ACARE Taxonomy
A common European taxonomy for aeronautical
research & technology
D.P. Hannessen and J.C. Donker
No part of this report may be reproduced and/or disclosed, in any form or by any
means without the prior written permission of the owner.
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January 2003
To provide a support infrastructure for the Advisory Council on Aeronautical Research in
Europe (ACARE), the Aeronautical Stakeholders Tools for the European Research Agenda
(ASTERA) project was set up. ASTERA contains several work packages.
The taxonomy work package describes the identification and definition of a common taxonomy
for the European aeronautical community. It consists of an organised listing of research &
technology (R&T) related topics within the European aeronautical community.
This document is the end result of the taxonomy work package. In it, the project approach
is described, as well as the contributors and the end product of the work package, viz. the
ACARE taxonomy.
The taxonomy lists Research & Technology areas identified by a group of representatives of
European aeronautics industries, institutes, and overarching aeronautics organisations. An initial
taxonomy was built on a combination of expertise of the representatives and results from earlier
similar projects. From this point it has been modified and expanded along new insights resulting
from consultations with a Steering Group with representatives from European aeronautics
industries, institutes and overarching organisations. The taxonomy is brought to at least one
level deeper compared to previous undertakings (e.g. by GARTEUR), thus providing a more
complete overview of aeronautics areas as well as a more in-depth view in which areas have
been detailed into domains and sub-domains. The ACARE taxonomy will therefore not only
serve those on a strategic / management level but should also be functional as a common
reference taxonomy to those working in the area of aeronautical research in general.
List of abbreviations
Advisory Council on Aeronautical Research in Europe
European Association of Aerospace Industries
Analysis of Research and Development in EUROCONTROL Programmes
Aeronautical Stakeholders Tool for the European Research Agenda
Air Traffic Management
Centro Italiano Ricerche Aerospaziali (Italian Aerospace Research Centre)
Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Centre)
European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company
European Research Establishments in Aeronautics
Group for Aeronautical Research and Technology in Europe
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Nationaal Lucht- en Ruimtevaartlaboratorium (National Aerospace Laboratory)
Office National d'Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales
(National office for aerospace research)
Research & Technology
Science and Technology study
Strategic Research Agenda
Taxonomy rationale
ASTERA Taxonomy
Taxonomy – Areas
Taxonomy – Domains, sub-domains
Taxonomy – Area 1: Flight Physics
Taxonomy – Area 2: Aerostructures
Taxonomy – Area 3: Propulsions
Taxonomy – Area 4: Aircraft Avionics, Systems & Equipement
Taxonomy – Area 5: Flight Mechanics
Taxonomy – Area 6: Integrated Design & Validation (methods & tools)
Taxonomy – Aera 7: Air Traffic Management
Taxonomy – Area 8: Airports
Taxonomy – Area 9: Human Factors
Taxonomy – Area 10: Innovative Concepts & Scenarios
Conclusions & Recommendations
(87 pages in total)
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In order for Europe to maintain its competitiveness in aviation for the next twenty years, a
formation of European stakeholders in aeronautics defined a strategic research agenda (SRA).
The SRA is the plan for materialising the Vision 2020 of the European Research Area, and the
goals identified by the vision. Those goals are to make Europe the world leader in aeronautics
through collaboration, strengthened and guided by a single shared vision. Common mechanisms
will be created for research and technological development in the service of a leading-edge
sector, symbolising European industrial ingenuity and excellence.
The established formation, the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe
(ACARE), was set up with the aim of developing and maintaining the strategic research agenda
for aeronautics in Europe.
One of the first ACARE activities was to define the Taxonomy work package as part of the
Aeronautical Stakeholders Tools for the European Research Agenda (ASTERA) project.
The objective of the ACARE taxonomy work is to achieve the definition of a Europeansupported taxonomy in a relative short period of time. The taxonomy should consist of an
organised listing of research & technology (R&T) related topics within the European
aeronautical community.
A Working Group was set out to identify and define the taxonomy. Each Working Group
member obtained information from experts in certain taxonomy areas regarding structure and
description. The experts would then formulate a definition including sub-domains.
Throughout the process a large Steering Group advised the Working Group. The Steering Group
members were representatives from aeronautical industries, technology institutes and Europeanwide aeronautical organisations. With this ensemble difficult issues could be solved with regard
to the overall structure of the taxonomy.
Through meetings with the Steering Group and through reviews of the taxonomy, a broadly
supported taxonomy was created, which is essential if the taxonomy is to be used by a
substantial European group of managers and technical staff. Not re-inventing the wheel was a
primary issue and the Steering Group took the care to start its work from already well
established classifications and build from them.
In this document the resulting taxonomy is described, as well as the process via which the
taxonomy was defined. This will be done by explaining the purpose of the taxonomy in more
detail, in section 2.1. The approach taken for constructing the ACARE taxonomy is described in
section 2.2. The taxonomy itself is presented in section 2.3 and will consume the larger part of
the document. Chapter 3 contains conclusions and recommendations for the maintenance and
accessibility of the taxonomy for a wide European audience.
2.1 Purpose
The main purpose of the ACARE taxonomy is to provide technological support to the ACARE
council by means of a workable definition list concerning aeronautical R&T topics that exist
within the different European partners from industries and institutes. This list has to be agreed
and used by all stakeholders in the European aeronautical community in order to make correct
comparisons and benchmarks of R&T capabilities.
Its use will be at the start of the ACARE initiative, providing a terminology base for a common
understanding in the ASTERA projects to follow. Therefore the taxonomy will function as one
of the first foundations in the implementation of the SRA. The taxonomy is required to be
flexible, easy to use for higher-level management purposes and also useable at more detailed
levels to compare research activities.
2.2 Approach
A consortium consisting of the Netherlands National Aerospace Laboratory NLR, QinetiQ of
the UK, and ONERA of France was selected by the ACARE customer to define the ACARE
taxonomy in the second half of 2002. EUROCONTROL also provided direct support to the
The first phase in the project was to get a clear understanding of what taxonomy approaches
existed for aerospace, e.g. at NASA, SCITEC, and EUROCONTROL. Different approaches
were found, varying from alphabetical listings of topics to topics that were cross-linked in a
matrix form to achieve multiple perspectives.
As a second activity, the approach for the ACARE taxonomy was defined to comply with the
following requirements and constraints for the taxonomy:
Achieve a common structure and high-level description for European research and
technology development, through an organised listing of research & technology (R&T)
related topics within the European aeronautical community.
Address the broad range of aeronautical products, technology developments and tools on a
manager scale.
Support multiple views for managers and technology people.
Obtain wide guidance via a Steering Committee to enable broad use within the European
aeronautical community.
Produce the taxonomy structure and high-level definition in the period August 2002 to
December 2002.
Describe aeronautics topics only; do not describe space-only topics.
Support dual use, civilian and military when covering military topics; do not describe
military-only topics.
This list was specified by the Steering Group together with the customer at the beginning of the
project. It was then passed on to all experts within the Working Group’s organisations to work
with. Because of the timeframe the project was bound by some practical decisions on, for
example, the level of detail and the review sessions with all the project members.
Within the group of project members, the taxonomy has been constructed by a working-group,
which received valuable feedback from a specially formed Steering Group. This Working
Group consisted of specialists from three different organisations divided over three countries:
ONERA (D. Nouailhas) in France, QinetiQ (B. Spedding) in the United Kingdom and National
Aerospace Laboratory – NLR (D.P. Hannessen) in the Netherlands. The overall project
management was placed at NLR. Onera and NLR being member of the Association of European
Research Establishments in Aeronautics (EREA).
From the beginning of the project it became clear that in order to achieve maximum agreement
on any form of European terminology listing, representatives from all European fields were
needed. A Steering Group was formed to provide senior management guidance. The Steering
Group was also formed with the goal of representing European industry, (national) technology
institutes, and representatives of air transport users. It was formed of the following members (in
alphabetical order):
(A. Swan / L. Bottasso)
(D. King)
(U. Möller / A. Junior)
(J.L. Galvani)
(J.L. Marchand)
(F.J. Abbink)
Rolls Royce
(N. Peacock)
The Steering Group members provided directions at the beginning of the work, functioned as a
sounding board, and provided support for the taxonomy definition through reviews of
deliverable items. The Steering Group convened at major milestones in the project to discuss
review comments and to set directions for the remainder of the project.
Taxonomy rationale
In order to get maximum agreement of all stakeholders the ACARE taxonomy has been defined
with its future users in mind. First of all these are the members of the ACARE group, but later
technical people and sub-level management may also encounter the taxonomy in their work.
Therefore, it was decided that the topics chosen in different levels of the taxonomy should be
able to be mapped to the topics common to the users’ working domain.
The Steering Group advised to take the previously developed GARTEUR taxonomy as starting
point for the Working Group. Then a goal was set to take this GARTEUR taxonomy and
complete it and define it at least one level deeper. This led to the agreement of the overall
structure of the ACARE taxonomy.
The level of detail of the taxonomy was also discussed, for here one could find different
approaches as well. The approach was taken to define a relatively small number of research
areas, and to detail these further into domains and sub-domains.
Existing research domains were carefully studied for areas or domains missing in the
GARTEUR taxonomy. The existing research domains are believed to be very useful for
facilitating an easy mapping of existing research and technology of particular organisations to
the common R&T areas of the ACARE taxonomy.
The Working Group constructed a first taxonomy from literature studies and existing
taxonomies. ATM related topics, which were not part of the GARTEUR taxonomy, were
already defined by EUROCONTROL as part of ARDEP. Since this area fits perfectly into the
ACARE taxonomy, it was copied into the ACARE taxonomy without major changes.
Since the GARTEUR taxonomy was taken as a baseline, the structure of the ACARE taxonomy
is also hierarchical. First there is a top-level of ten so-called main aeronautical areas. These
areas are divided into domains. For each domain, a definition is provided. Below each domain
follow sub-domains, which are described through the listing of keywords. This will serve as a
context boundary in where the domain should be regarded. See the figure below.
Using the GARTEUR taxonomy gave an early ‘handle’ in the beginning. Although it has been
changed considerably (e.g. level of detail, areas, domains, etc.) it speeded up the process of
focusing on the structure in an early phase.
Choosing the matrix format for the taxonomy was also considered, since this would enable
different views (application-oriented, technology-oriented, etc.). Although the hierarchical
structure led to a number of discussions, the hierarchical approach was maintained to achieve
the intended effort and timeframe.
Also a matrix was considered by some to be less accessible for a broad audience that a
structured hierarchical listing which would create more overview.
See the figure below for the hierarchical layout of the taxonomy.
Domain 1
Area 1
Domain 2
Domain 1
Area 2
Domain 2
Area 10
Figure 2.1. ACARE Taxonomy structure
For easy reference, each area and domain is specified by a number of its area, its three-letter
abbreviation and its full name. As an example:
Helicopter Aero-acoustics
In this example the number 211 is constructed of first the number of the area it is placed in,
which is two in this case, and its successive number within this area, which is eleven.
Experts within the Working Group’s organisations provided definitions and the keyword listing
for each domain. This process involved sometimes reformulating or altering the area of the
domains as reviews showed a better consistent location within the taxonomy. There was no preselected number of domains or sub-domains for each area. The experts within the Working
Group organisations were free to define the necessary number of domains and sub-domains
Throughout the process, some areas showed groups of related domains. This brought in the idea
of clustering within some areas. During the development it also became clear that some items
could fall under more than one area depending on their level of specification. This is not
necessarily a problem as long as one instance is the more domain-specific one and the other
instance contains the generalised explanation. For example, if an item in the field of ‘support
systems’ is specific enough for area “Air Traffic Management” its name should clearly mention
this (e.g. “ATM automated support”). But in the area of “Integrated design and Validation”
there is also need for a more overall explanation, so that will be called “Decision Support
Systems”. A system of cross-referencing between taxonomy entries will help clarify these sorts
of relationships.
