. Possible facilitators are: Universities and innovation
research centres, Chambers of Commerce, Banking and Credit
Institutes , Associations and NPOs. An important role is played by
organizations that aid and bring businesses and economic operators
together, such as business associations, professional rosters and
Chambers of Commerce.
It is also opportune that there be members among the facilitators capable of verifying and guaranteeing the
transparency and honesty of the process, such as exponents from the academic and research world, experts
of environmental and energy issues. More specifically, the presence of third parties is important in the approval
phase of the plan of action, monitoring and assessment of results.
The members are the actors who are more directly involved in the process. They are the true protagonists of
the partnership and with their commitment; they contribute concretely to the reduction of greenhouse gas
emissions and the promotion of eco-efficiency of local economy. Members of the pilot LACRe experience were
the single companies, but broader models of this partnership would offer this role to: public actors, private
citizens or other organizations that are responsible for substantial emissions.
3.3 Phase I: Partnership conception
1 Partnership conception
Internal initial
Mapping out who
to involve
Activation of
Drawing and
signature of
Partnership Protocol
3.3.1 Goal of the phase
The first phase in the construction of a Private-Public Partnership is of an explorative nature and it sets the
base for the achievement of the project’s goals. It is essential that the phase is carried out with a thorough
assessment of each aspect and possible implications before proceeding to the more operative phases. The
chosen Partnership model will have an influence upon the role, kinds of relationships and collaboration there
will be among partners, as well as transaction costs linked the implementation of activities and the final impact
the process could have on the territory.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
The specific goal of this phase is choosing the Partnership model most suitable to the set goals, involving
those elements who could assume the roles of Promoter and Facilitator of the process and draw up a formal
agreement of Partnership.
3.3.2 Activities to be carried out
The process must begin with a feasibility analysis that would allow for
the identification of key factors which could offer added value, limiting
the risks of resistance that could arise from both public and private
partners.Issues linked to climate change are very complex, transversal
and at the core of many debates; it is essential that the Promoter of
the initiative defines the boundaries and Partnership’s set goals during
the initial phase. An aspect that should never be underestimated (right
from the very beginning) is that the Partnership requires economic
resources suited to its activation and maintenance until the set goals
have been attained. Available resources must be carefully assessed
and goals must be gauged in line with the amount of funds that can be
made available to the process.
Below are the operative steps to follow in this first phase, detailed in
the following paragraphs:
During the LACRe project…
The experience of the LACRE project
taught us that it is useful to involve a
panel of stakeholders in this explorative
phase of the Partnership. This panel can
be made up of business associations,
Chambers of Commerce and other
economic operators that would be
interested in participating. Moreover, it is
important to involve companies with
substantial experience right away, since
they could take on a sponsorship role
and be the driving force for the launch of
the project.
Phase 1 - Partnership conception
Internal initial assessment
Partnership model
Mapping out who to involve
List of possible partners
Activation of governance mechanisms
Facilitation Group Focus Group
Drawing and signature of Partnership Protocol
Establishment of the partnership
Step 1: Internal initial assessment
The initial assessment is the base for defining the feasibility of the Public-Private Partnership, its structure and
its goals; it is the phase directly involving those who promote the partnership dealing directly with the strategic
political level as well as the technical structure. Key elements of this analysis are:
1. Available resources that could be used in activities related to involving others, partnership technical
support and communication;
2. Desired impact upon the territory in terms of the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions and the
increase of the eco-efficiency of the local production system.
The interaction between these two variables (available resources and the desired results) enable the outline of
the Partnership to be proposed. The chart below illustrates how several situations are possible which tend
towards advantageous win-win conditions for everyone involved:
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Available resources
Available internal
resources for Partnership
management and
technical assistance
Final impact upon the territory
Reduction of a
substantial and
pre-established amount
of greenhouse gases
Available internal
resources for Partnership
management and
external resources for
technical assistance
Resources available only
for the coordination of
the Partnership
Strong Partnership
Reduction of greenhouse
gases emissions of
Partners on a voluntary
Innovation in production
processes and promotion
of eco-efficiency
Shared Partnership
Networking knowledge
and skills
Networking Partnership
The kinds of Partnerships listed in the upper left-hand corner require a substantial investment of resources in
order to involve and motivate members as well as to support them in carrying out necessary activities for
emission reduction.
The intermediate positions are the most delicate ones in which internal negotiation for the choice of target
reduction and support mechanisms become strategic in order to attain significant results and to pro-actively
involve a great number of partners.
In the lower right-hand corner, the partnership takes on the structure of a network with limited objectives that
are mostly related to the diffusion of information and sharing of experiences.
Step 2: Mapping out who to involve
The second step is to locate those to involve in the Partnership’s various stages of development as Promoters,
Facilitators and Members. In order to do this, it is necessary to chart out a map of various categories of
contacts that are active in the territory and an assessment of some key criterion.
The criteria for the mapping of both kinds of actors must be dual:
‣ Potential contribution to the attainment of results;
‣ Predisposition and collaboration potential.
As far as Promoters are concerned, their task is to be the driving force of the Partnership’s start-up process,
the kind of actors to take into consideration are:
‣ “Sponsor” companies with substantial experience;
‣ Business associations;
‣ Organisations that manage public assets and services (i.e. health services, transportation, natural
resources etc.);
‣ Institutes that deal with territorial development;
‣ Local administration;
‣ Groups of interest.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Facilitators are to represent the various requests at stake and provide factual knowledge and technical
support. The kind of actors to take into consideration are:
‣ NGOs and NPOs;
‣ Universities and research centres;
‣ Certification companies;
‣ Environmental Associations;
‣ Service companies that work for Promoters involved;
‣ Consumer Associations;
‣ Other actors on the territory.
The final category of actors to map are potential partnership members. The kinds of organisations to involve in
this role must be acknowledged by Promoters and (if possible) Facilitators. The kind of actors to take into
consideration are:
‣ Companies (in particular, those who do not fall into the category of mandatory emission trading systems);
‣ Public Capital companies;
‣ Public Administration (i.e. health services, universities etc.);
‣ Local administrations;
‣ Other actors.
Step 3: Activation of governance mechanisms
Before proceeding to the establishment of the Partnership, it is necessary to establish the mechanisms of
Partnership management and relationships between various entities involved. The categories of partnerships
described in the above step illustrate that these actors could be:
‣ A steering group made up of Promoters in order to keep control of Partnership goals and to guarantee a
strategic direction;
‣ A support committee made up of Facilitators as a permanent advisory body that supports the steering
group and members
Obviously, the role of these groups will vary in intensity, becoming more or less binding depending on the type
of partnerships.
The steering group made up of Promoters will have the following responsibilities:
‣ Along with the support committee, determining the methods and conditions of defining commitments and
goals of the reduction of greenhouse gases emissions, calculations and verifications of monitoring data
and annual reports of obtained results;
‣ Drawing up the Commitment Charter that participants will be called to sign and promote subscriptions;
‣ Defining timetables and deadlines for project advancement;
‣ Summoning the Support Committee for the most important decision-making;
‣ Promoting opportunities for in-depth studies and training related to sustainability issues and the fight
against climate-change as well as facilitating the exchange of information regarding measures adopted by
‣ Researching and verifying the availability of eventual forms of funding to ensure resources necessary to the
progression of the Partnership and its future sustainability;
‣ Promoting communication of obtained results to citizens and all actors of the provincial territories involved.
The role of the Support Committee is to bring forth different requests and viewpoints, know-how and technical
skills. In order to carry out its function they must:
‣ Guarantee the relevance and techno-scientific reliability of steps taken in the Partnership area and their
transparency as far as the stakeholders are concerned;
‣ Support the steering group by offering it other specific skills, especially in the fields of promotion, training
and awareness for participants as well as the general public;
‣ Support participants in the individuation of their commitments and goals related to the reduction of
greenhouse gases emissions in the identification and realisation of possible reduction-related actions,
monitoring and the communication of obtained results.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Step 4: Drawing up and signing the Partnership Protocol
At the end of the process of mapping out and involving members from
various categories, the establishment of the Partnership must be
formalised through the drawing up of a Protocol Agreement or a
similar document. It must offer a detailed explanation of:
‣ the goals and partnership model outlined in step 1;
‣ the categories and roles to be carried out as outlined in step 2;
‣ the governance mechanisms of the partnership outlined in step 3.
This document must be shared with the facilitation group and officially
signed by all those who will decide to adhere to the Partnership. It is
also possible to include different levels of participation, if the
complexity of goals to obtain should call for such an action.
Durante il Progetto LACRe…
The Public-Private Partnerships
promoted in Livorno and Ferrara are
based upon a two-levelled agreement:
1 - A Protocol Agreement between
“Promoters” such as the Province,
Chambers of Commerce, business
associations and agencies of territorial
development which established the
2 - A Commitment Charter signed by
every company which has committed to
the project of quantifying and reducing
their emission and carry out actions to
reduce them.
Questions one
should ask
‣ Have all key elements which can support the Partnership’s entire cycle been
‣ Are there available resources equivalent to the outline given to the Partnership?
‣ Has research been done in the area to single out all of those who have
considerable experience and know-how?
What to do
‣ A careful analysis of the context to detect strong and weak points related to the
project that is to be undertaken.
‣ Map out potential participants based upon their skills, goals and availability.
‣ efine precise criteria that has been agreed upon for the choice of partners.
‣ Define clear criteria for the choice of the field of application of the partnership.
‣ A realistic analysis of skills, human and economic resources as well as time
‣ An immediate definition of the duration of the partnership and the conditions of
terminating it once goals have been obtained.