2.3 ACARE Taxonomy
Below is the list of the top-level areas in the taxonomy. These areas are the result of several
cycles of evaluation from the Steering Group. The main criteria set for this top level were that
there should be enough areas for a reasonable degree of differentiation between them, but that
the number of areas should not be unmanageably large. It was agreed that a list of ten areas was
compact enough to be easy to use, whilst still encapsulating the main topics of European
Taxonomy – Areas
Taxonomy version: 05022003
Moderator: National Aerospace Laboratory – NLR
1. Flight physics
2. Aerostructures
3. Propulsion
4. Aircraft Avionics, Systems & Equipment
5. Flight Mechanics
6. Integrated Design & Validation (methods & tools)
7. Air Traffic Management
8. Airports
9. Human Factors
10. Innovative Concepts & scenarios
Taxonomy – Domains, sub-domains
For each of the ten areas, its domain, definitions and sub-domains are listed in the following
CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics
UAD Unsteady Aerodynamics
blades. The same kind of unsteady interaction is encountered between propfan and wing of commuters.
the rotation of the rotor (advancing side and retreating side) and to the cyclic movements of articulated
Airflow around helicopter is of course unsteady due to the relative speed of local flow on the blades during
combat. The aircraft behaviour during flight in turbulence is also an important feature for penetration mission.
afterbody. Thus, hysteresis phenomena of lift coefficient is the characteristic of quick manoeuvres in aerial
For fighters at high angle of attack, separated flows are encountered in air intakes on forebody, wings and
on the behaviour and the performances of flexible aircraft.
oscillation and level and spectral power of the loads on structures. Unsteadiness is an important parameter
separated flow in cruise and some constraints in the flight envelope : buffeting onset, flutter risk, limit cycle
To answer the purpose of transport aircraft, the aims of studies are guided by the requirement of non
aerodynamics of all the vehicles : aircraft, helicopter, projectile and launcher.
separation, but also are present in the flows around rotating systems. They concern the external
Definition: In aerodynamics, unsteady phenomena occur from shock-boundary layer interaction or boundary layer
7. Complex CFD applications
6. High Performance computing (vector and parallel processing)
5. Grid generation and adaptation
4. Validation of CFD software
3. Development and production of CFD software
2. Development of numerical schemes and algorithms
Sub-domains: 1. Physical modelling (turbulent, reactive flows…)
CFD is used for understanding physics by flow ana
generation (or adaptation), the CFD solver is run before post-processing and visualisation of the results.
The computer codes are run on scalar or parallel computers along the following steps: After the grid
schemes and algorithms aiming at accuracy, efficiency and robustness.
conditions must be taken into account properly. Discretised equations are solved through numerical
calibrated by comparison with experimental data. Geometry of flow domain and boundary and initial
flows (incompressible or compressible, inviscid or viscous...). Physical models have to be validated and
sciences. Different levels of modelling are used for solving the governing partial differential equations of fluid
CFD is a discipline necessitating the knowledge of applied mathematics, fluid dynamics and computer
the numerical simulation of fluid flows past aerodynamic vehicles.
Definition: Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) consists in the development, validation, and use of software tools for
Taxonomy – Area 1: Flight Physics
Aeronautical Propulsion Integration
separation of the flow on thin lips or in the S-shape diffuser.
(RCS) and assume a good efficiency at high angle of attack. Some devices are necessary to prevent the
3. For airbreathing missile, the air intakes are optimised to take in account some constraints of stealthiness
and of the nozzle in order to reduce the heat transfer on the rear part of the fuselage (infrared signature).
the aerodynamic noise. Some works concern the design of air intakes in relation to airflow through the rotor
2. For rotorcraft, the aims of the studies are to minimise the hub drag and the interaction drag and to reduce
into the nacelle and its effect on the flow around the wing.
Experimental tests on models in wind tunnels need to use TPS techniques for simulating the mass flow rate
of the wing or with semi-buried engines.
New installations are studied in order to reduce the noise, for example by engine location on the upper side
separation on the pylon or on the wing in all the flight envelope, particularly at low lift coefficient.
Definition: 1. For aircraft, the design of powerplant installation aims to minimise the installation drag by avoiding the
10. Rotating stall
9. Surging
8. Buzz
7. Shock wave-boundary layer inter-action
6. Flutter
5. Buffeting
4. Rotor aerodynamics
3. Flow separation
2. Wind tunnel testing; Aeroelasticity
Sub-domains: 1. Computational Fluid Dynamics
Unsteady flows are also encountered in turbomachinery due to the rotation and interactions between the
The behaviour in gust and during the activation of control surfaces are important data for the control of the
3D and causes lateral forces beside the thrust.
interactions with exhaust plume. Internal separation in over-expanded nozzles at the take-off is unsteady and
The buffeting observed at the base of launchers is created by strong separation of the external flow and
blades. The same kind of unsteady interaction is encountered between propfan and wing of commuters.
AFC Airflow control
the short S duct.
For stealth subsonic airbreathing missile, control devices are needed to prevent separation of the air flow in
without diminishing aerodynamic efficiency (mechanical or pneumatic system).
Optimisation of rotor blades is also searched to get less vibration and less noise by means of active control
vortices). Trailing edge vortex control can be made with adapted trailing edge flaps.
The vortex control is realised by mechanical (leading edge flaps) or pneumatic device (forebody and wing
transition location is obtained through laminar flow control techniques.
To reduce the friction drag of turbulent boundary layer, riblets or MEMS can be used. The delay of the
are vortex generators, bump, cavity (passive control) and fluidic systems (blowing or synthetic jet).
For controlling the boundary layer separation due to shock or adverse pressure gradient, the main devices
also be used.
The control systems concern civil aircrafts, fighters and rotor blades and can be passive or active. MEMS can
- minimise the effect of wake behind large aircraft in take-off or landing configurations.
envelope or to extend the flight envelope;
- develop new concepts for improving the behaviour or the control of the aircraft near the limits of the flight
- reduce the drag by active or passive means;
boundary layer interaction, on separation or on vortex development in order to :
Definition: In this recent and promising area, a lot of devices are searched to act on the boundary layer, on shock-
10. Noise reduction
9. Radar signature
8. Infrared Signature
7. Air flow control
6. Flow separation
5. Drag reduction
4. Nozzle
3. Air intake
2. Wind Tunnel Testing
Sub-domains: 1. Computational Fluid Dynamics
HLD High Lift Devices
8. Certification Requirements
7. Air traffic management
6. Wake vortex
5. Noise reduction
4. Leading edge flap; trailing edge flap
3. Multi-surface airfoil
2. Wind Tunnel Testing
Sub-domains: 1. Computational Fluid Dynamics
in the wake of big aircraft.
Specific distributions of the lift along the wing are also studied in order to modify the topology of the vortices
between wakes and boundary layers.
The multi-surface lifting arrangement is very sensitive to viscous effects due to the very closed interactions
higher angles of attack for the landing.
supersonic transport and combat aircraft, the leading edge and trailing edge flaps have to be efficient at
The first topic concerns civil transport and military aircraft. Because the high sweep angle of the wing of
- to reduce aerodynamic noise.
systems ;
- to get simpler and lighter high lift systems (typically 3 airfoils) with the same efficiency than more complex
- to reduce take-off and landing distances ;
Definition: Main objectives of the studies related to high lift devices are :
11. Bump riblet
10. Blowing flap
9. Synthetic jet
8. Wing tip device
7. Vortex generator
5. Transition/turbulence
4. Laminar flow
3. Drag reduction
2. Wind Tunnel Testing
Sub-domains: 1. Computational Fluid Dynamics
On missiles, the design of control surfaces is mainly driven by hinge moment constraint.
deformations are taken in account. In some cases acoustic constraints are also introduced.
For the design of flexible wing like rotorcraft blade, coupling methods are used where structural
multidisciplinary constraints are included in the process.
The wing design uses the last improvements of CFD with numerical optimisation tools and now some
propulsion installation and static margin in order to reduce the trim drag.
On the other hand, improvements are searched on aerodynamic interactions, in particular wing-body,
- shock wave drag, controlled in order to prevent strong interaction with boundary layer (no separation).
- viscous drag, through airfoil section shaping to avoid separation of turbulent boundary layer;
sail, tip turbine,…);
- lift induced drag, through appropriate platform, twist design or through wing tip devices (winglet, wing tip
Definition: The main objective of the wing design is the minimisation of the drag in cruise conditions :
Evaluation of store trajectories during release is needed for flight security.
as well as radar signature.
surfaces. Store carriage optimisation aims at reducing drag penalty (conformal pack), flow unsteadiness
transonic speeds, unstable shock waves are located on stores and can cause damages on control
aircraft) dramatically reduce the range of the aircraft and induce modifications of the static margin. At
external carriage of stores causes a drag penalty for the aircraft. Fuel tanks (and missiles for military
Antenna but also mainly pods are also sources of extra drag and possible aeroelastic problems. The
increase the aerodynamic noise and some solutions are searched to minimise this nuisance.
taken in account in flight model for the approach phase and take-off. On the other part, the landing gears
moment which can modify the behaviour of the aircraft and these aerodynamic phenomena have to be
Definition: The spreading out of landing gears which provokes an increase of the drag and a negative pitching
7. Noise reduction
6. Flexible wing
5. Multidisciplinary optimisation
4. Wing tip device
3. Drag reduction
2. Wind Tunnel Testing
Sub-domains: 1. Computational Fluid Dynamics
107 AER Aerodynamics of External and Removable items
106 WGD Wing Design
WTT Wind tunnel Testing/Technology
Ground effect, Dynamic derivatives, Heat transfer (hypersonic).
7. Specific techniques such as : Aeroacoustics, Aeroelasticity/flutter, Jettison (free drop & captive trajectory),
6. Flow/surface flow survey: by intrusive and/or non intrusive means.
rotors, stealth.
5. Airframe/propulsion integration: air intakes, nozzles/afterbodies, motorised nacelles, propellers, helicopter
checking, aerodynamic coefficients, buffeting boundaries, visualisations, model support and wall interference
4. Full or semi-span model common techniques: global & local loads, pressures, boundary layer transition
Reynolds number simulation (pressure, cryogenics), high enthalpy tunnels.
3. Wind tunnel flow conditioning: flow quality survey/improvement (angularity, turbulence, noise), high
bases, standardised data presentation.
2. On-line data acquisition/reduction systems: high sampling rates for unsteady flows, handling of large data
Sub-domains: 1. Model design/manufacturing: concurrent engineering, from CFD to CAD/CAM, quick prototyping systems.
class of facilities.
(>100) techniques have been developed, some common to most tunnels, some more specific to a certain
Other conditions may apply (e.g. inertia, real gas...). Depending on what needs to be simulated, numerous
Reynolds number are, in that order the main similarity conditions for a precise (nearly exact) simulation.
aerodynamics of any aircraft or other aerodynamically relevant object. Geometry, Mach number and
Definition: Wind tunnels are essentially used in R&D to study flow phenomena and to simulate on scaled models the
8. Pod
7. Flight / Ground Tests
6. Landing Gear
5. Radar signature
4. Unsteady flow
3. Aerodynamic noise
2. Wind Tunnel Testing
Sub-domains: 1. Computational Fluid Dynamics
WMT Wind tunnel Measuring Techniques
CAC Computational Acoustics
2. Numerical simulation of acoustic propagation.
Sub-domains: 1. Noise source modelling.
and external flows are concerned.
medium. Flow non-homogeneities (spatial and temporal) are taken into account from CFD results. Internal
2. Discretized methods assume the discretisation of relevant continuous equations over the propagation
through a surface or volume integral.
analytical Green's function in free field and uniform flow. The sound is computed at any observer point
1. Integral methods, mostly used for external problems in which acoustic propagation is assumed by the
categories, (1) integral methods and (2) discretised methods.
Methods for the numerical propagation of sound through internal and external flows can be splitted into two
fluctuations, cavity resonances, combustion, vibrations) and is assumed to be covered by domain 302.
acoustic propagation. Noise source modelling is strongly problem-dependent (turbulence, blade loads
Computational predictions are most often split into noise source modelling and numerical simulation of
Definition: Computational methods for the numerical propagation of sound through internal and external flows.
7. Model attitude/deformation: potentiometers, accelerometers, photogrammetry, moiré.
6. Forces, moments: strain-gage balances (6-component or local loads).
5. Surface visualisation: oil film, mini-tufts, infrared or sublimation transition detection.
4. Flow visualisation: Schlieren technique, shadowgraphy, laser tomoscopy, Rayleigh scattering,
3. Velocity: LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), DGV (Doppler Global
2. Temperature and heat flux: Infrared Thermography, thermocouples, hot wire, hot film.
Sub-domains: 1. Pressure: (un)steady pressures, Pitot/multihole probes, PSP (Pressure Sensitive Paints).
(mainly velocity and turbulence).
to both surface characteristics (pressure distribution, transition detection, etc.) and flow field properties
optical measuring techniques are able to visualise the flow structure and to provide quantitative data relative
Definition: Conventional measuring techniques mostly rely upon strain gauges and temperature sensors. Non intrusive
ENP External Noise prediction
includes ARDEP Sub domain NOIS of ENV domain
7. Sonic boom of supersonic aircraft
6. Installation effects of engines
5. Airframe-generated noise (high lift devices, landing gears)
4. Helicopter rotors (main rotor, tail rotor)
3. Propeller (high speed and general aviation)
2. Helicopter turboshaft engines
Sub-domains: 1. Turbofan or turbojet engines
- Optimisation of novel designs.
- Tests in static facilities, in wind tunnels, or in flight.
- Analytical or numerical simulations.
In each of the following sub-domains, one has to deal with three main activities.
aviation, but military aircraft and general aviation also are of concern.
includes jet aeroplanes, propeller aeroplanes, and helicopters. Studies are mainly focussed on transport
Definition: Prediction of aircraft noise in view of reducing community annoyance around airports and heliports. This
NMP Non-Metallic Materials & basic processes
microanalyses). Mechanical characterisation.
physico-chemical and microstuctural investigations (Xray analysis, scanning electron microscopy and
techniques, oxidation and corrosion furnaces, heat treatments furnaces, machining facilities). Techniques of
Development of specific tools for materials processing (alloy making furnaces, powder metallurgy, deposition
of new materials. Development of new assembling technologies and the corresponding modelling.
in use materials, improvement of materials in the process of being introduced, prospection and development
Definition: High temperature materials for engines and light alloys for airframe. Improvement of the properties of already
Sub-domains: 1. Carbide and nitride of silicon
2. Organometallic precursors of ceramics (alkoxides and organosilicon polymers)
3. Organic precursors of carbon (PAN, pitch)
4. Glass and glass-ceramics
5. silica
6. cordierite
7. metallic sulphides and fluorides
8. Polyethylene
9. aramid, glass
spinning, laser ablation and electric discharge).
(PVD, CVD, sintering, reaction-bonding, directional solidification, cold and hot isostatic pressing, melting and
engines, electromagnetic windows, ball bearing, electric insulators, fibres and nanotubes), processing routes
corrosion, thermal barrier), ceramics for structural and electrical engineering (blades and hot parts of
Definition: Organic and ceramic materials in different forms (film, monolith, fibre). Surface protection (oxidation,
Sub-domains: 1. Superalloys
2. Aluminium alloys
3. Titanium aluminides
4. New weldable alloys
5. Coatings
6. Oxidation, corrosion
7. Assembling processes
8. Repairing processes
9. Microscopical analyses
10. Chemical analyses
11. Mechanical testing
MMP Metallic Materials & basic processes
Taxonomy – Area 2: Aerostructures
CMP Composite Materials & basic processes
5. repairing processes.
4. Elaboration processes.
magnesium alloys); fibres (silicon carbide, alumina, carbon) and particles (carbides).
3. MMC: matrices (conventional titanium alloys, titanium aluminides, nickel-based superalloys, aluminium and
reinforcement by fibres (carbon, polyethylene, polyaramide, glass, plant fibres) and by particles (mineral,
2. OMC: matrices (thermosetting resins, thermoplastic polymers, thermostables and elastomers);
oxide) and fillers (silicon carbide).
Sub-domains: 1. CMC: matrices (carbide and nitride of silicon, glass-ceramics, carbon) ; fibres (silicon carbide, carbon,
pressure, fibre coating and HIPing, powder metallurgy).
fibre-reinforced and particulate-reinforced composites. Processing routes (liquid infiltration under moderate
structural components (aircraft landing gear, rocket motor casing, missile fins, satellite antennas). Continuous
Metal matrix composites (MMC) : aero-engines hot parts (compressor disks, drive shafts, blades) and
moulding, autoclave, RTM, filament winding, tow placement).
protections. Short or long fibre composites, compounds (premix or nanotubes). Processing routes (press
helicopters, outer ducts for engines, tanks, structural components for satellites and rockets, thermal
Organic Matrix Composites (OMC) : main body and wings for both subsonic or hypersonic aeroplanes and
pressing, reaction bonding, liquid infiltration, chemical vapour infiltration).
thermal protections. Composites reinforced with long fibres or fillers. Processing routes (sintering, hot
flame-holder, exhaust cones), rocket propulsion (thrust chambers, exit nozzles and nozzle throats) and
Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) : hot parts for turbine engine (nozzle flaps, thrust vectoring nozzles,
(instrumented microindentation at room and high temperature, push-out and push-in).
taking into account the fibre/matrix interface. Development of micromechanical characterisation tools
Definition: Life prediction (residual stress, damage propagation, oxidation and corrosion) and multi-scale modelling
12. Piezoelectric
11. thermal barrier coatings
10. carbon and boron nitride nanotubes
SAD Structural Analysis and Design
The effects of the environment (such as ageing, thermal loads, moisture effects, . . .) are included in this
prediction/verification of strength to static loads (stress analysis) and low amplitude cycling loads (fatigue).
able to fulfil its requirements. It encompasses the conception and design (with links with CAD) and the
Definition: Structural analysis and design consist in all the steps necessary to guarantee that any structural part will be
17. Conformal antennas
16. Bonded Joint
15. Riveted Joint
14. Thermo-plastics: composite structures
13. Tau placement: automated fibre placement, composite structures
12. Resin transfer moulding: composite structures
11. Super plastic forming: metal structures, in particular titanium
10. Advanced castings
9. Explosive forming
8.2. Laser beam welding: metal structures
8.1. Friction stir welding : metal structures
8. Welding technologies
7. Fabrication simulation: all kind of manufacturing processes to reduce start up time
6. High speed machining: metal parts
5. Ribbon Organised Wiring
4. fibre-metal laminates
3. composite components
2. Robotics
Sub-domains: 1. Flexible Manufacturing
factory operation of competitive manufacturing processes, techniques, methods and tools.
Definition: Advanced Manufacturing Engineering processes involve the design, production engineering and transition to
AMP Advanced Manufacturing Processes & Technologies
AEL Aero-elasticity
without this motion. Flutter falls into this category and is the most important topic of aeroelasticity.
instabilities where the motion of the structure causes the forces, in that the aerodynamic forces do not exist
category of problems. The second type of general aeroelasticity problem has to do with those aeroelastic
boundary layer separation, and shock wave-boundary layer interaction. Buffeting also enters into this
position, but behaves dynamically. This is the case of problems having to do with atmospheric turbulence,
problems into two broad types. The first type is when the flow is unsteady and the structure is in a steady
Aeroelastics problems can be static and dynamic: In dynamic aeroelasticity, there is a further subdivision of
non-linear properties, and the coupling loop between the aerodynamics, the structure, and the systems.
and dynamic structure with its linear or non-linear properties, the servo controls, also with their linear and
automatic systems. The scientific fields concerned, then, are steady and unsteady aerodynamics, the static
thermo-elasticity. So aeroelasticity incorporates the theory of continuum mechanics, fluid mechanics, and
often used. High temperature environments can be important in aeroelastic problems, hence the terms aero-
structured coupled to control systems (flight controls, control law). In fact, the term aero-servo-elasticity is
taken in the usual mechanical sense of the term, which is to say that it includes the passive structure and the
Aeroelasticity is the study of the mechanics of coupled aerodynamics-structure systems: the structure is
to guarantee the integrity of the structure in the flow.
civil engineering (bridges, towers), mechanical and nuclear engineering. The first objective of aeroelasticity is
(aeroplanes, helicopters rotors, turbomachineries, launchers and missiles), but aeroelasticity concerns also
Definition: Study of flexible structures situated in a flowing fluid. The origins are in the field of aerospace engineering
12. Optimisation methods
11. Assembling modelling (rivets, bonding, FSW techniques,..)
10. Post-buckling (crack initiation and delamination propagation)
9. Buckling for composite structures with or without stiffener
8. Buckling (linear and non-linear approaches) for metallic components
7. Multi-scale modelling methods for CMC, OMC and MMC materials
6. Fatigue behaviour analysis with crack initiation and propagation
5. Static Stress analysis with damage and failure criteria
4. Composite and multilayer structure modelling
3. Numerical methods (finite element, solving methods)
2. Composite laws (linear and non-linear domains)
Sub-domains: 1. Metallic Material constitutive laws (linear elasticity, plasticity, viscolelasticity)
BVA Buckling, Vibrations and Acoustics
theoretical, numerical and experimental means.
physical understanding of the mechanic and acoustic phenomena’s, their description, their quantification with
acoustic discretion where the external noise is generated by vibrating structure. The studies concern the
first type concerns the internal noise generated by vibrating structures. The second type concerns the
vibro-acoustics are the same for a structure coupled with a fluid. Two types of problems can be consider. The
guarantee the integrity of the structure in the environment and the comfort of the users. The objectives of the
of structural systems excited by external or internal forces (mechanical, aerodynamics or acoustic) in order to
Vibrations and Vibro-Acoustics: Objectives of the structural dynamic are to determine the dynamic behaviour
composite materials) in aerospace domain.
methods for the prediction of buckling phenomenon and optimisation of structural components (metallic and
Definition: Activity on buckling consists of the development, improvement and validation of experimental and numerical
5. Aeroelastic Certification: Ground vibration test, Flutter flight test.
wind tunnel testing).
4. Experimental aeroelasticity: Unsteady aerodynamic, Flutter model (design, manufacture, ground testing,
optimisation, (multidisciplinary optimisation), Aeroelastic model updating, Aero-servo-elasticity.
3. Numerical aeroelasticity: Unsteady aerodynamic, Stability and response prediction, Aeroelastic
linear), Fluid structure coupling, Fluid structure systems coupling, Flutter, Forced response.
2. Dynamic aeroelasticity: Structural dynamic (linear and non linear), Unsteady aerodynamic (linear and non
divergence, Aeroelastic optimisation.
Sub-domains: 1. Static aeroelasticity: Linear and non linear structure, Steady aerodynamic, Static deformation, Static
SMS Smart Materials and Structures
optimal way of adaptation.
adapt to internal and external changes. The intelligence permits the autonomous capacity to decide the
provide the knowledge of the internal state and of the external environment. The actuators give the ability to
some autonomy, adaptation capabilities or reduce the operational costs or nuisances (noise ...). The sensors
Definition: This domain consists in to equip structures with sensors, actuators and intelligence in order to give them
2.4. Experimental Identification
fluid damping
structures, Acoustic reflection from elastics structures, Acoustic excitation, Acoustic fatigue, Structure and
2.3. Sound Structure Interaction: Acoustic propagation, Acoustic radiation, Acoustic transmission through
2.2. Modelling: Analytical approaches, Finite element analysis, Boundary Element analysis, Statistic Energy
2.1. Material properties: Homogeneous material, composites, viscoelastic media, multilayer, etc.; Acoustic
2 - Elasto-acoustic:
Sub-domains: 1 - Structural dynamics:
1.1. Structural dynamic modelling: Material modelling (viscoelastic media, composites, multilayer structure);
Numerical method( (Analytical, Finite Element analysis), Statistic Energy Analysis); Linear and non linear
analysis; Damping modelling; Structure internal fluid interaction (sloshing).
1.2. Multibody dynamics modelling: Kinematics and dynamics of rigid and flexible components
1.3. Stress Waves in Solids: Waves propagation
1.4. Structural Model updating
1.5. Dynamic Structural optimisation
1.6. Shocks and vibrations: Transient response, Low frequency range, Medium and high frequency ranges
1.8. Random Vibrations in Structural Mechanics: Linear and non-linear systems, Random excitation
(turbulence, noise, acoustic)
1.9. Experimental Methods in Vibrations: Vibration properties of materials, Vibration technique in nondestructive testing, Systems excitations, transducers, Data acquisition, Signal processing and analysis, 1.8Experimental Modal Analysis, FRF measurements
209 SMT Structures behaviour and Material Testing
12. Optical techniques (holography, shearography, Moire)
11. Thermography method (NDI)
10. Eddy Current (NDI)
9. Ultrasounds with and without contact (Air coupled or laser)
8. X Ray radiography (NDI)
7. Optical properties (NDT)
6. Electrical and electromagnetic properties measurements (NDT)
5. Diffusitivity measurements (thermal properties. NDT)
4. Buckling testing
3. Non-linear characterisation with and without temperature environment
2. Experimental static component behaviour
Sub-domains: 1. Constitutive laws (metallic and composite materials)
the behaviour of sub-components or real structure (limit strength, fatigue behaviour, . .).
or/global information such as strain, stress, plasticity, cracks, delamination phenomenon, . .) and to verify
characterisation of metallic and composite materials), validate prediction tools (determination of local
Definition: Development and use of test facilities in order to get inputs for prediction tools (material properties
17. UAV, mini UAV
16. Active flow Control
15. Shape Control
14. Control of vibration
13. Health Monitoring System
12. Multi-functional materials
11. Control strategies
10. Micro-motors
9. Actuators
8. Shape memory alloys
7. Electrorheological
6. Magnetostrictive materials
5. Single crystals
4. Electrostrictive materials
3. Active Piezoelectric materials
2. Integration of sensors
Sub-domains: 1. Miniaturisation of sensors (piezoelectric devices, optical fibers,..)