What not to do
‣ Extract consolidated standard practices in the management of partnership
‣ Neglect previous experiences of the administration and the “relations of power”
between those you want to involve.
‣ Make the partnership seem like a vertical, hierarchical structure.
‣ Avoid a definition of the goals and roles that could be unclear or not shared by
all those participating.
‣ Involving too many elements or ones that are too heterogeneous which could
slow down or delay the actions undertaken by the partnership.
‣ Avoid that the Partnership Protocol be approved with formality, without an
authentic dialogue and exchange of shared ideas between the partners.
Other ideas
‣ The partnership is a process that will last for several years. Do not block the
process while trying to involve every single actor singled out during mapping.
Once results start being evident, others will join in spontaneously.
‣ Give priority to involving networks that are already at work in the area to
promote sustainability and the innovation of production systems.
‣ Include “media partners” in the partnership that can guarantee a broad
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
3.4 Fase II: Partnership development
2 Partnership development
Local involvement
Definition of support tools
Goal of this phase
Once the agreement establishing the Public-Private Partnership has been formalised, it is time to work in an
operative manner to involve companies throughout the territory (members) and expand the partnership’s
visibility in the area. More specifically, the goals of this phase are to:
‣ Communicate the existence of the partnership and its goals throughout the area.
‣ Promote the adhesion of more and more elements: in the initial phase, the partnership can be made up of
even a few participants, as long as they are strongly motivated and very much involved and oriented
towards the attainment of the goals. It is this very strong motivation of the “group of pioneers” that could
stand at the foundation of the “potential multiplier” thanks to which more and more companies will be
stimulated to enter this partnership.
The activities to carry out
This phase of the partnership includes 2 operative steps.
Phase 2 - Partnership development
Local involvement
List of participants
Definition of support tools
Support Package
1. Local involvement
Now that the dynamic part of the project has arrived, the first step is to involve local actors which would then
animate the partnership and ensure the attainment of all goals. Therefore, a campaign should be promoted to
expand partnership to as many elements as possible, valorising and capitalizing the role, knowledge and
networks of each entity. The membership campaign should be adjusted, according to the kind of elements you
wish to involve, while keeping the following features in mind:
‣Level of attention already shown regarding the issues being dealt
During the LACRe project…
‣ Previous experiences of collaborations or contacts with Promoters
The involvement of companies was
and the manner in which they work in partnership with others.
managed by business organisations that
‣ Environmental impact in terms of emissions.
undersigned to Protocol Agreement
along with the Provinces. These
associations notified their associates of
It could be decided to involve only one economic sector, a group of
the project and its development as well
businesses or to even extend participation to anyone showing interest.
as promoting their participation in the
Based upon the target to contact (i.e. a specific economic sector,
small and medium enterprises or every business located in the area
without distinction), a specific strategy to involve them will be defined.
If a partnership open to all companies and organisations in the area
has been chosen, the communication of the existence of such a partnership could be conveyed through the
press and local media. In such a case, it would be particularly useful if these elements were to be involved right
from the beginning in the facilitation group.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
If the partnership is aimed at a more specific target such as an
economic sector (i.e. agriculture, tourism, factories) or a kind a
company (i.e. co-op, small or medium enterprises etc.), it would be
opportune if the promotion of the partnership took advantage of direct
and specific channels made available by the companies themselves.
Business associations or the spheres in which they operate,
associations and networks involved in sustainable and innovative
issues are all elements which could facilitate contacts and
memberships of these companies. Once again, in this case the
involvement of these elements from the beginning of the Partnership
would make the promotional phase in an area more rapid and
Durante il Progetto LACRe…
Several technical tools have been
developed to support the LACRE Project
that can be easily used in other
circumstances by Promoters of a
Partnership as well as by single
companies and organizations.
These tools are available on the project
site (www.LACRe.eu) and in the tool
section of the manual (see box below).
2. Definition of support tools
The operative tools to support the development of the entire project
must be prepared, based upon the model of partnership to be
enforced. This is an essential aspect for the Partnership’s success. In
fact, the lack of information, knowledge and instruments could halt
innovation even more than a lack of funds. This is even more veridical
when applied to climate change. Reducing emissions linked to a
production process does not only require an investment of capital, but
- above all - it necessitates assessment tools, mapping and
calculations, knowledge of new technologies or the choices that could
improve performance. In this phase, the determining role is played by
the Facilitators. Technical know-how and the experiences of the
various stakeholders involved could contribute to the definition of
scientifically valid standard support tools that are easily used by
partners. By structuring a valid instrumentation of support for
members, the Promoters would facilitate the attainment of the
Partnership’s goals. Instrumentation of support could include various
tools such as:
‣ information tools: guidelines, manuals, training and information
courses etc;
‣ technical tools: matrixes for analysing the process and other
analysis tools, spreadsheets, databases etc.
‣ direct support tools: audits by technicians, support in the planning
of the creation and interventions on installations, support in the
creation of management activities.
It is important that support tools be built upon acknowledged methods
and linked to national or international standards.
Focus : the LACRe tool
The LACRe tool has created a “tool kit”
that is useful to companies so they can
participate proactively in the
enforcement of the Public-Private
Partnership. The main tools included in
the kit are:
• Guidelines for carbon footprint
• Official GHG protocol spreadsheets
for carbon footprint calculation
• Standard structure of company
climate reports
• Collection of typical interventions for
the reduction of greenhouse gases
(GHG) emissions
• Typical structure of an energy audit
• Check list for the creation of an
energy audit
The “tool kit” also includes in-depth
analysis documents like a report on
environmental and energy regulations
for reference and one about Ecolabels.
Questions one
should ask
‣ Has a specific strategy of involvement been defined for the kinds of companies
or other partners that we want to involve that keeps the characteristics of each
in mind?
‣ Are the predisposed support tools in line with the Partnership’s level of
‣ Have all the elements of the facilitation group that can support partners in using
the tools been activated?
What to do
‣ Ask participants to promote membership within their networks: mouth-to-mouth
advertising is an excellent involvement strategy.
‣ Verify that support tools are easily used by partners.
‣ Provide technical support (even at a distance) for tool use.
‣ Formalise partnership adhesion though an official deed approved by the chief (s)
of the organisation.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
What not to do
‣ Confuse the membership campaign with a promotional campaign: the objective
is to stimulate an authentic and motivated participation in the partnership, even
if the number of participants should be limited (rather than a large membership
of “passive” elements).
Other ideas
‣ In order to facilitate broader involvement, various levels of membership could be
provided (i.e. first level for those who are part of the information network only;
second level for those organizations who are committed to reducing their
emissions; third level for those organizations who contribute – financially or with
other means – to partnership management).
3.5 Fase III: Defining the Plan of Action
3 Defining the Plan of Action
Individuation of targets of
reduction and improvement
measure to be carried out
Analysis of GHG emissions
of partners
Approval of the Partnership’s
Plan of Action
Goal of the Phase
Once the partnership has been signed by enough organisations, the next step is to define the plan of action
which clarifies the specific goals and commitments of every element.
Starting with this phase, Promoters must support participants with the tools described in the steps above. It
must also be agreed upon in this phase if minimal goals must be set which are valid for all partners (the
reduction of at least an X amount of their own emissions or the realization of at least an X amount of
interventions every year) or if every organization should define their commitments independently.
Activities to carry out
Putting together a plan of action requires – first of all – a phase of identification and mutual awareness of the
goals and expectations of every single participant. Initial transparency is one of the essential conditions for the
success of the Partnership, for the purpose of avoiding that any initial misunderstandings or conflicts among
the actors might turn into insurmountable obstacles during the rest of the process.
In order for the plan of action to be effective, it must contain specific, realistic and quantifiable commitments.
To guarantee this, the plan must be built with the direct involvement of both the technical and managerial
functions of the organizations, starting with an objective assessment of GHG emissions of which each partner
is responsible and of the real potential of reduction.
In order to facilitate monitoring and communication activities, it would be opportune that the plan of action
includes a monitoring system that everyone agrees upon which would enable the periodic detection of
qualitative information regarding the realization of forecasted activities and a report of their true impact in terms
of emissions.
This phase of the partnership calls for 3 operative steps.
Phase 3 - Definition of the plan of action
Analysis of GHG emissions of partners
Carbon footprint
Individuation of targets of reduction and improvement measure to be carried out
Reduction commitments
Approval of the Partnership’s Plan of Action
Plan of action
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
1. Analysis of GHG emissions of the partners
In order to define substantial reduction targets that are
also realistic, the departure point must be the carbon
footprint, the quantification of GHG emissions for which
each member is responsible. In order to facilitate this
activity, the partnership must have a tool of analysis that
can be easily used by technicians of the organizations
involved and that is based upon an acknowledged
method, one that is scientifically valid and agreed upon.
This kind of analysis requires specific technical skills and
available resources, in terms of both time and personnel.
Obviously, this could be a barrier to partnership
participation by companies and other potential elements
and could also represent a delay in forecasted timetables.
In order to avoid that this could compromise the success
of the partnership, dedicated technical support is useful.
Depending upon the economic resources available, a
simple long-distance support could be considered, using
standard tools (spreadsheets, documents of restitution
etc.), or a more detailed assistance which could include
field visits and audits until the carbon footprint has been
2. Individuation of reduction targets and
improvement measures
Focus : Carbon Footprint
The carbon footprint is the quantity of greenhouse gas
emissions that a company, product or service emits
during its function or lifecycle. The main goals of carbon
footprints are:
• Mapping all direct and indirect sources of
greenhouse gas emissions within the defined limits;
• Measuring emissions attributable to a single
product, service or organisation.