HAA Helicopter Aero-acoustics
Internal Noise prediction
of the engine air intake.
- for turboshaft engine noise, a precise prediction of acoustic propagation in the complex flow and geometry
and even tail rotor blades, depending on flight conditions.
- for rotor noise, a precise prediction of the main rotor wake and vortices which may interact with main rotor
Key issues for an accurate numerical prediction of helicopter noise are:
- wind tunnel or static tests and helicopter flight tests.
- physical modelling and numerical simulations,
Helicopter noise sources comprise main and tail rotors and turboshaft engines. Research activities consist in:
- determination of low detectability manoeuvres and flight procedures (for military purposes).
- determination of low noise flight procedures (for civil applications)
- quiet helicopter design (rotor, turboshaft air intake and acoustic lining),
- quantification of helicopter nuisance,
- developing and validating computational tools for prediction of helicopter noise with the following objectives:
flight conditions (take-off, descent, level flight at low, medium and high speed) and on the type of helicopter.
radiation. The occurrence of these phenomena and their relative contributions to noise, strongly depend on
- studying and identifying the aerodynamic phenomena causing noise generation and influencing noise
Definition: Helicopter aeroacoustics consists in:
4. Experimental Identification.
transmission through structures, Acoustic reflection from elastics structures.
3. Excitation sources: mechanic, aerodynamic, acoustic; Acoustic propagation, Acoustic radiation, Acoustic
Analysis, Energy diffusion;
2. Modelling: Analytical approaches, Finite element analysis, Boundary Element Analysis, Statistic Energy
media, multilayer, etc., Acoustic material, porous material, Material optimisation.
Sub-domains: 1. Material properties: Homogeneous material, heterogeneous structure, Composite material, viscoelastic
propagation way of the vibration in the structure and in the internal fluid.
Problem, we need the knowledge of the excitation sources, the dynamic behaviour of the structure, the
launcher). This activity is a part of the Vibration and Vibroacoustic domain. To solve an Internal Noise
and numerical methods for the prediction and the reduction of internal noise (aeroplane, helicopter,
Definition: Activity on internal noise prediction consists of the development, improvement and validation of experimental
NOI Noise Reduction
Sub-domains: 1. Active Control algorithms
2. Techniques in relation with actuators and sensors such as piezoelectric or piezoceramic materials,
electrostrictive ceramics… and their mechanical modellisation.
3. Automatics and real time systems for the study and for the realisation of controllers
4. Optimisation of the location of patches on the structures
5. Modal identification of structures
6. Knowledge of noise sources and identification of acoustic leaks
7. Acoustic measurements for the validation of Active Control
8. Sources:
8.1. Optimisation of aerodynamic and acoustic performance through new design of fan blade and vanes,
advanced propellers (possibly uneven spaced), and helicopter rotors.
8.2. Novel aircraft designs to mask some sources, or to alleviate installation effects (interactions) on noise
9. Acoustic linings:
9.1. New concepts of passive or adaptive materials
9.2. Extensions to high temperatures on the exhaust duct
10. Noise abatement procedures
Definition: 1. Internal noise reduction
Active Control. The aim is to decrease the level of noise due to the vibrations of structures with the use of
active control algorithms able to take into account different noise sources, i.e. wide band excitations.
2. External noise reduction
Reduction at the source; acoustic absorbing materials (passive and adaptive).
Link with ATM and Human Factors (noise perception)
Sub-domains: 1. Sub-domains according to the origin of the sources:
1.1. main rotor noise
1.2. tail rotor noise
1.3. turboshaft engine noise
2. Sub-domains according to the nature of noise:
2.1. discrete frequency noise related to periodic aerodynamic phenomena
The nuisance from helicopter rotors is very much increased when a certain type of discrete frequency noise
called "helicopter rotor impulsive noise" occurs. This "impulsive noise" includes Blade Vortex Interaction (BVI)
noise in descent and low-to-medium level flight and High Speed Impulsive noise (HSI).
2.2. broadband noise, mainly due to interactions between rotating components (rotor and compressor blades)
with incoming turbulence.
ASY Aircraft Security
2. Bomb-proof cargo containers (to contain effects of explosions)
Sub-domains: 1. Flight deck barrier devices (e.g. impenetrable cockpit doors)
the passengers and crew when they are on-board.
Definition: Aircraft security measures are the physical protection measures required in order to protect the aircraft and
9. Active noise control
8. Acoustic detection
7. Certification procedures
correlations, random noise, impulsive noise
6. Acoustic signal recording and processing: narrow band frequency analysis, third octave and octave bands,
5. Noise source localisation and ranging: microphone array, acoustic mirror
tests, internal and external noise
4. Machinery and airframe noise measurements: anechoïc room, reverberation chamber, wind tunnel, flight
field, intensimetry
3. Common measurements: calibration, absorption, convection, refraction, reverberation, near-field and far-
2. Units: physical units (Pa, dB), psychoacoustical units (dBA, PNdB, EPNdB, Leq,…)
intensity probe, smart transducer, pistonphone, DLV
Sub-domains: 1. Sensors and transducers: condenser microphone, loudspeakers, acoustic driver, accelerometer, sound
definition of noise annoyance indicators.
concerning localisation and active noise control. They are also strongly interested in psychoacoustics and the
tunnels) or at full scale. Acoustic measurements are strongly coupled with signal processing, in particular
acoustic imaging (detection and ranging). Measurements are made at model scale (anechoïc room, wind-
vehicle noise emission such as turbomachinery noise, jet noise, airframe noise, installation effects), the
(cabin noise, vibro-acoustics), the characterisation of noise sources (physical phenomena responsible for
of the application, attention is focused on the radiated far-field (vehicle certification), the near acoustic field
concerning noise pollution, noise reduction, acoustic detection and ranging, and acoustic fatigue. Depending
if needed with other probes, as accelerometers or DLV. It constitutes the basis for experimental studies
Definition: Acoustic measurements deal with pressure field using microphones and pressure transducers, in association
ACT Acoustic Measurements and Test Technology
PER Performance
TPA Turbomachinery / Propulsion Aerodynamics
consider new and more complicated cycles, involving for instance heat exchangers.
of a still better performance, particularly to reduce the greenhouse effect by consumption reduction, needs to
Performances of every elementary components, compressors etc ..., tend to reach their limits and the quest
verification is still necessary.
more reliable and induces a noticeable reduction of development times even if an ultimate final experimental
or high altitude conditions. Nevertheless numerical simulation, steady and unsteady, becomes more and
Experimental measurements remain a major way to evaluate the real performances of a turbojet, at ground
performance. The efficiency of the system has a direct effect on the production of green house effect carbon
performances of each component that are the data to be introduced in cycles studies to evaluate this overall
elementary component or the overall performance of the machine that depends directly upon the
heat exchanger, if present. The turbomachines performances study concerns either the performance of an
an influence on performances are mainly the compressor, the combustor and the turbine and eventually the
Definition: Turbomachines are systems that consist in an assembly of several components. The components that have
The optimisation of the blades needs the knowledge of the geometrical effects like tip clearance on
rotating separation.
the engine in all the flight envelope and to predict the phenomena onset at the limits of this domain : surging,
the aerodynamic part, the interactions between the stages are studied in order to evaluate the efficiency of
are obtained in taking in account aerodynamic requirements but also mechanical and thermal constraints. For
in keeping good performances in the thermodynamic cycle. The improvements of compressors and turbines
Definition: The studies of turbomachinery aerodynamics aim to reduce the number of stages and the number of blades
7. cost
6. maintenance constraints
5. lifetime
4. the complete engine : thrust, specific thrust, weight, dimensions, specific consumption, emission indices,
3. combustion : efficiency, stability, ignition, extinction, instabilities, active control, gaseous emissions, soots
2. turbine : efficiency, cooling, number of stages
Sub-domains: 1. compressor : pressure ratio, efficiency, resistance to distortion, stall margin, active control, number of
Taxonomy – Area 3: Propulsions
COM Combustion
Sub-domains: 1. combustion efficiency
2. injection : atomisation, vaporisation
3. chemical kinetics
4. turbulent combustion modelling
5. radiative transfers
6. stability
7. ignition, extinction
8. instabilities
9. active control
10. auto-ignition and flash-back
11. gaseous emissions
12. soots
13. catalytic combustion
14. diagnostics
possible route but the use in aeronautical engines presents some difficulties like lifetime of catalytic
processes at lean or rich conditions induce a deep evolution of the combustors. The catalytic combustion is a
remain mandatory. Nitric oxides production being maximum at stoechiometric conditions, combustion
investigation with sophisticated diagnostic techniques and numerical simulation, averaged or unsteady,
strategic considering the particular focus that is made upon pollution. For this study, experimental
in the volume and thus change the chemical kinetics. So the problem is still very opened and remains
the mastering of turbulence itself. In particular, radiation cannot be anymore ignored as it redistributes energy
Combustion is of the turbulent type. The accurate prediction of multiphase turbulent combustion supposes
kerosene) has a major impact on the location and the development of combustion and emission.
CO, unburned hydrocarbons, ...) and soot emissions. The behaviour of the condensed phase (liquid
has a direct influence upon a great number of factors and particularly the pollution through gaseous (NOx,
Definition: Combustion in turbomachines is the mean to introduce energy in the system. The quality of the combustion
6. Rotating stall
5. surging
4. Heating flux
3. Tip clearance effect
2. Wind Tunnel Testing
Sub-domains: 1. Computational Fluid Dynamics
ABP Air-breathing propulsion
9. Ingestion
8. Icing
7. Buzz
6. Radar signature
5. Noise reduction
4. Wind Tunnel Testing
3. Propeller, propfans, turbojets, turbofan
2. Intakes
Sub-domains: 1. Computational Fluid Dynamics
Others problems are the icing of the lips and the ingestion of sand, dust or birds.
reduction and minimisation of radar signature.
The design of air intake and its installation on the vehicle have to respect some constraints like noise
movement of the airflow issued from the propeller is at the origin of a rolling moment to be controlled.
At the take-off the presence of the propeller reduce locally the leading edge slat efficiency. The rotative
have to be taken in account in air intake design.
For turboprops, air intakes are located behind the propeller or under the rotor and these strong interactions
throat. Some devices have to be developed to prevent this risk (internal diverter, porous wall,...).
small perturbations can cause the buzz phenomenon by dynamic effect of the shock displacement near the
so mixed compression air intakes are interesting for high cruise Mach numbers. However in this case, some
For supersonic vehicles (aircraft and missile) external flow compression induces a penalty for the cowl drag,
supersonic aircraft and fighter.
the air intake for the overall flight envelope. Thus additional inlets or variable geometry are used for
reduced to keep a good efficiency of the turbojet. The mass flow needed by the engine has to be provided by
boundary layer on the walls and sometimes the shock-boundary layer interaction. This distortion has to be
engine is due to the non uniformity of the flow in front of the lips, the shape of the diffusor, the development of
Definition: In air intakes the kinetic energy is partially transformed into pressure. The distortion of the flow in front of the
HTT Heat Transfer
NVR Nozzles, Vectored Thrust, Reheat
Several systems are used (deflectors in the jet, rotation of the nozzle, wall injection inside the nozzle,...).
Vectored thrust is a means of controlling the aircraft stability or improving the manoeuvrability of the vehicle.
reduce the jet temperature can be used.
The reduction of IR signature is an important operational constraint and several techniques of mixing to
ejector silencer are studied for supersonic aircraft.
In order to reduce the jet noise, some shapes of nozzle can be used on transonic aircraft and solutions with
conditions. On the botttail boundary layer separation can occur due to jet expansion or flight in incidence or
On fighters, modifications of the geometry of the nozzle are needed for the adaptation at very different flight
Definition: The performances of the nozzles are strongly linked to the afterbody aerodynamics for supersonic aircraft.
4. diagnostics
3. radiation
2. rotating flows
Sub-domains: 1. turbulence
In the three cases, investigations must be coupled to the study of conductive heat transfers inside the
geometrical adaptation.
devices must be developed to meet the requirements of aeronautical constraints as compacity, weights,
In the heat exchangers, heat transfers are the reason to use this component. New conceptions of these
driven by the friction on the walls, necessitating a great mastering of turbulence phenomena.
engine. In this last case, the flow rates being very low, the movements of the fluid in the cavity are completely
of the blades by internal air circuits and the transfer of energy in internal rotating cavities in the core of the
between main flow and the external wall of the turbine blades with the associated cooling techniques, cooling
In the turbines, heat transfers are of the convective type. They concern mainly three problems : exchanges
gases and soots ; the wall to wall radiative transfers are less important.
play a considerable role in this problem. The radiative heat transfers are due mainly to the emission of hot
of the techniques of wall cooling by film or impingement. Numerical simulation and analytic experimentation
walls. The solutions go through the mastering of fluid dynamics and aerothermochemistry and more precisely
successive flight cycles. The convective heat transfers are due to the direct contact of reacting hot flows with
combustor wall through hot points or thermal fatigue due to accumulation of ignition and extinction in the
In the combustor heat transfers are of two types : convective and radiative. The effect can be damages of the
Definition: Heat transfers concern mainly the combustor, the turbine and the heat exchangers, if present.
ECT Engine Controls
Sub-domains: 1. Engine modelling is evolving fast with the increase of on-board computing capability: these allow more
sophisticated and efficient control strategies by implementation of model based schemes, with identification
of model parameters on actual engine operating status, in order to set up operating points based on
performance computed parameters instead of single sensor signals. Such innovative strategy allows to
reduce operating margins coming from engine to engine dispersion, or ageing, or component wear, and
therefore contributes to the increase of engine performance and/or life increase. This is possible thanks to
the best advanced mathematics such as fuzzy logic, neuronal networks, Kalman filtering, genetic
2. Engine control systems are influenced by advances in electronics , sensor and actuator technologies:
- high temperature ( more than 200C°) electronics allows to incorporate intelligence in the harsh environment
of an operating engine, giving the way to smart sensors and actuators, and distributed architecture
- power electronics allows to shift from hydraulic to electrical actuation with better reliability and
maintainability as a benefit for the aircraft operator: more electrical systems allows easier health monitoring,
and trouble shooting.
Definition: Engine control includes two branches:
- Engine modelling
- Engine control system architecture and its related equipment (sensors and actuators)
1. Engine modelling consists :
- in identifying a mathematical model with the engine actual operating data: such mathematical model is
necessary to define the control strategy and loops of the engine during its operations
- in defining the control algorithms that will be implemented in the control loops
2. engine control systems include all sensors, actuators, and regulators or/and computers that determine the
operating parameters of the operating engine. Sensors are temperature, pressure, rpm,…; actuators are
variable surface (vanes, blade angle settling) control actuators , fuel pumps and metering units; digital
computers or hydro-mechanical regulators may be used to build up the control loops. System architecture is
influenced by engine architecture and mission profile, by the thermal and dynamic environment created in
and around the engine, and available equipment technology.
Sub-domains: 1. Computational Fluid Dynamics
2. Wind Tunnel Testing
3. Noise Reduction
4. Silencer
5. Afterbody
6. Flow separation
7. Infrared Signature
APU Auxiliary Power Unit
FUL Fuels and Lubricants
against corrosion.
Secondary functions can be mentioned, such as remove particles of wear or pollution and protect parts
2. evacuate the heat generated between these rotating parts
1. lubricate rotating parts such as bearings and gears, to limit wear and friction
Sub-domains: In a jet engine, a lubricant has two main functions:
Aviation lubricants are ester based compounds and are very stable at temperatures met in the engines.
Lubricant: substance interposed between rotating parts to limit friction and wear.
Link with "Emissions pollution".
used world-wide. For military applications, kerosene is often used with additives to improve its properties.
gasoline and gasoil. Several grades can be found. In civil aviation, kerosene Jet A1 (or Jet A in the USA), is
Jet fuel, or more commonly kerosene, is a refined petroleum distillate intermediate in volatility between
Definition: Aviation turbine fuel: propellant used in jet engines.
operating domain that may open design options to variable cycle concepts.
and the ECS compressor and turbine . Such an IPU has a much longer operating time, and a broader
Integral Power Unit which is a machine integrating on a single shaft the former APU , the electrical generator
generation, and the main power consumers: in this scope some effective concepts have evolved such as the
Another trend is the integration of APU in the broader platform system optimisation including the main power
manufacturing process ,..)
decreasing fuel consumption, reducing costs through various ways (reduction of part counts, more efficient
Sub-domains: The evolutions have the same goals as those of propulsion turbines: increasing power per kilogram ,
(ECS). The generated power is in the range of a few kW up to several 100kW.
derive compressed air for delivery to other systems such as engine starter or environmental control system
APU include a turbine , and an electric or hydraulic generator to convert mechanical power, and a system for
power needs for payload or armaments, more generally every power needs in emergency circumstances ..
insufficient , on ground or in flight: on ground before and during engine start, in flight shut downs, special
periods of the aircraft mission, when the main power source (driven by the engines) is no longer available or
Definition: APU are subsystems that deliver power, either mechanical, electrical, hydraulic or pneumatic, for specific
EHM Engine Health Monitoring
EXP Experimental Facilities and Measurement Techniques
Focus Velocimetry).
(Doppler Global Velocimetry), PDA (Phase Doppler Anemometry: velocity and particle size), L2F (Laser Two-
2. Velocity measurements: LDV (Laser Doppler Velocimetry), PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry), DGV
(Electron Beam Fluorescence).
REMPI (Resonantly Enhanced Multi-Photon Ionisation), DLAS (Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy), EBF
(Laser Induced Fluorescence), LII (Laser Induced Incandescence), DFWM (Degenerated Four Wave Mixing),
Sub-domains: 1. Measurements of temperatures and concentrations: CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering), LIF
non intrusive optical techniques based on either molecular or particle scattering.
temperature of various species, as well as velocity and turbulence. These quantities are currently obtained by
Definition: Characterisation of reactive flows requires the knowledge of several parameters: concentration and
failures ( disk or blade crack initiation, bearing wear,..)
such as vibrations and acoustic signature should be developed to identify and locate mechanical incipient
aircraft operators to automatically track remaining life of engine component. In addition processing of signals
combined monitoring system that applies prognostics within an engine health management system to allow
diagnostics and prognostics instrumentation with fault accommodating logic . The ultimate vision is a
and maintenance systems including dedicated on-board diagnostic processors and algorithms, advanced
Sub-domains: Future trends are towards an increase in the sophistication of on-board and ground-based engine monitoring
transferred in real time or differed time to ground station for analysis.
and tactile cues available on cockpit gages to automatically monitored data on on-board computer,
critical anomalies. Health monitoring techniques have evolved from flight engineer/pilot tasks through visual
available engine instrumentation and operation cycles, in order to detect incipient trouble in advance of
Definition: Engine health monitoring is the assessment of engine physical condition by monitoring and interpreting
3. the aerodynamic forces on the mechanical system maintaining the engine
2. the heterogeneity of the flow field upstream the engine inlet
1. the energy loss due to the boundary layers in the vicinity of the test cell walls
Sub-domains: The resulting corrective factors are determined to take into account:
The calibration of the test cell must be determined for a given engine configuration
affecting the engine performances (thrust, …).
Definition: The calibration of a test bench consists of determining all the losses due to the test cell configuration
TBC Test Bench Calibration
CMM Computational methods
9. Complex applications, system analysis, control
8. High Performance computing (vector and parallel processing)
7. Grid generation and adaptation
6. Validation of software, model characterisation
5. Development and production of software
4. Code coupling, multi-physics, multi-scale simulations
3. Development of numerical schemes and algorithms
2. Unsteady flows, vortex flows, aeroacoustics
Sub-domains: 1. Physical modelling (turbulent, heat transfer, reactive flows, two-phase flows, radiative medium…)
for performance prediction and for flow control or system design studies.
and analysis of the results. Numerical simulations are used for understanding physics of complex situations
adaptation), the solver are run and data are eventually exchanged between solvers before post-processing
and code coupling. The computer codes are run along the following steps: After the grid generation (or
robustness and efficiency. Grid tailoring and grid adaptation is often mandatory, as well as parallel computing
often include complex, hostile conditions and stiff mechanisms which require high computational power,
(pollutants, noise, radiation, ...) are often to be controlled and must receive special attention. Computations
instabilities, transient flows and noise generation are often critical aspects of propulsion devices. Emissions
simulations and may require dedicated experiments to be acquired. Unsteady flows are of major concern as
chemical properties are of major importance, as well as input data for the models used in numerical
validated and calibrated by comparison with experimental data. In particular physical, thermodynamic and
sciences and physical modellings. Physical models and the codes where they are made available have to be
structure couplings. This necessitates the knowledge of applied mathematics, numerical methods, computer
chemically reacting flows with heat transfers from convective and radiative processes and strong fluid-
must provide capabilities for treating multi-physics situations implying multi-species, multi-phases, turbulent,
jet engines, rocket motors (liquid and solid propellants), missiles, ramjets, launchers. The numerical codes
the numerical simulation of physical phenomen taking place in propulsion devices, such as turbine engines,
Definition: Computational methods for propulsion consist in the development, validation, and use of software tools for
EPD Emissions pollution
5. species transport and dispersion
4. diagnostics
3. atmosphere physico-chemistry
2. turbulent combustion
Sub-domains: 1. chemical kinetics
In all these problems, sophisticated diagnostics have the greatest importance.
troposphere and stratosphere.
in the vicinity of airports, and the global impact during the flight, the consequences being different for
important evolution in composition during their lifetime. The two characteristic situations are the local impact,
heterogeneous mechanisms due to the presence of condensed phases that constitute aerosols presenting
conditions, and particularly the eventual presence of the solar radiation. These phenomena include
evolution of the effluents are not deterministic and depend of the local and instantaneous meteorological
chemistry of the atmosphere. Characteristic times are much longer, from one second to several days. The
The effect of these emissions on the environment involve very complex phenomena belonging to the physical
consumption and the solution relies on overall engine, and aircraft, efficiencies.
avoided. They concern mainly the greenhouse effect. The only way to reduce them is to reduce the fuel
Major species : CO2, H2O, have a production strictly proportional to the fuel consumption and cannot be
oxidation. The characteristic times are of the order of the millisecond.
knowledge in advanced chemical kinetics, particularly for soots : precursors, nucleation, growth and
emissions, some, like NOx and CO, necessitating contradictory conditions. Their study requires a great
be quasi avoided. The art of the engineer consists in finding the best compromise to minimise these
Minor species : NOx, CO, HC, particulates, are characterised by the fact that in certain conditions they can
The emissions of the turbojets are produced by the combustion. They are of two categories : minor and major
Definition: These topics are of the most importance in the actual context.
CSD Cockpit Systems, Visualisation & Display Systems
Definition: Contains all sub-domains relating to avionics, cockpit and ATM-related aircraft systems.
8. Glass cockpit
7. Integration with flight management and navigation systems (EFIS, ACARS, ATSU)
6. Increased reliability
5. Reduction in weight, power and cooling requirements
4. Display issues. readability in different lighting situations, resolution, contrast, viewing angle
3. Cockpit display panels. CRT, flat panel, touch screen, head-up displays
2. Cockpit switch panels
Sub-domains: 1. Cockpit indicators and gauges
highly capable display systems.
Definition: Aircraft cockpits must evolve, to provide aircrew with access to accurate and timely information through
Comments: flight management databases, safety and validation of FMS in relation to the ATM environment.
4. Flight Management Systems: Flight Management Systems, FMS, 3DFMS, 4DFMS, Flight Database.
Includes studies of the operation and use of TCAS, ACAS and their impact on the ATM system.
Comments: Airborne collision avoidance systems, automation of these systems, validation of subsystems.
3. ACAS Automation and Use: TCAS, ACAS, Airborne Collision Avoidance System.
autonomous aircraft operations and to support delegation of separation responsibility.
these systems, validation of subsystems. ASAS Human Machine Interface / procedures. Systems for
Comments: Airborne situation awareness systems, Airborne Separation Assurance Systems, automation of
Assurance System, ASAS Human Machine Interface / procedures, CDTI.
2. Airborne Separation Assurance System: Airborne Situation Awareness System, Airborne Separation
enhanced vision systems, communications displays, radios and airborne radar displays.
Comments: on board avionics systems, pilot HMI, validation of sub systems. Includes GPWS, EFIS,
CMU, ATSU, Communications display, enhanced vision systems, CPDLC display, ACARS interface.