This tool is useful to companies in order to monitor the
quantity of greenhouse gas derived from their
production processes; moreover, it is an essential
departure point to carry out reduction actions which can
cause benefits in environmental terms as well as saving
the company money.
The most widely used standard of reference on an
international level to calculate the carbon footprint of an
organization or company is the GHG protocol, developed
by WBCSD and the World Resources Institute
(www.ghgprotocol.org). Every source of the company’s
emissions is taken into consideration in this analysis:
from the fuel used and electric energy to means of
transportation. This information regarding consumption
is then transformed into the emissions of the 6 main
greenhouse gases, thanks to conversion factors that are
recognized internationally. All the gases taken into
consideration are then converted into CO2 equivalent
through transformation coefficients. Therefore, the final
result of the carbon footprint is a quantity of CO2.
I Partners must define the entity of the reduction they
wish to obtain, identify the most efficient and effective
areas of action and plan the actions and mechanisms
through which they can reach their goals. There are
several conditions and levels of commitment. Their
definitions must be based upon a collaborative plan of
action between Promoters and members of the
1. An overall Partnership goal could be defined that
During the LACRe project…
would be translated into the reduction of a portion of
emissions of the members themselves or of the
In order to facilitate carbon footprint calculation,
overall emissions of the territory of reference
members of the two partnerships were offered a field
(expressed in CO2 equivalent tons or in percentage).
visit by external technicians to support the collection
In this case, the established target will be distributed
and elaboration of necessary data. In order to facilitate
among partners through the use of an objective goal
collection of data, a questionnaire was made available
that has been mutually agreed upon (i.e. individual
that was easy to fill out independently by participating
level of emissions, tur nover or number of
2. As an alternative, partners could also be free to
define a reduction target based upon the
During the LACRe project…
circumstances in which they find themselves at this
starting point or based upon their propensity towards
All participating companies calculated their carbon
carrying out interventions. All targets must then be
footprint, the potential for reducing their emissions
summed in order to obtain the Partnership’s overall
(based upon possible interventions that could be
goal. This is an important point to maintain a steady
adopted by that organisation) and a plan of action with
group approach whose final result is that of every
initial interventions that the company commits to realize
participant’s work and collaboration.
definitely in the upcoming three years.
The first approach guarantees a more substantial result in
terms of GHG mitigation, but in order for it to be
accepted, it requires great commitment on everyone’s part. It is facilitated by driving forces capable of
influencing the whole group or by the presence of financers who could aid the realization of interventions.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Based upon the defined targets, each partner must
formalize the measures they intend to carry out, a
timetable and expected emission reduction (if they can be
3. Approval of Partnership Plan of Action
Once the reduction goals and measures that each partner
commits to carrying out, they will be formalised in a
document that will be approved by the Partnership’s
steering group. It is also important to have the approval
of the board of directors of each partner in order to
guarantee the future realization of said goals as well as a
transversal sense of responsibility towards the
commitments made.
It is opportune that the Facilitation Group be actively
involved during this phase in order to evaluate the
coherence and significance of the defined commitments
as well as to support partners in its realization.
Focus: Measures to reduce emissions
Among the many actions that would result in a
reduction of GHG emissions, the main ones deal with:
efficiency and energy savings, transport and logistics,
reduction in use of raw materials, products, green
procurement, waste and (naturally) production and use
of energy from renewable sources.
These actions can be split up into two categories:
ordinary and extraordinary.
Ordinary actions are interventions that can be carried
out easily, practically without any investment
necessities; these are subdivided between managerialrelated issues (changes in the behaviour of employees,
managing procedures, small interventions upon
equipment…) and maintenance-related issues (i.e.
cleaning filters and exchangers etc).
Extraordinary actions require specific investments that
are often substantial and call for a close evaluations of
the cost-benefit ratio as well as the rate of return. For
example, some of these actions could be the installation
of renewable energy production equipment,
cogeneration plants, substitution of production cycle
machinery and equipment or energy efficiency
interventions on buildings.
Questions one
should ask
‣ Have clear, common and scientifically valid methods been defined for the
realisation of the carbon footprint and the drawing up of the plan of action?
‣ Have all partners agreed upon the criteria to be adopted for the definition of
targets of emission reduction?
‣ Have suitable tools been defined for the evaluation of conformity of the results
compared to those planned?
‣ Have deadlines been established and agreed upon?
‣ Have the tools and schedules for reports and transparency been agreed upon
for the enforcement of the Plan?
‣ Have the Boards of Directors of each partner been suitably involved?
What to do
‣ Define operative methods and tools to lead the analyses of emissions and the
individuation of reduction measures.
‣ Define clear goals that are realistic, coherent with the choice of sector and with
which the partners agree.
‣ Create a plan of action that is synthetic and not excessively technical.
‣ Define the method to monitor the realisation of the commitments of each
partner (over time) within the plan.
‣ Official signature of the plan of action.
‣ Give visibility to the commitments of the companies and to the plan of action.
‣ Involve both the technical and managerial factions of the companies in the
various stages of the drawing up of the plan of action.
What not to do
‣ Define goals that are not concrete or excessively ambitious.
‣ Define binding targets that discourage membership to this Partnership.
‣ Define generic goals that are not described in detail.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
‣ Goals of reduction could also be defined by sector (i.e. tourism, chemical and
agricultural industries etc.) leaving each actor the distribution of the overall goal.
‣ For those members who are not capable of reducing emissions with direct
interventions, the partial neutralization of their emissions through the purchase
of carbon credits of the voluntary market or other similar actions (i.e. forestation
or eco-friendly funding).
‣ Try to channel economic resources to facilitate the realisation of actions and to
award virtuous enterprises (i.e. European funding being managed by the Region,
funds from the Chamber of Commerce etc.).
Other ideas
3.6 Phase IV: Partnership enforcement, monitoring and conclusion
4 Partnership enforcement, monitoring and conclusion
Supporting the
realisation of the
plan of action
Monitoring and
Evaluation of results
conclusion and
Goal of the Phase
This is the longest and most critical of the partnership phases. In fact, the undersigning of the reduction goals
is not synonymous with their realisation. To the contrary, it must be aided by constant monitoring and support
of the partners. More specifically, the goals of this phase are:
‣ Supporting partners in the realisation of activities outlined in the plan of action;
‣ Monitoring and evaluating the advancement of the partnership periodically and communicating the results
achieved through a reporting system;
‣ Evaluating overall results of the partnership in terms of local contribution to the fight against climate
‣ Concluding the partnership cycle once the expected results have been obtained.
Activities to carry out
The final piece of the partnership coincides with the implementation phase of the plan of action and the
evaluation of results obtained in comparison with the goals and planned benefits.
This phase of partnership includes 3 operative steps:
Phase 4 - Partnership enforcement, monitoring and conclusion
Supporting the realisation of the plan of action
Realisation of partnership goals
Monitoring and reporting
Monitoring reports
Evaluation of results
Evaluation reports
Partnership conclusion and termination
Termination of partnership
1. Support for the plan of action
The actual realisation of what has been included in the plan of action is the condition for the concrete
attainment of partnership goals in terms of the reduction of GHG emissions and the increase of eco-efficiency
in the local economy.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Constant support must be offered in order to guarantee that the partnership project is not interrupted and that
the plan of action is tangibly carried out. The kinds of support and their intensity can vary in function of the
availability of economic resources and professionalism which the partnership possesses. If resources are
limited, support actions will be oriented mostly towards networking and information, facilitating awareness and
access to credit, possibilities of funding and incentives as well as contact between supply and demand
services. If the partnership possesses adequate resources or if there are elements within the group which can
offer technical know-how (i.e. technical facilities of sector-related associations, universities and research
centres etc.), support can expand towards more tangible activities such as technical planning or co-financing
of investments.
Examples of support activities that can be offered include:
Examples of activity
Creation of protocol agreements with banks and other credit institutions in the area to facilitate
access to credit and retrieval of funding.
Category of partners
Public participants /
Administrative support for a simplified attainment of authorisations
Facilitating networking and exchange of information between members (work groups for the
realisation of special interventions) to place know-how at the disposal of every partner
Organising seminars and awareness-related activities for the Management Departments of
partners to support the development of corporate eco-efficiency and eco-innovation strategies.
Updates on technological and market novelties that can aid partners to attain their emission
reduction goals.
Updates on funding opportunities on local, National and EC levels.
Technical training for company staff of participating members to take the following actions:
‣ personal awareness and behaviour (especially suited to service companies);
‣ Eco-innovation and eco-efficiency of production processes.
Technical and plant design of interventions to be carried out.
Co-financing of interventions
All promoters and facilitators
Universities and technical
Business associations and
networks that are
partnership members
Universities and technical
elements from the
Facilitation Group.
Public actors promoting the
2. Monitoring and reporting
Transparency is an essential element to guarantee the partnership’s success. All those involved must have
access to information regarding: commitments taken of every member, what has actually been done and
results obtained.
In order to guarantee all of this, a monitoring system must be enforced that has been agreed upon and
acknowledged by all members and possibly even verified by an independent third party. Verification can be
carried out by a subgroup of the Facilitation Group which involves experts and technicians capable of
evaluating the quality and dependability of gathered information.
Monitoring is related to the advanced phases of the plan of action’s implementation, but it is opportune that
the system be defined during the initial phases of the process, so that measurement and evaluation
parameters are explicit and the gathering of data and information is facilitated.