Sub-domains: 1. Cockpit Automation: Cockpit, Cockpit systems, Avionics, GPWS, Cockpit displays, EFIS, Glass cockpit,
AVN Avionics
Avionics & on-board systems
Taxonomy – Area 4: Aircraft Avionics, Systems & Equipement
WAR Warning Systems
landing in all weathers. Links with SSS - 'Surveillance Sensor Systems'.
ever more densely populated airspace. The objective is for full and permanent automatic approach and
Definition: Navigation and flight management systems are required to optimise the efficiency of operating aircraft in the
8. False alarm reduction
information and for transmission to other users
7. Integration of airborne detection with atmospheric data received from outside the aircraft for real-time crew
6. Ground and airborne detection of meteorological icing conditions
5. Turbulence warning. windshear, wake vortex, clear air turbulence
4. Integrated terrain awareness and warning systems
3. Alerting systems (audio, warning lights, displays. map view, profile view, 3D perspective view)
2. Sensors. airborne collision avoidance systems (ACAS)
Sub-domains: 1. Sensors. ground collision avoidance (GPWS)
protection warning systems are dealt with later in this Area.
warning system alerts are dealt with in the "Human Factors" research and technology area, and fire
aircraft are fitted with an array of collision warning systems. Note that human aspects of responses to
Definition: To reduce the risk of aircraft colliding with each other, or by undertaking Controlled Flight Into Terrain (CFIT),
flight path intersects with terrain
9. Synthetic 3D vision with terrain and obstacle information and visualisation, automatic warnings to crew if
8. Enhanced vision systems, pattern recognition and data fusion
decision tools
7. Automatic landing systems. autoland, low visibility approach and landing, precision approach, tactical
6. Inspection, adjustment, performance testing, malfunction analysis and corrective
5. System interfaces, data flows and analysis. 3D FMS< 4D FMS, flight database
4. Digital altitude control systems (radar altimeters etc)
3. Inertial navigation systems
2. Satellite-based aircraft navigation and guidance systems (e.g. GPS, differential GPS, GLONASS)
Sub-domains: 1. RF-based aircraft navigation and guidance systems (e.g. VOR, ILS, MLS, LORAN, TACAN, ADF, DME,
NAV Navigation / Flight Management / Autoland
FDR Flight Data/Flight Recording
Sensors integration
7. Passenger cabin recording equipment
6. FDR. reconstruction tools and algorithms
5. FDR. sensors
4. Flight data recorder (FDR). recording technology
3. CVR. reconstruction tools and algorithms
2. CVR sensors (microphones)
Sub-domains: 1. Cockpit voice recorder (CVR). recording technology
help reconstruct the events leading up to an aircraft incident or accident.
Definition: Commercial aircraft are required to be fitted with devices that record flight information that can be used to
4. Application to navigation, aircraft status and flight data systems
3. Algorithm development, testing and validation
2. System interfaces and architectures
Sub-domains: 1. Integrated modular avionics
Definition: Fusing of data from sensors to present a single, unambiguous picture to the system users.
4. Component and system interfaces and architectures
3. Reliability increase
2. Power, weight and cooling requirement reductions
Sub-domains: 1. New materials
micro-electronic systems on aircraft, including the facilitation of the More Electric Aircraft concept.
Definition: Research and technology addressing the development, integration, validation and use of new electronic and
EME Electronics & Microelectronics for on-board systems
IDN Identification
Avionics Integration
CSY Communications Systems
4. Operational characteristics of integrated avionics systems
3. Maintenance of integrated avionics system
2. Integration testing
Sub-domains: 1. Functional verification
systems, flight management, air data, attitude reference and power distribution systems.
Evaluation of the interactions between each sub-system is required. This includes electronic flight instrument
Definition: With the increasing complexity of aircraft avionics, their integration into an effective system is required.
2. Non-co-operative identification (JEM etc)
Sub-domains: 1. IFF transponders (selective integration, Mode S, Mode S subnetwork, Mode S SARPS, Mode 5)
their airspace. Close links to ATM area.
Definition: ATM systems require accurate and timely knowledge of the location and identification off all aircraft within
8. Satellite communications. voice, datalinks, communications integration
7. On-board intercom systems
6. Data transmission. datalinks (VHF datalink, air-air datalink, broadcast datalink), telemetry, ACARS
5. Communication systems components. waveguides, antennas
4. Reductions in power requirements, weight reduction
3. Communications systems architecture (including routers, WANs and gateways)
2. Integration of communications systems
Sub-domains: 1. Radio communication systems (HF, VHF, UHF, AM/FM), analogue and digital
Links with CST - 'Communications and Systems Technology'.
Definition: Covers communications between aircraft and the ground, as well as communications on-board the aircraft.
collection and fusing of data from such systems.
Definition: Research and technology associated with the use of optical, electro-optical and optronics systems; and the
HUM Aircraft health and usage monitoring system
4. Integration of diagnostic and prognostic systems
3. Data management. storage, archiving, retrieval, analysis
2. HUMS sensors. characteristics, interfaces, management, scheduling and self-monitoring
Sub-domains: 1. Application of prognostic health management to improve condition-based maintenance
fatigue and performance of various aircraft systems and sub-systems.
Definition: Research and technology associated with a network of sensors tasked with monitoring the health, usage,
6. IT associated tools (e.g. virtual reality) for enhanced maintenance support
5. Connectivity and ground infrastructure issues
4. System characteristics (e.g. physical robustness to harsh operating environment)
3. Data display (laptops, PDAs, tablet/slate PCs)
2. Data management
Sub-domains: 1. Collection and digitisation of data
through computers, either networked or stand-alone.
material relating to aircraft, in a digital form which can be accessed by flight crews and maintenance staff
Definition: Research and technology associated with the collection and presentation of technical and operational
10. Data fusion. architectures, algorithms, validation
9. High bandwidth data transmission
8. Signal processing
7. Nano technologies
optical mechanical systems)
6. Optics sensors. enhanced vision sensors, light intensifiers, solid state lasers, MOEMS (Micro electro-
5. Sources of surveillance data
4. Radar data processing (RDP)
3. Integration with avionics
2. Reductions in power, weight and cooling requirements
Sub-domains: 1. System interfaces and architectures
ELS Electronic Library System
data fusion
OPT Optics - Optronics - Lasers - Image processing and
SMA Smart maintenance systems
LTG Lighting systems
external anti-collision
4. Lighting types. ambient cabin, task cabin (reading etc), information and guidance, safety, flight-deck,
3. Safety considerations. robustness, redundancy
in maintenance requirements
2. Operational considerations. power requirements, reliability, flexibility in installation and operation, reduction
Sub-domains: 1. Lighting technologies. LED, incandescent, fluorescent, high-density discharge, electro-luminescent
Definition: Research and technology into internal and external aircraft lighting systems.
9. Computer-based maintenance support and training, methods and materials
8. Failure tolerant systems
7. Maintenance monitoring systems
6. Self-healing and self-repairing systems and materials
5. System interfaces and architectures
4. Automated logging of system and sub-system performance
3. Reductions in logistics and maintenance support requirements
2. Provisions of information to maintenance staff
Sub-domains: 1. Autonomous logistics. anticipatory maintenance and repair
yield significant saving in the total life cycle costs, by improving the systems' reliability, maintainability and
through online system health monitoring, damage detection and smart diagnostics and repair strategies will
with ease of maintenance as a design goal. In a fielded system, effective preventive maintenance achieved
Definition: Complex systems comprising electronic, electro-mechanical and hydraulic sub-systems must be engineered
Power systems
will facilitate the development of the More Electric Aircraft.
in design and have a wider range of application will result in lower acquisition and maintenance costs, and
power on board the aircraft, both AC and DC. The development of aircraft power technologies that are simple
Definition: Research and technology associated with the generation, distribution, integration and control of electrical
4. Integration and validation of technologies
3. Issues. electrical load analysis, power quality testing, installation assessment, distribution and load
2. System characteristics. power quality, isolation, reliability, interface standardisation
instruments, warning indicators
breakers, current limiters, automatic bus transfer), wiring, connectors, control systems, measuring
Sub-domains: 1. System components. generators, alternators, converters, inverters, batteries, circuit protection (circuit
EPG Electrical Power Generation & Distribution
Comment: see also Area 'Structures, Materials & Processes'
been hijacked)
9. Modified automatic landing systems (to enable forced landing of aircraft by ground authorities after it has
8. Modified collision and terrain-avoidance systems (to prevent aircraft from being crashed deliberately)
7. Tamper-proof and multiply-redundant transponder systems
6. Security systems deployed by armed sky marshals
5. Passenger cabin security monitoring systems (voice recorders, video surveillance etc)
4. Cockpit security monitoring systems (voice recorders, video surveillance etc)
3. Alarm systems (e.g. panic alarms for cabin staff, seatback phones for passengers)
2. On-board explosives detection systems
Sub-domains: 1. Systems and procedures for identification and access of personnel to the flight deck
the passengers and crew when they are on-board.
Definition: Aircraft security measures are the physical protection measures required in order to protect the aircraft and
ACS Aircraft Security
HYD Hydraulic power generation & distribution
Cabin systems
4. Emergency inflation systems (rafts, escape slides etc)
3. Provision of emergency oxygen systems for passengers and crew
2. Wing ice protection. ice sensor integration for Protection on Demand, hybrid wing heating
5. Cargo systems - loading, handling, restraining, monitoring, integration
4. Safety systems - lightweight breathing systems, smoke hoods, evacuation systems (slides etc)
3. Restraints - airbags, seat belts, child restraints, analysis of operational effectiveness
surveillance monitoring and recording
maps, internet access, telephone access, audio/video and other multimedia services on demand, video
2. In-flight cabin systems - electronic business/office systems, airline information, flight information/interactive
etc), ergonomic design, safety crash worthiness, integration of value-added services
Sub-domains: 1. Passenger seats - configurations (side-facing, rear-facing, bed-seats), comfort (suppression of vibration
restraints and interior systems, including the integration of on-board passenger services.
Definition: Research and technology associated with the development of improvements to aircraft seating, safety
3. Interfaces with other aircraft systems
2. Design. tools to support modelling for dynamic performance analysis
supply and return lines, seals, actuators, fittings and control systems
Sub-domains: 1. Components. reservoirs, pumps, valves (pressure regulators and directional control), accumulators, filters,
Definition: Research and technology associated with the use of hydraulic systems (power generation, control and
PAX Passenger and freight systems
protection, and as emergency back-up for hydraulic sub-systems.
Definition: Pneumatic systems provide compressed air to pressurise the aircraft water supply system, for wing ice
Sub-domains: 1. Components. LP air cylinders, pressure gauges and warning lights, pipework, valves and fittings, filters,
PNU Pneumatic systems
ECS Environmental control System
WWS Water and waste systems
6. Ground handling interface
5. Cabin waste - solid/semi-solid/liquid, storage, compaction, avoidance of smells
4. Plumbing - pipework, valves, fittings, filters
3. Toilets - reliability, maintainability, technologies (recirculation, vacuum), storage and disposal of waste
2. Grey water - disposal system (heating, in-flight spraying)
disinfection (chlorine, anodic oxidation), ground handling interface - filling and emptying
Sub-domains: 1. Fresh water systems - storage, tank capacity, distribution system and flow rate, pressure system,
and crew needs to be stored and disposed of in an environmentally responsible manner.
Definition: Water is required for crew and passengers, for both drinking and cleaning purposes. Waster from passengers
10. Personal climate control facilitation (temperature, airflow, humidity)
9. Ground operations of ECS - APU, external air conditioning units
8. Air quality monitoring and analysis - development of comfort index
emergency use
7. Control systems - status indicators, parameter level and system warning indicators, manual regulators for
avoidance of draughts and stagnant areas
6. Cabin ventilation and ducting system - flow patterns analysis, tools and modelling, zonal distribution,
5. Temperature, humidity control
4. Recirculation system - CO, CO2 monitoring and removal
3. Exhaust of cabin air - pressure control, outflow valves
2. Air filters - activated charcoal, HEPA, filter status monitoring
turbines, compressors, air mix chambers)
Sub-domains: 1. Provision of fresh air - bleed air, ozone converter, air conditioning/cooling packs (heat exchangers,
requirements, such as adequate cooling of equipment or removal of smoke or odours.
cabin-air requirements, certain areas of aircraft have special ECS-related operational and safety
the aircraft interior, in terms of air supply, air flow, temperature, pressure and humidity. In addition to normal
Definition: Aircraft environmental control systems (ECS) provide the means to ensure a controlled environment within
LGB Landing gear and braking systems
FPS Fire protection systems
Other systems
incidents), BITE
alerts, design (zonal configuration, redundancy, reliability, systems research, analysis of operational
4. Control systems - maintenance panels, cockpit display panels, visualisation of system status, audible
gas generation systems, hand-held extinguishing systems
3. Fire suppression - halon, watermist/nitrogen flooding, environmental impact, piping, valves, on-board inert
hot air leakage
2. Detection systems - smoke (back-scattering, optical attenuation), fire (gas sensing, near IR, IR), overheat,
Sub-domains: 1. Passive protection - fireblocking layer on materials (e.g. cabin seats), fire-resistant fittings, floor coverings
and non-structural applications
with indicators, fire suppression devices and a management control sub-system.
using fireproof, or fire-resistant, materials. Active FP systems comprise smoke, fire and overheat detectors
Definition: A fire protection (FP) system in an aircraft includes passive and active FP means. Passive FP is achieved by
5. Steering system - nosewheel steering
accumulators, pressure transducers
brake management systems), automatic braking systems, temperature sensors and monitoring systems,
4. Braking system - materials (carbon, steel), anti-skid systems (integrated brake monitoring, anti-skid valves,
wear prediction
3. Tyres - construction, design, temperature and pressure sensors and monitoring, operation under loads,
2. Wheels - construction, design (main and nose wheels)
Sub-domains: 1. Landing gear - configuration and design, shock absorption (active and passive damping), load control
systems, control theory aspects, power demand, corrosion protection
Definition: Research and technology associated with the landing gear, wheels, tyres, braking and steering systems.
5. Safety issues - fire protection measures, electrical bonding straps and jumpers
4. Refuelling and defuelling systems
3. Management system - level indicators, actuators, control system
Sub-domains: 1. Storage - tank location, design, construction
2. Distribution systems - pipes, valves, isolation systems, pumps
Definition: Research and technology associated with the aircraft fuel storage and distribution systems.
FUS Fuel systems
FCS Flight control system
10. Development of a more efficient, integrated design and analysis process for robust controllers
9. Flight test analysis (see 501, including handling qualities)
8. Controller analysis using a flight simulator (pilot-in-the-loop, handling qualities)
7. Controller analysis using desktop simulation
6. Analytical controller analysis (stability and robustness, using linear models)
5. Thrust vectoring and integrated flight- and propulsion control
4. Controller design - control theory (architecture, algorithms, robustness)
3. Definition of controller requirements and desired handling criteria
2. Mathematical modelling (see 501, adding sensors and FSC systems models)
Sub-domains: 1. System Identification (see 501)
the aircraft with the pilot (or autopilot) in the loop.
design a system to control the aircraft and subsequently analyse the stability of the closed-loop system, i.e.
all operating conditions. Research on flight control systems uses analytical and experimental techniques to
electronic fly-by-wire flight control systems providing easy, safe and economic operation of the vehicle under
of an aircraft to a desired level. Current civil transport aircraft and military fighter aircraft are equipped with
overcome the aerodynamic forces acting on the control surfaces. It improves the stability and flying qualities
Definition: The flight control system of an aircraft enables the pilot to control the aircraft along a desired trajectory and
validation, definition of suitable test manoeuvres, instrumentation.
4. Flight Tests - experimental analysis of stability and natural motion of the aircraft, including model
influential physical parameters.
3. Analytical analysis of stability and stability margins - including a sensitivity analysis to determine the most
account modelling errors and uncertainties).
2. Mathematical modelling - equations of motion, aerodynamics, mass properties and geometry, taking into
Sub-domains: 1. System identification - from empirical / analytical model parameter estimation, wind tunnel tests and flight
original condition, without interference from a pilot or autopilot.
a small disturbance from an equilibrium flight condition, the aircraft has a natural tendency to return to the
forces and moments are in equilibrium. Subsequently, an aircraft is considered to be open-loop stable if, after
without interference from a pilot or autopilot. In the analysis it is determined if in a certain flight condition all
motion around the centre of gravity, resulting from the external forces and moments acting on the aircraft,
Definition: The research in open-loop stability uses analytical and experimental techniques to study the aircraft's natural
FLM FLIGHT MECHANICS - Stability and Control
OAS Open-loop Aircraft Stability Analysis
Taxonomy – Area 5: Flight Mechanics
APS Aircraft Performance Analysis
OAP Optimisation of Aircraft Performance
5. Verification of optimisation results in simulation and flight tests.
4. Implementation and application of efficient optimisation routines.
3. Mathematical Definition of performance objectives.
2. Selection of optimisation method and strategy.
Sub-domains: 1. Mathematical modelling (see 503).
“minimum-fuel-manoeuvre” problems.
(aerodynamics, point mass) and its environment are used. Typical examples are “minimum-time-to-climb” or
trajectories and optimal flight conditions. Usually, in the calculation simplified models of the aircraft
Definition: In performance optimisation research, mathematical and analytical routines are used to calculate optimal
validation of model and analytical analysis results)
4. Flight Tests - experimental performance (definition of suitable test manoeuvres, instrumentation and
3. Performance Analysis of complex and/or dangerous manoeuvres via non-linear desktop simulation
2. Analytical performance calculations
engine and systems)
Sub-domains: 1. Mathematical modelling (3 DOF point mass model, equations of motion, environment, aerodynamics,
- runway performance (take-off and landing distance)
- performance in turns
- Cruise performance (optimum fuel consumption versus cruise speed and altitude)
- Performance in climb/descent
- operational range and endurance
- operational flight envelope (min/max of airspeed, altitude and load factor).
operational and economic use. Typical quantities that are determined in a performance analysis are:
quantities of the translational motion of the centre of gravity of the aircraft, which are relevant to its
Definition: In aircraft performance analysis, analytical and experimental techniques are used to determine extreme
ENV Environmental Hazard Analysis
System Failure and Damage Analysis
6. Icing conditions / heavy precipitation.
5. Wake vortex effects from other aircraft.
4. Terrain and airport conditions (terrain profile effects on radar altimeter, wind interference from buildings).
3. Turbulence/ gusts.
2. Windshear and microbursts (usually in combination with turbulence).
Sub-domains: 1. Take-off and landing in severe crosswind.
with the aircraft’s dynamics. Links with 'MET - Meteorological'
undertaken as described in 501 until 504, using sufficiently accurate models of the hazards their interference
evasive manoeuvre. For each hazard, the stability, control and performance sub domain activities are
investigated if the aircraft remains controllable (stability) and/or has sufficient performance for a go-around or
to identify the effects of these hazards. For analysis and prevention of accidents and incidents, it is
potentially dangerous situations. Analytical and experimental techniques (simulation and flight tests) are used
Definition: Environmental hazards, which mostly occur during the critical take-off and landing phases, can lead to
4. Damage to the aircraft structure, resulting in altered aerodynamic properties
3. Analysis of FCS hardware failure (sensors, hydraulic systems, control surfaces)
2. Design of fault-tolerant/ adaptive control systems (redundancy, fault detection and reconfiguration)
Sub-domains: 1. Analysis of engine failure
to be generated.
Sufficiently accurate models of system failures and their effect on aerodynamics and system dynamics have
aircraft accidents and incidents. Bird strike or collision with other objects is a frequently occurring example.
it is useful to perform separate and detailed studies of systems failures for the analysis and prevention of
performance of the aircraft. Although failure cases are taken into account in the design process of the aircraft,
Definition: The occurrence of failures in the aircraft’s systems can lead to a degradation of stability and/ or the
FLM FLIGHT MECHANICS - Failure and Hazard Studies
OSE On-board systems engineering
Product & Process Engineering
Methods and IT tools for Collaborative
distant work.
…., gives organisational constraints on skills and responsibilities required and rules for co-located work and
collaborative work methods and organisational rules for meeting, email, telephone, reviews, memo exchange
anyone can communicate and work with anyone else as in face to face meeting. It provides standardised
geographical and cultural barriers. This will be achieved by using a Common virtual environment in which
Internet). Therefore collaborative work will be enhanced between distributed sites, by getting rid of
leads to a secure and reliable exchange of information between geographically distributed companies (e.g.
Collaboration between aeronautical sectors, without (immediately) adapting or changing company tools which
- Reduce costs
- Reduce time to bring new product to market
understanding between collaborating companies to:
Definition: Enhanced Aeronautical Concurrent Engineering: provide a generic development lifecycle to increase
7. Interface Control Specification methods: Mechanical interface, Electronic interface, Data exchange
6. Laboratory systems testing
5. Avionics rig testing
4. Interconnecting technology
3. Incremental Certification
Sub-domains: 1. Integration system technologies
2. Modelling and Simulation (including rapid and virtual prototyping)
board systems.
board Systems Engineering focus on the effort related to the design, manufacturing and validation of on-
solutions that satisfy customer needs. [ref. EIA standard IS-632, System Engineering, December 1994]. On-
evolves into and verifies an integrated and life-cycle balanced set of system people, products and process
Definition: Systems Engineering is an interdisciplinary approach that encompasses the entire technical effort, and
6. Virtual Conferencing
5. Product Lifecycle interaction
4. Virtual environments for collaborative working
3. Workflow management systems
Sub-domains: 1. Virtual Enterprise
2. Secure IT infrastructure
(methods & tools) - General
Taxonomy – Area 6: Integrated Design & Validation (methods & tools)
FGT Flight/ Ground Tests
Sub-domains: 1. Test planning: Test plan, Flight plan, Test schedule
2. Test specification: Test cards, Performance, Flight Control, Runway performance, Weapon (integration),
Reliability & Maintainability, Interior Noise, Exterior noise, Logistics, Navigation and Communication, Air
Data, Flight envelope, Propulsion, Environmental extremes, Avionics, Antenna patterns, Handling qualities,
Aero-elasticity/Flutter, Human factors, Ground-Vibration, Pre-flight, Airframe systems, Simulator data
3. Hazard analysis/Safety: Safety of flight, Recovery, Minimum crew, Risk assessment, On board safety
provisions, Engine failure, Deep stall, Flight test safety monitoring, EMI-EMC, Crew safety training, Safety
4. Test conduct: Test cards / Responsibility distribution / Procedures / Briefing and Debriefing / Test report
5. Instrumentation system: Measurement , Data Acquisition and Recording equipment, Calibration
6. Data processing and analysis: Data archiving, Data reduction, Engineering units, Data retrieval , Flight
Test Data Base, Telemetry, Ground monitoring
7. Logistics support: Spares, Repair, Maintenance, Training
8. Certification & Qualification: Certification reports, Airworthiness authorities, Certificate of Airworthiness
Definition: The testing in flight of an aircraft or item(s) of aircraft equipment. The aims of that testing can be very diverse:
they may be to investigate new concepts, to provide empirical data to substantiate design assumptions, or to
demonstrate that an aircraft and/or its equipment achieve specified levels of performance, etc. Thus flight
testing covers a broad spectrum of topics, the common feature of which is that there is a degree of novelty in
the aircraft, its equipment or its intended usage, which requires assessment in flight. (Flight-testing is of
course, usually preceded by appropriate Ground testing). (Ref.: AGARDograph Flight Test Techniques
Series 300 Vol. 14: “Introduction to Flight Test Engineering”, NATO, Paris, ISBN 92-836-1020-2)
Sub-domains: 1. Performance base specifications to define the real use environments
2. Sources
3. Advanced Environmental and EMI protection design and verification measures
5. Lightning
6. Hardening
7. Shock testing
Definition: Environmental worthiness is the capability of the (sub)system or component to perform its full array of
intended functions in the intended use environments.
Environmental and Electromagnetic compliance engineering deals with the processes needed to define both
the environments and the derived equipment requirements, as well as with the design, implementation and
verification of these requirements.
EMC Environmental and EM compliance engineering
SYC System Certification
Life-cycle Integration
the future particularly relevant to ATM in view of complete lack of certification of ATM systems)
6. Improvement of existing rules and regulations (e.g. Cross-wind criteria, contaminated runway criteria), in
5. HW / SW certification
4. System safety assessment
3. Incremental certification
2. Certification of air-worthiness, certification requirements for airborne and non-airborne systems.
Sub-domains: 1. Certification of new technologies and operations
(Ref. ARP4754)
found with standards in accordance with items (a) or (b) above.
(c) The issue of any certificate required by national laws to declare that compliance or conformity has been
(b) The process of assessing an individual product to ensure that it conforms with the certified type design.
applicable to that type of product so as to demonstrate an acceptable level of safety.