The monitoring system is developed on two levels:
1. measurement of actions that have been carried out
2. measurement of the results of the partnership.
Both levels call for both quantitative and qualitative information.
Measurement of actions that have been carried out call for the prompt monitoring of the actions which each
partner actually enforces - in comparison with the commitment found in the plan of action. This information is
useful in order to single out and manage critical factors which delay or hinder the realization of forecasted
actions, as well as offering suitable initiatives (i.e. additional technical support, training etc.).
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Measurement of the results is based upon outcome indicators that have been especially created to measure
and communicate the impact of the partnership in the battle against climate change. Key parameters to be
measured are environmental (percentage of the reduction of GHG emissions of organizations in the
partnership, contribution to the emission reduction in the area, cost of reducing emissions etc.). In order to get
the full picture, even the most qualitative aspects must be monitored such as process or product initiatives
developed by partners, the adoption of evaluation tools used to measure eco-efficiency (i.e. LCA, carbon
footprint of the product) or management and communications (i.e. carbon labels, EPD etc).
Monitoring can be carried out from a distance through questionnaires or check lists to be given to members
periodically or through field visits in order to verify monitored information in person.
A summary report must be written periodically which features an update of: all obtained results, the level of
realization of actions taken, forecasted timetables for the conclusion of actions in order to guarantee that the
project continues. This report must be shared and formally approved by elements of the partnership.
3. Evaluation of results
Evaluation is one of the key elements of the entire process and it is not limited to the evaluation of the final
results alone.
It is opportune that Promoters and the facilitation group organise exchanges and share ideas throughout the
life cycle of the partnership in order to:
‣ In the initial phase, verify the actual added value in terms of the innovation of relations and potential
contribution to the fight against climate change.
‣ While the project is being carried out, evaluate the progress of forecasted interventions; individuate critical
elements and possible actions of support in order to guarantee the attainment of forecasted results.
‣ Evaluate the conformity of attained results with those forecasted and decide upon when the partnership is
to terminate.
The evaluation process is supported by information and tools described in the above paragraph: monitoring
system and monitoring report. Aside from the attained results, evaluations of the partnership in terms of
relations, communication, internal transparency and management are necessary during the project and at its
It is opportune that formal evaluation meetings are scheduled that involve all promoting elements of the
partnership. Evaluation meetings can also be held during monitoring every 6 or 12 months in such a way as to
have suitable information for discussion and to promptly define measures of modification (i.e. additional
technical support, redefinition of the plan of action etc).
4. Conclusion and termination of the partnership
The Private-Public Partnership is a delimited course through which different elements work on a common goal.
Once the set goal has been attained, the process is concluded and the partnership is terminated. It is essential
that goals and initial targets are all specific and well-calibrated in such a way that expected results can be
attained within a limited period of time.
Other structures or organizations - such as associations, networks or NGOs - can be established through this
experience that can inherit, valorise and promote what has been attained.
Questions one
should ask
‣ Which are the most suitable indicators to use?
‣ At what point is the progress of the project, according to the indicators in use?
Does this correspond to what has been planned?
‣ Has the social objective been reached?
‣ If not, why? Could this possibly be the beginning of a new project?
‣ Are civic society, other enterprises in the area and citizens aware of the results
we have attained?
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
What to do
‣ Ask for constant feedback from partners in order to promptly signal out
obstacles encountered while carrying out forecasted actions in such a way as to
provide technical support if needed.
‣ Define indicators that are clear and suitable to the evaluation of the
partnership’s impact on economic, social and environmental levels.
‣ Keep constant monitoring of the progress of the partnership, relations, level of
involvement of each partner and communication management.
‣ Get monitoring reports formally approved and printed regularly.
‣ Ask all partners to include a summary of their monitoring report in their financial
statements (i.e. social, environmental and sustainability reports) in order to share
this information with as many people as possible.
‣ Organise public encounters in order to offer visibility to those partners which
have attained the goals they set.
What not to do
‣ Do not omit or neglect the importance of constant monitoring of the goals being
attained and the progress of the partnership.
‣ Extending the partnership indefinitely: the partnership must have a precise and
quantifiable goal and must be terminated once it has been attained.
Other ideas
‣ Mouth-to-mouth is the best incentive to diffuse innovative solutions and
technology: facilitating the circulation of information regarding what these
partners have attained, their results, problems, suppliers used and other
technical aspects via e-mail lists, online communities and social networks et al
as well as guided tours, meetings, networking meetings et al.
‣ It is important to offer public acknowledgement to the commitment of each
partner and results attained. Organize an annual ceremony during which those
involved could receive an acknowledgement (a plaque, diploma, award);
partners who improved their performance in a most significant manner could
receive a special acknowledgment.
‣ Involving local press and media among Promoters in such a way as to facilitate
the communication of attained results
‣ If the partnership does not possess enough resources to provide direct
technical support, agreements could be made with external suppliers (i.e.
technicians for energy audits, plant designs, funding etc) to offer partners
support services at advantageous conditions.
3.7 Alternative routes and approaches
This document has described the entire path for the most effective way to carry out a Public-Private
Partnership which facilitates on a specific territory a mutual commitment for climate protection and reduction
of greenhouse gas emissions.
It is a lengthy process that requires suitable resources. If available resources are limited, a simplified project
can be put into action which simplifies activities and goals of the partnership and enables the realization of a
significant programme to promote an eco-efficient economy on a local level that features low CO2 emissions
capable of contributing to the fight against climate change.
Some useful suggestions for developing a simplified partnership are listed below:
‣ Involving (preferentially) networks that are already active in the area in the promotion of sustainability and
innovation of production systems.
‣ Individuating elements in the area which can offer knowledge and skills that would be useful to the
‣ Including “media partners” that can guarantee broad coverage.
‣ Limiting the analysis of emissions to fuel consumption and electricity.
‣ Asking each participant to carry out at least one reduction per year without defining a specific minimum
‣ Concentrating upon networking by encouraging all partners to share their know-how and ensure that there
will be ample room for the partnership in the sphere of initiatives and communication tools developed by
various partners (i.e. newsletters, public events, conventions, brochures, catalogues etc).
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
‣ If the partnership does not possess enough resources to provide direct technical support, agreements
could be made with external suppliers (i.e. technicians for energy audits, plant designs, funding etc) to offer
partners support services at advantageous conditions.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
4 Case studies: partnerships for climate protection in Livorno and Ferrara
4.1 An account of the partnership conception
This chapter’s goal is to describe how public-private partnerships were set up in the two provinces involved in
the LACRe project: Livorno and Ferrara.
This project began in both provinces with the establishment of an internal working group coordinated by the
economic development/production activities Departments that involved several sectors and services of the
Province’s administrations such as environment, energy, mobility, communication etc.
The working groups immediately put together a map of contacts that could have contributed to the creation
and success of this partnership. Both provinces decided to involve business associations that were considered
the most relevant as main interlocutors. The choice to address associations instead of going to companies
directly had remedied some issues related to management and relationships that had emerged from the initial
assessments of the working groups. More specifically:
1. the usefulness of taking full advantage of pre-existing relationships to reach a significant number of
companies within a brief period of time;
2. institutional practices that repute business associations as a common boundary between local institutions
and the companies located throughout the territory;
3. the opportunity to have a limited number of interlocutors to coordinate for approval and undersigning of
official agreements.
During the following weeks, various individual and group meetings with associations were held at which goals,
governance structures and functioning mechanisms of the partnership were agreed upon. At the conclusion of
this stage, deeds of partnership were approved and officially signed.
In Livorno…
The Protocol Agreement that instituted the local partnership for climate protection was signed on 15 December
2009. Aside from the Province of Livorno, other signers were:
‣ CNA;
‣ Comitato Territoriale Livorno Lega Nazionale Cooperative e Mutue (Legacoop);
‣ Confesercenti;
‣ API;
EALP, the Energy Agency for the Province of Livorno, played a key role in supporting and facilitating this
partnership alongside those who were promoting it.
In Ferrara…
The Protocol Agreement that instituted the local partnership for climate protection was signed on 16 December
2009. Aside from the Province of Ferrara, other signers were:
‣ Ferrara Chamber of Commerce;
‣ Legacoop;
‣ Unindustria;
‣ CIA;
‣ Confagricoltura;
‣ Sipro;
‣ HTS.
CNA Ferrara also signed the agreement at a later date.
The Ferrara experience was distinguished by the direct involvement of several agricultural associations as well
as by the involvement of other organisations such as:
‣ The Chamber of Commerce, which carries out important activities to support businesses and the
development of the local economy;
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
‣ SIPRO, the Province of Ferrara’s agency for territorial development, which works specifically to manage
European Programmes regarding territorial cooperation and for the regional competitiveness and
employment as well as the planning of supplementary interventions financed with local and EC funds and
promoting initiatives for the purpose of aiding production settlements in the territory;
‣ The H.T.S. Consortium, made up of companies operating in various sectors (mechanics, textile-clothing,
services, chemical industry) in the industrial area of San Giovanni di Ostellato and committed to a project
dedicated to economic development and environmental qualification.
4.2 Support of companies, the Commitment Charter
The next step was for participating Associations to involve companies. Obviously, companies play the key
roles in making a real difference in GHG emissions and to activate innovative and ethical low emission
procedures for the local economy.
Adhesions of these companies were formalised through the undersigning of a “Commitment Charter” by the
management department of each company. This commitment is to activate a transparent programme to
measure their emissions and create a method of reducing them. As a whole, participating companies operate
in many different kinds of sectors and ranged from small businesses to larger corporations. Some were already
active in CSR programmes or had already begun energy qualification programmes (savings and efficiency,
production of renewable energy etc.), while others took advantage of this opportunity to start.
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‣ Participating in a project to reduce emissions of greenhouse
gas shared with the Public Administration for the purpose of
increasing wellbeing and the sustainable development of the
local area;
‣ defining a target of emission reduction that is suitable to the
nature, dimension, potential and activity of the company;
‣ planning and enforcing actions to reach this goal;
‣ making the chosen programme transparent and of public
domain, thus aiding the visibility of actions taken and the
diffusion of ethical behaviour;
‣ monitoring results obtained and making them of public
‣ participating directly and pro-actively for the exchange of good
practice standards in the sphere of emission reduction related
to production cycles ;
‣ being a reference point of innovation and change in the
dominant production model and being a leader towards an
economy that valorises the environment, people and future
In Livorno…
At the time that this document is going into print, 12 Livorno-based companies have joined this partnership. It
is worthy of note that there has been a very positive response from several local companies which manage
public services such as waste disposal, water and transportation. Below is a summary of participating
CPL – Compagnia portuali di Livorno, www.gruppocpl.it
CILP - Compagnia Impresa Lavoratori Portuali
CPL and CIPL are companies of the Compagnia Portuale di Livorno (Livorno Port Companies) holding. CILP provides services at the
port and manages handling incoming and outgoing goods. CPL deals with labour organisation and management.
Villaggio Club Cecina, www.villaggioclubcecina.it
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Villaggio Club Cecina is a tour village that was established in 1960, south of Livorno and is located almost entirely in a pine grove.
The village is made up of a group of buildings hosting the main office, kitchen, restaurant and saloon and 370 wooden bungalows,
some of which have private baths, public bathrooms with services and WC.
CLC – Cooperativa Lavoratori delle Costruzioni, www.clc-coop.com
CLP is a construction workers’ co-op that also deals with: renovation and maintenance of civic, industrial, commercial and tourist
buildings, infrastructures, restoration and preservation of buildings and monuments of historical value, energy distribution
networks, aqueducts and gas pipelines, earth-moving and demolition, technological wiring, integrated hydraulic defence systems
and special structural works.
Unicoop Tirreno, www.unicooptirreno.e-coop.it
Unicoop Tirreno is a department store co-op that has participated in this project at the store in Venturina. The location includes the
Coop store (a retail area of circa 1,200 square metres and food stands: fish shop, butcher shop, pastry shop and gastronomy) and
the commercial gallery, stores excluded.
Itinera, www.itinera.info
Itinera is a co-op business that provides services in the sphere of historical, cultural and tourist promotion in the Province of
Livorno; more specifically in the sectors of: libraries and archives, museums, events, publishing, tourism and school/educational
TRW Livorno, www.trwauto.it
TRW is an International brand that manufactures mechanical parts for automobiles and commercial vehicles, security and driving
systems; the plant in Livorno manufactures steering wheels of various types for some of the most famous brands of automobiles,
in particular for FIAT.
Polaris, www.polarisitalia.it
Polaris is a company of the Sogese group that deals with manufacturing and sales of multi-use prefabricated buildings, facilities
in wood and shelters and, more specifically, the production of prefabricated standard mono-blocs and other facilities in wood.
Prefabricated parts are built with purchased and completed sandwich panels.
ASA - Azienda Servizi Ambientali, www.asaspa.it
ASA operates in the sector of integrated water services (aqueducts, sewers, purification plants) and in gas distribution. It has been
the single manager of water services in the ATO 5 Tuscan Coast since 2002. It provides services to a population of 372,618 split
up into 33 Municipalities belonging to 3 Provinces (Livorno, Pisa and Siena). For gas distribution, ASA is present in 5 Municipalities
of the Province of Livorno, providing services to a population of 225,126.
ASIU - Azienda Servizi Igiene Urbana, www.asiu.it
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Asiu is a multi-service environmental hygiene company that operates in 5 Municipalities in the Province of Livorno, capable of
offering a full range of environmental hygiene services and managing the entire cycle of waste, from collection to treatment,
disposal and reuse.
Thanks also to extra activities such as communication, education and environmental awareness, ASIU supports Public
Administrations in their activities of environmental promotion, protection and improvement.
ATL - Azienda Trasporti Livornesi, www.atl.livorno.it
ATL manages public transportation services in the cities of Livorno, Cecina, Rosignano and Elba Island with a fleet of 250 buses
and 550 employees trained in the various services offered by the company. It also manages several car parks and car rentals for
the City of Livorno.
AAMPS - Azienda Ambientale di Pubblico Servizio, www.aamps.livorno.it
AAMPS is a company that provides cleaning services and urban sanitation for the Municipality of Livorno, constantly monitoring the
progress of urban solid waste and street cleaning.
More specifically, it offers both separate and non-separate waste collection, street cleaning, disposal and recycling as well as
environmental hygiene services.
REA - Rosignano Energia Ambiente, www.reaspa.it
REA works in 4 main professional sectors: waste cycle management, energy production, park maintenance and environmental
education. This is a joint-stock company holding public majority and the participation of private capital. The public portion of the
company is represented by the Municipalities for which it offers service.
In Ferrara…
At the time that this document is going into print, 17 Ferrara-based companies have joined this
partnership. Below is a summary of participating companies:
BeP, www.torneriabep.com
BeP was founded in 1986 as a family-run business, manufacturing metal turning and smallwares on commission, mostly for the
home appliances sector as well as for certain segments of the
oil hydraulics and moped sector. Recently, the company has expanded, featuring a department of gas barbecue production with its
own brand name.
TRW Ferrara, www.trw.com
TRW is an International brand that manufactures mechanical parts for automobiles and commercial vehicles, security and driving
systems; the plant in Ferrara manufactures various models of brake systems for some of the most famous brands of automobiles,
in particular for FIAT.
Protec, www.protecfilm.com
Protec is one of Italy’s leading companies in the production of protective films and numbers among the finest in the world of its
sector. Protec’s industrial policy has always been based upon the absolute respect for work ethics and constant research for the
most eco-compatible solutions.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Sacofin is a company operating on the real estate market. The site chosen to participate in the partnership is a building located in
Ferrara that was built in 2000, originally used as the Eridania SpA business centre; it was purchased by Sacofin in November
2008 and is now used as a business centre.
Pasquali, www.pasqualigroup.it
Sacofin is a company operating on the real estate market. The site chosen to participate in the partnership is a building located in
Ferrara that was built in 2000, originally used as the Eridania SpA business centre; it was purchased by Sacofin in November
2008 and is now used as a business centre.
Azienda agricola Guidi
The Guidi farm extends along a surface of 250 hectares. The area involved in the project includes a complex dedicated to office
space and living quarters, weighing rooms, cafeteria and living quarters for the workers, garage and various warehouses..
Azienda agricola Gherardi Nicola
The Gherardi farm extends along a surface of circa 200 hectares. It includes various plots of land situated in the Ferrara province
flatlands, a cultivation of poplar (for biomass) and an area used as a hunting reserve.
La città verde, www.lacittaverde.coop
Città Verde is a multiple-purpose social co-op. It operates in the field of finding work for the underprivileged and offering socialeducational services as well.
It operates in the provinces of Bologna and Ferrara in collaboration with the ASL (Public Health Services), local organizations and
private companies, employing the underprivileged alongside specialised workers in the environmental and garden maintenance
Moreover, it offers internships and training, draws up professional profiles and everything dealing with the protected professional
insertion of underprivileged.
The site participating in this partnership is located on Via Palmirano 92 in Cona (FE) and is still in the renovation and construction
SIC - Società Italiana Compositi, www.sic-compositi.it
SIC was established in 2009, substituting the BBF company and manufactures goods in fibreglass to all kinds of product sectors,
hard hats and helmet painting and decoration.
Lavoranti in legno, www.lavoranti.it
Lavoranti in Legno was founded in 1945 by handcraft-carpenters who joined together in a co-op. This is one of Italy’s leading
company in the planning, production and marketing of doors, windows and shutters in wood, solid wood and laminated timber for
indoor and outdoor use. It operates on an industrial scale, maintaining the elevated quality standards of a company of handcrafted
Vinyloop, www.vinyloop.com
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Vinyloop was established in 2001 as a solution for the demands of the European market for recovering plastic materials. It deals
with the recovery and recycling of PVC of different origin: cables, tarpaulins, cloths etc; the process is patented.
SEI – Società Escavazione Inerti, www.gruppoorpelli.it
SEI has been active in the sand excavation sector since 1984. The site which is participating in the project is part of the Orpelli
Group, which works with the extraction and the initial phases of processing of aggregate composites (gravel, sand and clay). The
participating plant features extraction equipment, an area that has been completely exploited and then recovered from an
environmental viewpoint, the gravel-processing system (dehydration and packaging) and offices.
Vortex Hydra, www.vortexhydra.com
Vortex Hydra deals with the designing, manufacturing and testing of machinery for the production of roofing tiles, tiles and
construction covering as well as valves for large-scale water lines.
Punto 3, www.punto3.info
Punto 3 creates projects for sustainable development, more specifically in the sphere of green procurement, participating in
environmental partnerships and communications. The offer is aimed at local organizations, associations and private businesses
for which it designs and creates specific activities and presents projects for CE, ministerial or regional financing.
Enercooperattiva, www.enercooperattiva.it
Enercooperattiva is a user’s union founded in 2009 as a union for private citizens, professionals and entrepreneurs. The co-op’s
goal is to promote Energy savings and the maximum recourse of renewable sources for energy production in every way possible.
MEEO - Meteorological and Environmental Earth Observation, www.meeo.it
MEEO was founded in 2004 with the purpose of developing and marketing services and products in the sphere of Earth
observation. Initially aimed at the specific field of application in the meteorological sphere, the experience and skills accumulated
brought about an expansion of the products and services to monitor the environment, soil management and agriculture. MEEO
can provide a broad range of ready-to-use services and products based upon multi-spectrum, multi-sensor and multi-temporal
analyses of satellite data.
Indica, www.indicanet.it
Indica is a company that offers innovative consulting services for the planning and experimentation of new management tools
aimed at environmental, social and economic sustainability. The company deals with research and consulting for Public
Administrations, companies and organisations and voluntary sectors. Indica, aside from undersigning the Ferrara partnership
Commitment Charter, has provided technical assistance to the creation of the LACRe project.
CPR System, www.cprsystem.it
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
CPR System is a co-op that is among the leaders in the food-farming supply chain that proposes a recyclable collapsible
packaging system for the fruit and vegetable distribution sector.
By becoming a CPR System associate, manufacturers and distributors have the possibility of using this packaging model,
appointing logistic management to CPR, which guarantees the efficiency of the entire system through the provision of services
with the use of a computerised system that guarantees the complete control and transparency of expenses.
4.3 Company procedures and work methods
The companies which adhered to the partnership began a well-structured 4-step procedure :
STEP 1: Mapping out the main sources of company GHG emissions, environmental and energy policies.
STEP 2: Calculation of the company carbon footprint to detect the GHG emissions for which it was directly or
indirectly responsible in 2009. The analysis was conducted following the international GHG Protocol standard.
This activity was supported by experts and technicians appointed by the partnership.
STEP 3: Setting up a reduction plan that extends over a period of several years which outlines the potential
emission reduction for each company and a series of measures to be put into practice relating to: energy
efficiency and savings, transports, reduction in use of raw materials, products, waste, production and use of
renewable energy. These actions can be of an ordinary nature (management or normal maintenance) or of an
extraordinary nature (system or structural investments).
STEP 4: Monitoring and communicating measures carried out to partnership promoters.
4.4 Summary of initial results
In Livorno…
An overall carbon footprint of Livorno-based companies participating in the partnership registered circa
134,500 tons of CO2 equivalent. Approximately 9,800 tons regard 7 companies that at the moment this
document goes to press, have completed all steps of this procedure and the remaining 124,600 tons regard
the companies that still have to complete steps 3 and 4. That is to say, setting up a reduction plan, beginning
monitoring and communicating measures carried out to partnership promoters. This concerns the utilities
(ASA, ASIU, ATL, AAMPS and REA) which undersigned the partnership at a later date.
Based upon the analyses conducted, the 7 companies who carried out the procedure in its entirety will be
capable of reducing overall emissions by circa 738 tons of CO2 equivalent (equal to over 7% of their
emissions) by carrying out the suggested improvement measures.
Total GHG emissions produced by the
Total GHG emissions produced by utilities
companies participating in the partnership for participating in the partnership for climate
climate protection in the Province of Livorno protection in the Province of Livorno
Potential reduction of GHG emissions of the
companies participating in the partnership for
climate protection in the Province of Livorno
Based upon the first monitoring carried out in September 2010, many measures are already being carried out
or are mapped out for the upcoming 2-year period. These measures correspond to a little over half (circa 400
tons of CO2 equivalent) of the overall reductions above. The chart below recapitulates the measures most
frequently planned by the companies and, when quantifiable, the CO2 emissions that will be avoided.
Planned Interventions
Detected Measures
Power factor Verification
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Number of companies
which have already
planned the action
avoided (tons of
CO2 eq)
Procedure of Switching off lights
Installation of Proximity Sensors
Installation of light timers
Installation of thermostatic valves
Procedure of switching off fan coils in the evening
Procedure of switching off refrigerator case at night
Installation of dual-control flow and flush reducers in WC
Installation of tap water distributors
Keeping an annual/monthly register of energy and water consumption
Making personnel more aware of energy savings
Neutralising CO2 emissions
Company Policy of making eco-friendly acquisitions
Correct waste management
Periodic verification of air-conditioning system filters
Quarterly check-up on compressed air leaks (hearing test)
Recovery of rainwater into soft water
Installation of energy saving lamps with electronic reactor
Substituting low-efficiency engines and install inverters
Recovering heat to produce domestic hot water from refrigeration groups.
Installation of Photovoltaic system
Installation of solar thermal energy system
Installation of low-enthalpy geothermal energy
* emissions of this kind cannot be accurately estimated. Emission reduction will be quantified years after the measures have been adopted by way of a carbon
footprint update.
As the chart clearly illustrates, this data does not take some interventions (even significant ones) into account
like those of which it is not possible to make an accurate estimate of emission impact, i.e.: keeping a register
of energy and water consumption or making personnel more aware of energy savings or even proper waste
management. The impact of such measures can only be verified through monitoring over the years. It is
probable that the results will be even more significant than those expected.
The goal of the partnership for the near future is to support participating companies to ensure that they will be
able to gradually set up all the suggested energy saving measures so that emission reduction can reach its
In Ferrara…
An overall carbon footprint of Ferrara-based companies participating in the partnership registered circa 25,500
tons of CO2 equivalent. It should be pointed out that some companies (Punto 3, Enercooperattiva, MEEO,
Indica e CPR) are participating in the partnership as supporters and facilitators in the carrying out of the
process. These organizations have not been included in the analyses of GHG emissions.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Total GHG emissions produced by the
Potential reduction of GHG emissions of the
companies participating in the partnership for companies participating in the partnership for
climate protection in the Province of Ferrara climate protection in the Province of Ferrara
Based upon the analyses conducted,
the 12 companies who carried out the
procedure in its entirety will be capable
of reducing overall emissions by circa
1,800 tons of CO2 equivalent (equal to
over 7% of their emissions) by carrying
out the suggested improvement
Based upon the first monitoring
carried out in September 2010, many
measures are already being carried out in Ferrara as well or are being mapped out for the upcoming 2-year
period. These measures correspond to approximately 66 % of reductions the companies could technically
obtain. The chart below recapitulates the measures most frequently planned by the companies and, when
quantifiable, the CO2 emissions that will be avoided.
Planned Interventions
Type of measures detected by the companies
Number of companies
which have already
planned the action
avoided (t Co2
Power factor Verification
Programmed transformer release
Procedure of Switching off lights
Installation of Proximity Sensors
Installation of light timers at the end of the day
Installation of thermostatic valves
Procedure of switching off fan coils at the end of the day
Timer installation of fan coil line
Timer installation on the UTA (Air handling units) line
Installation of dual-control flow and flush reducers in WC
Installation of tap water distributors
Keeping a monthly register of compressed air
Valve installation on air compressors
Keeping an annual/monthly register of energy and water consumption
Making personnel more aware of energy savings
Neutralising CO2 emissions
Company Policy of making eco-friendly acquisitions
Correct waste management
Periodic verification of air-conditioning system filters
Periodic verification of exchange batteries for UTA (Air handling units) and
refrigeration groups
Proper management of central heating plant during the winter and season
Correct functioning of water softener
Cleaning Y-shaped filters of the plate heat exchanger
Quarterly check-ups on compressed air leaks (hearing test)
Recovery of rainwater into soft water
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Installation of energy saving lamps with electronic reactor
Substituting low-efficiency engines and install inverters
Installation of control systems for energy consumption in order to optimize
electric energy costs by time slots
Installation of Photovoltaic system
Installation of solar thermal energy system
Installation of a micro cogeneration or tri-generation system
* emissions of this kind cannot be accurately estimated. Emission reduction will be quantified years after the measures have been adopted by way of a carbon
footprint update.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
5 Glossary
Accountability is acknowledging, assuming responsibility for and being transparent about the impacts of your
policies, decisions, actions, products and associated performance. (Source: AA1000 Accountability Principles
Standard 2008)
Adaptation to climate change
This is one of the two fundamental concepts (the other being mitigation) that has distinguished the
international climate policy in recent years, indicating two strategies for the management of climate change.
Adaptation is intended here as an adjustment to living conditions that have been modified as a consequence of
such change.
Partnership members
Companies, business associations and other actors that share the goals of the partnership and adhere to
these objectives in accordance with the conditions defined in the Partnership Protocol (signing the
Commitment Charter or another document, depending upon the kind of partnership chosen).
Carbon dioxide, CO2
A gas formed during all processes of combustion, respiration and organic decomposition and for the total
oxidation of carbon. It is essential to plant life and is practically inert. Transparent to solar light, CO2 absorbs
infrared radiation emitted by the earth’s surface, determining the greenhouse effect. Variations in the
concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, due to various human-caused activities (use of fossil fuel,
deforestation), determine modifications in the climate (it is calculated that CO2 contributes to approximately
55% of atmospheric warming due to the greenhouse effect).
Climate change
A modification in the natural balance of the Earth’s climate. The main climate changes observed or expected
so far regard: an increase in frequency and intensity of extreme phenomena such as hurricanes, storms,
floods, droughts etc; a rise in sea levels; desertification; rising temperatures and loss of biodiversity.
Carbon footprint
The measurement of greenhouse gas emissions caused directly or indirectly by an organization (product or
service). Generally it is expressed in terms of the tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) or its equivalent emitted, i.e.: all
GHG emissions produced are converted into CO2 based upon their impact upon climate change.
Carbon labels
Environmental labels that are voluntarily placed to describe the CO2 emissions created by the
product. They are generally addressed to final consumers (B2C), but can also be used for semifinished products sent to other companies. The Carbon Trust Carbon Reduction Label is one of
the best known labels distributed on an international level. Carbon Trust is an English
organization which provides specialist support to businesses and the public sector that wish to
adopt carbon management. The businesses that have decided to place a carbon label on their
products or services must commit to a programme to reduce their emissions beginning by
measuring their carbon footprint – measuring the emissions connected to every stage of the
production process - of the product or service. They are calculated with the PAS (Publicly Available
Specification) 2050 method specified by the BSI (British Standards Institution) and the UK Department of
Carbon neutrality
Refers to the balancing of gas emissions released by a certain activity with the realisation (direct or indirect
through buying carbon credits to make up the difference) of activities that reduce emissions from another part
of the world.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Climate encompasses the statistics of temperature, humidity,
atmospheric pressure, wind etc. particle count and other
meteorological elements in a given region over long periods of time.
Based upon the pattern of general distribution of climate, the Italian
peninsula would register completely as an area of typical
Mediterranean climate. However, due to many different factors such
as its general conformation, its orographic structure, its related
position to seas and the European continent, Italy can be subdivided
into various climatic regions with characteristics that are clearly very
different from one another. Climatologists from the Italian Air Force
Meteorological Service have signalled out 9 main areas illustrated on
the chart.
CO2eq = carbon dioxide equivalent. This measurement allows for the
weighing of greenhouse gas emissions with different climatechanging effects. For example: one tonne of methane, which has a
climate-changing potential 21 times more than that of CO2, is
measured as 21 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. The potential
climate-changing effects of various gases were processed by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
Corporate Sociale Responsibility (CSR)
“…is the concept whereby companies integrate social and environmental concerns in their business
operations and with their interaction with their stakeholders on a voluntary basis.” (Green Book EU: Promoting
a European Framework for Corporate Social Responsibility, European Commission 18-7-2001)
Circle of responsibility
A temporary network between companies and various interlocutors that work together to manage areas of
project intervention (or critical situations) each of which participates based upon their respective skills and
Environmental Product Declaration (EPD)
The Environmental Product Declaration is one of the many voluntary tools of environmental management, and
it is categorized by the UNI EN ISO 14020 norm as environmental label type III. This document helps and
supports organisations to communicate the environmental performance of their products and services through
objective, comparable and verified information. This information is of an exclusively informative nature: the
declaration does not contain criteria of evaluation, preferability or minimum levels which the environmental
performance must adhere to.
Eco-Design of Energy-Using Products Directive
The 2005/32/CE EUP (Eco-design of Energy-using products) covers all energy-using electric and fossil-fuel
equipment. The goal of this directive is to promote a framework to set environmental features for equipment
Greenhouse Effect
Greenhouse effect is an essential process in regulating the atmospheric
temperature on our planet. It ensures that our planet’s atmosphere
functions like a natural greenhouse, keeping the Earth’s average
temperature at around 15° C, equivalent to the temperature of a spring
day. The greenhouse effect has enabled life on Earth. If it did not exist
on our planet, the average temperature on the planet would be -18° C.
If the concentration of greenhouse gases present in the atmosphere
increases, as a result of human-caused emissions, the greenhouse
effect increases as well and so does the atmospheric temperature. The chart below demonstrates how the
greenhouse effect works.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Renewable Energy
The term “renewable energy” refers to energy sources whose reserves will certainly surpass the temporal
horizons of our civic action. Principal renewable sources are:
‣ hydro kinetic energy (generally converted into hydro-electric energy)
‣ wind (whose energy is known as wind power)
‣ biomass
‣ heat stored in the Earth, (known as geothermal energy)
‣ Sun (whose energy can be used directly as a source of heat, or transformed into electric energy through
photovoltaic plants).
Other technologies in the developmental stage are based upon the utilization of waves and tides. Fossil fuels
could also be considered renewable if their use were limited to the amount that the Earth is capable of
producing during our lifespan, equal to approximately 250 grams per person per year! Everything above that
amount is what we are taking away from generations to come.
Environmental Labels
Voluntary labelling systems are defined by UNI EN ISO 14020 regulations and can be divided into three
Environmental Labels ISO 14024 Standard Type 1
This is a B2C (Business to Consumer) label, in that it is aimed at the final consumer; these labels
are based upon a system which takes various criteria into consideration in order to evaluate the
entire lifecycle of any given product. Certification from a third, independent organization is
necessary in order to obtain this kind of label, which can certify the application of the criteria
provided for by a regulation that differs according to the category in which the product is placed.
These criteria clarify the values to be adhered to. A much diffused example of Type 1 Labelling,
as adopted by the EU since 1992, is the European Ecolabel. Its trademark is a daisy. Visit the
official website: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/ecolabel
Environmental Labels ISO 14021 Standard Type 2
Type 2 labels are environmental self-certifications that could be either B2C (Business to Consumer), for the
final consumer or B2B, for other elements within the chain of production (wholesalers, retailers etc).
Since these labels are based upon self-certification, there is no regulation regarding the certification from an
independent organization. The simple adherence to the conditions of diffusion and requisites regarding the
content of information is necessary.
An example of Type 2 Labelling is the trademark adopted for recycled materials (see image) that can indicate
that either the product was made from recycled material (if a percentage mark is also on the symbol) or that
the product can be recycled.
Environmental Labels ISO 14025 Standard Type 3
These are labels with declarations based upon the quantification of environmental impacts
associated with the product’s lifecycle that has been calculated with the LCA system. They
undergo an independent control and presented in a clear and comparable manner.
Partnership Facilitators
These are the representatives of the partnership’s stakeholders and their role is to provide understanding and
technical support. The tasks assigned to the facilitator group are usually:
‣ discussing and approving partnership protocol;
‣ highlighting the necessities and requests presented by the partners;
‣ assessing the adequacy of the actions carried out by each partner and verifying the accuracy of
information communicated;
‣ discussing issues that can arise during the process and finding solutions;
‣ guaranteeing the continuity of the partnership.
Greenhouse gases
These are all gases present in the atmosphere that are transparent to solar rays as they approach the Earth but
are capable of holding infrared rays emitted by the Earth’s surface, the atmosphere and clouds in a consistent
manner. Greenhouse gases can be of natural as well as anthropic. They absorb and emit radiation at specific
wavelengths within the thermal infrared range. This property causes the phenomenon known as the
greenhouse effect. More specifically, the most abundant greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere are:
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
water vapour
carbon dioxide
nitrous oxide
Hydro fluorocarbons (HFC)
Per fluorocarbons (PFC)
Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6)
GPP or Green Public Procurement
The practice of GPP is the spending process whereby Public Authorities can include criteria of environmental
qualification in their requests for procuring goods and service. In this case, the Public Authorities hold the
double role of “customer” and “consumer” and as such can also hold a great influence on “market orientation.”
Green economy
This is an economic and market development model, promoted for the first time through the media by
President Obama during his 2008 Presidential Campaign. This initiative assesses how technologies and
production processes with low environmental impact can be an engine for economic recovery and the creation
of a long-term sustainable economy.
Greenhouse Gas Protocol (GHG Protocol)
This is an International standard established in 1998 by the World Resources Institute and the World Business
Council for Sustainable Development, to support businesses in their analyses and quantification of their
greenhouse gas emissions. It provides quantification methods and excel sheets that these companies can use
to build their database and accumulate information to promote initiatives and to take responsibility for climate
changes. (http://www.ghgprotocol.org/).
Life-cycle assessment (LCA)
This is an objective method of assessment and quantification of the potential environmental impacts
associated with a product/process/ activity throughout its entire lifespan, from raw material to disposal or
renewal (cradle-to-grave).
On an international level, the LCA method is regulated by ISO rules from the 14040 series, based on an
assessment study which evaluates the lifecycle of any product. The definition of this objective and analytical
application (ISO 14041), the compilation of an inventory of inputs and outputs of a specific system (ISO 14041),
the assessment of the potential environmental impact related to these inputs and outputs (ISO 14042) and
lastly, the interpretation of these results (ISO 14043).
Low carbon economy
It is the name internationally given to an economic model based ideally upon renewable energy and
technologies that minimise green house gas emissions in the atmosphere.
IPP (Integrated Product Policy)
The Integrated Product Policy (IPP) is an integral part of the European Commission’s strategy for sustainable
development. The goal of this policy is to ensure that environmental improvement develops along with the
improvement of product performance while aiding a long-term competitiveness of the industry.
The IPP approach is based upon five general principles:
1. Consideration of the lifecycle of products (LCA);
2. Collaboration with the market (introducing incentives to orient the market towards more sustainable
solutions: ore specifically, encouraging supply and demand of more ecological products and awarding
businesses that are more innovative and committed to the promotion of sustainable development);
3. Involving interested parties (encouraging all of those who come into contact with the product - industries,
consumers and Public Authorities – to intervene within their spheres of influence by promoting
collaboration among interested parties);
4. Constant improvement (each company can establish improvements based upon their cost-efficiency ratio);
5. Variety of tools in action (this does not concern the creation of new tools, but the activation of pre-existing
ones in an effective manner, from voluntary tools to those within regulations, from local level to
international level interventions).
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
Along with adaptation, this is the way to tackle climate change. The objective of mitigation is to fight against
the causes of global warming by reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
The definition of Public-Private Partnership given by the Copenhagen Centre which has been adopted by the
LACRe project identifies public-private partnerships as: “People and organisations coming from some public,
private and civic entities/bodies which are engaged in voluntary, mutually beneficial and innovative relations
with the aim of dealing/pursuing with social goals by putting together their own resources and competencies.” PAS 2050 (Publicly Available Specification 2050)
This is a standard resulting from a joint project between the British Standards Institution (BSI) and the
Department of environment, food, and rural affairs (Defra UK) and is based upon an assessment of the 100year lifespan and greenhouse gas emissions of products.
Partnership promoters
A public body that establishes a project and all those undersigning the protocol commit to promoting adhesion
to said partnership for climate protection to organizations located in their territories.
Kyoto Protocol
This is an International treaty aimed at fighting global warming, initially adopted on 11 December 1997 in
Kyoto. More than 160 states signed and adhered to the protocol during COP3 of the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on that date. The treaty was brought into force on 16
February 2005 following the ratification by Russia. The treaty states that industrial countries commit
themselves to a reduction of no less than 5% of greenhouse gases emitted in 1990 – considered the
fundamental year – during the period extending from 2008-2012 and specifies the limits of emissions of
“developed” countries.
Stakeholders in an organisation are those groups that influence and/or are influenced by the organisation and
its activities. These can include (but are not limited to): owners, administrators, workers and trade unions,
customers, associates, business partners, suppliers, competitors, governments and legislatures, electorate,
NGOs and NPOs, pressure and lobbying groups as well as local and international communities.
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
6 Project partners
Province of Livorno
Livorno is a province in the region of Tuscany made up of 20 municipalities and is extended throughout a
territory measuring 1,213 Km2 (circa 5% of the entire region). It overlooks the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Seas to
the west (the border between these two seas is at the Piombino promontory) and is the Italian region with the
most extensive coastline (circa 415 km). It borders the province of Pisa to the north and east and with the
province of Grosseto to the south. Most of the islands in the Tuscan archipelago are part of the province of
Livorno: Capraia, Elba, Gorgona, Montecristo and Pianosa.
Based upon the Local Economic Systems of the Tuscan Region, the Livorno territory can be split up into 4
areas that present an elevated degree of demographic, territorial and productive differences:
‣ Area of Livorno that includes the municipalities of Collesalvetti and Livorno;
‣ Area of Val di Cecina that includes the municipalities of Bibbona, Castagneto Carducci, Cecina and
Rosignano Marittimo;
‣ Area of Val di Cornia with the municipalities of Campiglia Marittima, Piombino, San Vincenzo, Sassetta and
‣ Area of the Archipelago that includes the municipalities of Campo nell’Elba, Capoliveri, Capraia Isola,
Marciana, Marciana Marina, Porto Azzurro, Portoferraio, Rio Marina and Rio nell’Elba.
In the face of sectorial features that are very different from one another, these four areas share a high
concentration in a handful of productive activities. Some of these are typical of “seaside economy” and are
diffused pretty much throughout the entire province: fishing and maritime transports are present all over.
Others have a strong influence upon productive activities:
‣ Crude oil refining, the port and means of transport (shipbuilding and auto components) in the area of
‣ Agriculture, chemical industries, energy production and hotel facilities in the Val di Cecina;
‣ Mineral extraction, petrochemical industries, ironworks and energy production in the Val di Cornia;
‣ Mineral extraction and (above all) hotel facilities throughout the Archipelago.
The territory of the Province of Livorno is characterised by an elevated degree of integration between
economic development and cultural-environmental valorisation. The Province of Livorno is renowned for its
system of tourism: a great number of open parks throughout the territory where nature, history and culture
make up a unique combination (Parks located in the Val di Cornia and the Montoni Natural Park) are connected
with the Tuscan Archipelago National Park, the largest protected maritime area in Europe. The sea as an
economic, social, cultural and territorial resource is at the base of the maritime industry supply chain that deals
with local production systems from Livorno to Piombino, all of which are very complementary and specialised.
There are also many old town centres in this Province, many of which are of Etruscan, Roman and medieval
origin: a protected cultural and natural heritage of great interest; fine food and wine products that are
renowned throughout the world and a sea that is still uncontaminated have all made top level tourism one of
this Province’s most important economic activities.
Province of Ferrara
The territory of the Province of Ferrara is located between the Po River to the north and the Reno River to the
south and the Adriatic Sea is to its east. It is made up of 26 municipalities and extends along a territory of
2,631 Km2. The province’s 350,000 citizens are concentrated between the city itself and the province’s
This area is completely level and the activities of agricultural production and transformation are highly
developed. There are also many typical cultivations and productions: The Emilia-Romagna pear, the Altedo
asparagus, typical salami for sauces, the rice from the Po delta and the Goro clams. Agriculture has always
been Ferrara’s most important element of production. Industrial development has never strongly affected
agriculture to the point of taking its place, even though there are important sources of excellent products in the
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
province such as VM Motori engine manufacturing factory, Berco heavy equipment machinery, chemical
industries etc.
The province of Ferrara is the one that features the largest extension of natural reserves and protected area in
the entire region of Emilia-Romagna: circa 34,000 hectares.
The Province is made up of 26 municipalities in which 35,000 businesses operate (survey 2005).
Agriculture employs 8% of the labour force (twice the amount of the national average): agricultural contribution
to the province’s GDP is the second largest in north-eastern Italy. The industrial-handcrafts sector employs
35% of the population and the service sector employs 57%.
The unemployment rate is 4%, only half of the national unemployment rate, and the average income per capita
is 17,000 euros (above average for the Italian people, which is at 15,000 euros).
In recent years, the Province has invested energy and resources in research and services. A technological
industry was established in this city, an authentic incubator for new businesses within the national network of
industrial research.
Ferrara has 8 University Departments split up between Scientific Studies (Medicine, Engineering, Economy
etc.) and Humanistic Studies (Letters, Philosophy, Law etc) attended by 15,000 students per year.
In 1995 Ferrara was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. It has been acknowledged as an admirable
example of the Renaissance city, one of a kind for the integral preservation of its old town centre. The Park of
the Po Delta was also acknowledged as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1999: it extends for 53,653 hectares
between the provinces of Ferrara and Ravenna and includes 9 municipalities and an ad hoc consortium to
manage it. The entire area presents bicycle routes, from the edge of the provincial territory to the easternmost
portion of the delta.
Impronta Etica
Impronta Etica is an NPO established in 2001 for the promotion and development of Corporate Social
Responsibility (CSR).
The organisation’s goal is to facilitate sustainable development by creating a network between companies and
organisations that repute social responsibility and commitment as an essential part of their mission and are
pro-active in practices of social responsibility.
This organisation’s first priority is to keep associates in contact amongst themselves, putting them in contact
with other similar institutions in the country and inviting them to participate pro-actively with international and
supranational networks dealing with business ethics and accountability.
Moreover, this association holds the final objective of strengthening Italy’s presence on the European horizon,
since it is a National Partner Organization of CSR Europe, the European network that promotes corporate
social responsibility, committed to the exchange of good standard practices among businesses.
Over the past ten years, cooperative and private businesses, NPOs and - more specifically - foundations,
public corporations and public utilities have accumulated excellent experiences in the field of social
responsibility, that networking can promote and make more effective. On a national level, Impronta Etica, a
member of AICCON and the Forum for Sustainable Finance, is a part of one of the most important and wellstructured networks of members committed to CSR.
Impronta Etica organises thematic work groups with associate companies, signalling out innovative tools and
processes, guaranteeing updates on initiatives and experience of top quality Italian and foreign tools. Impronta
Etica is also in contact with various universities with which it collaborates in the development of surveys and
research of specific themes as well as through graduate and post graduate courses.
Today Impronta Etica unites 26 businesses that are members: Coop Adriatica, Granarolo, Conad, Camst,
Coopfond, Scs Azioninnova, Coop Ansaloni, Unipol Gruppo Finanziario, Coop Murri, Hera, Nordiconad, Coop
Consumatori Nordest, Homina, Argon Sette, CMB, Manutencoop, Obiettivo Lavoro, Coop Costruzioni,
GamEdit Srl, Emil Banca, CCC – Consorzio Cooperative Costruzioni, Palm Spa, Indica Srl, Tetra Pak,
Mediagroup 98 and CADIAI soc.coop.
Main office
Via Marco Emilio Lepido, 182/3 - 40132 Bologna - Italy
Tel. 051 3160311 / Fax 051 3160399
Coordinamento Agende 21 Locali Italiane (Local Italian Agenda 21 Coordination)
Coordinamento Agende 21 Locali Italiane is a National volunteer association made up of local and territorial
organizations that have taken the promotion of Agenda 21 Locale activities to heart as well as the diffusion of
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010
principles of sustainable development, including economic, social and environmental aspects. Founded in
1999, it registered over 450 associates on 31 December 2008: 369 Municipalities, 45 Provinces, and 11
Regions. The remaining 27 are split up into park organizations, Municipal consortiums and Mountain
Some of the association’s tasks are: facilitating exchange of good standard practices and experiences, making
this practice known, aiding new projects, promoting development of technical and operative skills of each
member, interacting with governmental and other national and European institutions in support of policies
inspired by sustainability principles.
Main office
C/o Provincia di Modena
Viale Martiri della Libertà, 34 - 41100 Modena - Italy
Tel. 059 209434-350 / Fax 059 209398/142
Local partnership for climate protection – Guidelines November 2010

LACRE Guidelines