(a) The process of assessing the design of a product to ensure that it complies with a set of standards
In particular, certification of a product involves:
national laws and procedures.
applicable requirements by issue of a certificate, license, approval or other documents as required by
checking the product, service, organisation or person and the formal recognition of compliance with the
person complies with the applicable requirements. Such certification comprises the activity of technically
Definition: Certification means the legal recognition by the certification authority that a product, service, organisation or
9. Whole-life Cost Analysis / Life-cycle cost analysis, Total ownership costs: Re-design costs, Cost matrix
8 Training: embedded training
7 Open systems architectures,
6. Integrated modular avionics,
5. Testability: built-in Test
4. Design for Maintainability
3. COTS management, COTS reliability prediction and assessment methods
2. Obsolescence Management1. Reliability Engineering methods
Sub-domains: 1. Technology management : Product improvement strategies through technology refresh and insertion
cycle needs during the development process.
Definition: Life cycle integration is achieved through integrated development - that is, concurrent consideration of all life
FTS Fault Tolerant Systems
HAZ Hazard Analysis
2.3. Requirement development
2.2. Requirement evaluation
2.1. Requirement based testing
2. Safety requirements (rules and regulations):
1.5. Mitigating measures
1.4. Expert judgement to evaluate frequency and severity of hazards
1.3. Identification of conflict scenarios
1.2. Hazard identification and clustering
1.1. Review of proposed operation
1. Safety / Risk management: Operational safety assessment, Risk determination
Sub-domains: Risk and Safety management: analysis (internal/external) and policy:
evaluation), and risk based regulation.
Specifically, qualitative and quantitative assessments of risk in support of design, decision making (validation,
speciality techniques.
Definition: Generally, and formal or informal study, evaluation, or analysis to identify hazards using generic and
3. Fault propagation, Isolation of fault effects
2. Parallel processing / Synchronisation mechanisms
Sub-domains: 1. Fault tolerant mechanisms: Redundancy, Backup (hot, cold,..), Voting mechanism, Fault detection
tolerance in a system is determined by the system requirements and the system safety assessment process.
the system will respond correctly to input data errors and prevent output and control errors. The need for fault
The goal of fault tolerance is to include safety features in the software design or source code to ensure that
of hardware or software faults.
Definition: The built-in capability of a system to provide continued correct execution in the presence of a limited number
SAM Safety modelling
ASD Air Safety Data analysis
9. Accident data breakdown: Flight phase, Event types, Fatalities, World regions
8. Accident taxonomy
7. Accident Sample Inclusion Criteria
6. Estimation of accident rates.
5. Compilation of exposure data (i.e. number of conducted flights)
4. Compilation of a sample of Air Traffic Management related accidents
3. Analysis of flight data from day-to-day operations, risk analysis
Sub-domains: 1. Trend identification
2. Datamining
Definition: Systematic analysis of aviation accident / incident data with or without flight exposure data
9. Safety management modelling
8. Bird strike risk modelling
7. Flight security modelling
6. Controlled Flight Into Terrain modelling
5. Dependability modelling
4. Collision risk modelling
3. Wake vortex induced risk modelling
Sub-domains: 1. Safety perception modelling
2. Third party risk modelling
Monte Carlo simulations, expert elicitationmethods.
models, model languages, bias and uncertainty models, safety criteria models, safety requirements models,
to develop safety models, such as mathematical models, analytical tools, formal techniques, causal safety
operation, procedure, technical system, or hazard mitigating measure. Several tools and techniques are used
Definition: Development of static or dynamic models to evaluate safety or unsafety of a new or existing organisation,
REL System reliability
SYA Security / Risk analysis
MMO Maintenance modelling
4. Decision-support tool development
availability, utilisation, engineering costs, and staff requirements)
3. Airport systems maintenance modelling (exploring impact of changes in maintenance regime on system
utilisation, engineering costs, and staff requirements)
2. Aircraft maintenance modelling (exploring impact of changes in maintenance regime on aircraft availability,
Sub-domains: 1. Asset management modelling methodology development
insights that will optimise effectiveness while minimising costs.
options for maintaining assets may be possible. Modelling and analysis of the maintenance system can bring
include retaining responsibility within the organisation, or contracting it out to a third-party provider. Innovative
Definition: The cost of maintaining aircraft and other capital assets is significant. Options for conducting maintenance
Sub-domains: 1. Vulnerability assessment methodologies
2. Security metrics (e.g. US Total Architecture for Aviation Security) to "score" various security systems
3. Security audits (of airlines, airports)
4. Threat assessments
airports. Complexities include the different responsibilities of airports, airlines and government agencies.
security measures, which can be implemented within the essential parameters of operating aircraft and
security system as a whole. The objective will be to achieve a set of multi-layer, fault-tolerant, aviation
risk analyses need to be undertaken. These will need to include all systems and personnel involved in the
Definition: In order to be able to respond appropriately to a wide range of different incidents, detailed security-related
Sub-domains: 1. Means of compliance: Fault tolerance
2. Reliability: Analysis, Requirements
3. Deterministic: Functionality, Resources bound, Time bound
4. Maturity
5. Recoverability
Scale: Mean time for a defined system to experience defined failure type under defined conditions.
intended work tasks.
the system is supposed to do. In general, if a system is in an unreliable state then it is ‘unavailable’ for its
answer or providing no answer). Definitions of reliability will therefore vary according to the definition of what
system performs as it was designed to do, as opposed to doing something else (like producing a wrong
Definition: Reliability: ‘A system performs as it is intended.’ System reliability is a measure of the degree to which a
SIG Infra-red and Radar Signature Control
11. In-flight RCS measurements
10. Ground RCS measurements
9. Radar Absorbing Materials
8. Radar Cross Section computation
7. Multi-reflection in cavities
6. Radiative transfer computation in hot gases media
5. Spectroscopic data base of emitting species
4. Jet aerodynamic description, temperature, pressure and species concentration
3. Internal heat dissipation
2. Skin temperatures
Sub-domains: 1. Material thermodynamic and optical properties.
example, thermal or mechanical properties.
Radar materials development is an important topic, as any material has to fulfil several functions, needing, for
The chosen solutions have to be assessed by ground or in-flight measurements.
numerically solving Maxwell equations, is now a necessary way to define efficient shape modifications and
optimisation of the global or local shape and use of Radar Absorbing Materials (RAM). Modelling the RCS, by
The control/reduction of the RCS (Radar Cross Section) of an aircraft is obtained by two main approaches:
propagation along the airduct.
of aspect, when the first stage of the compressor is in direct view from the air intake, or through its
partly absorbed by the hot gases in the jet exhaust. Its emission can also be perceived for very specific angle
The motor radiation can be observed for rear angle of aspect, the emission of the nozzle hot parts being
can be found, mainly water vapour and carbon dioxide. The radiation level is also function of the hot gases
The jet infrared signature presents a spectral emission which is characteristic of the chemical species that
and the internal heat dissipation of electronic systems.
temperature itself varies with the flight profile (altitude and speed), the material thermodynamic properties
The airframe signature depends on its temperature and the radiative properties of the material. The
which emits radiation in order to reduce it, if it is technologically possible.
(rear part of the engine and air intake). The first aim is to have an understanding of the physical process
flight. Different parts of the aircraft radiate: the airframe, the exhaust jet and the motor for few aspect angles
Definition: The knowledge of physical phenomena which contribute to the infrared radiation emitted by an aircraft in
CDM Collaborative Decision Making
SEV Simulator environments & Virtual reality
Advanced information processing
8. Man-in-the-loop simulation
7. Task analysis
6. Personnel selection.
5. Materiel testing
4. Materiel design
3. Concept development
Sub-domains: 1. Training Environment: real-time geographically distributed flight-simulations
2. Mission preparation, rehearsal & evaluation
such contact in any or all modalities.
Reality technology allows the user to perceive and experience sensory contact and interact dynamically with
Definition: Virtual Reality is the experience of being in a synthetic environment and the perceiving and interacting
through sensors and effectors, actively and passively, with it and the objects in it, as if they were real. Virtual
5. Information distribution
4. Agent-based distributed architecture
3. Negotiation strategies
Sub-domains: 1. Multi-agent systems
2. Task modelling
balances operational efficiency with aviation safety.
Definition: The operational philosophy and associated technologies and procedures that enable the aviation industry to
collaboratively manage strategic responses to aviation components operational constraints in a manner that
6. Alarm management
5. Situation monitoring
4. Command, Control, Communications & Intelligence (C3I)
3. Real-time systems
Sub-domains: 1. Radar data processing
2. Multi sensor data fusion
clear and convenient way.
Definition: Collection of computing methods, techniques and tools, for processing of large quantities of raw data into
information, which is essential to the function to be supported and for presentation of this information in a
(Methods & tools)
IKM Information management & Knowledge management
9. Data mining
8. Semantic web
7. Web technology
6. Competence management
5. Ontology
4. Product data management systems
3. Knowledge retrieval
2. Knowledge representation
Sub-domains: 1. Knowledge gathering
Making and storing static representations of a dynamic environment is done in information management.
It combines the processes of capturing, distributing, and effectively using knowledge. (Ref. Davenport 1994).
people creating and sharing knowledge to make the right decisions and take the right actions.
competencies. As such knowledge management is the discipline dedicated to more deliberate means of
competitive advantage. It therefore helps to create and retain greater value from core business
Definition: Management of organisational information and knowledge helps creating business value and generating a
6. Traffic flow optimisation
5. Crew assistant
allocation, Feedback control, Guidance)
4. Planning & monitoring (Sequencing, Time scheduling, Mission planning support, Flow planning, Resource
3. Situation assessment
2. (Intelligent) user interface
Sub-domains: 1. User task modelling
importance for the completion of their missions. Links with 'ATM automated support'.
functions for pilots, decision support systems for air traffic controllers, and so on, are becoming of crucial
awareness of pilots, air traffic controllers, and other users of aerospace systems. On-board decision support
and Multi-sensor data fusion techniques have led to better information availability and an increased situation
the user and of mechanisms to support the user in performing complex tasks. Improved sensor technology
facilities consists of mechanisms to sense the outside world and present this in an understandable format to
Definition: Decision support focuses on the area of supporting the user in making complex decisions. Decision support
DSS Decision Support Systems
AOP Autonomous operation
ASE Aeronautical Software Engineering
7. Software maintenance
6. Software certification: software safety, redundancy, built-in test
5. Software verification & validation
4. Software testing: Integration testing, White/Black box test, Code coverage
3. Software implementation
2. Object-oriented analysis & design
Sub-domains: 1. Requirements capture
useful software.
available. Software engineering is therefore concerned with the practicalities of developing and delivering
tools and techniques depending on the problem to be solved, the development constraints and the resources
Software engineers should adopt a systematic and organised approach to their work and use appropriate
It covers theories, methods and tools for professional software development.
Definition: Software engineering is an engineering discipline, which is concerned with all aspects of software production.
6. Threat avoidance / Conflict resolution
5. Expert systems
4. Autonomous decision making
3. Sensor data processing: processing step before data fusion.
2. Mission planning
Further characteristics:
1.4. Social behaviour: The system should be able to interact, when they deem appropriate
where appropriate.
environment, they should be able to exhibit opportunistic, goal-directed behaviour and take the initiative
1.3. Pro-active behaviour / Goal oriented behaviour: The system should not simply act in response to their
changes that occur in it.
1.2. Reactive behaviour: The system should perceive their environment and respond in a timely fashion to
other agents) and should have control over its own actions and internal state.
1.1. Autonomous behaviour: The system should be able to act without the direct intervention of humans (or
Sub-domains: 1. Characteristics of an autonomous system:
and should have control over its own actions and internal state.
This means that the system should be able to act without the direct intervention of humans (or other agents)
Definition: A system (operation) that is capable of performing a task in full autonomy showing autonomous behaviour.
(methods & tools) - OPERATIONAL
10. Understand the physiological and psychological interactions between humans and VR/SE
9. Development of VR/SE tools in ATM context - for controllers
8. Development of VR/SE tools in airport context - for aircraft movement area
7. Development of VR/SE tools in airport context - for cargo/baggage area
6. Development of VR/SE tools in airport context - for passenger handling area
5. Development of VR/SE tools in aircraft context - for cargo area
4. Development of VR/SE tools in aircraft context - for passenger cabin/aircrew
3. Development of VR/SE tools in aircraft context - for cockpit/aircrew
2. Development methodologies for virtual reality (VR)/synthetic environment (SE) tools
Sub-domains: 1. General systems engineering aspects of VR/SE development
use of these tools is dealt with in separate domains.
evaluate and analyse the use of VR/SE systems as tools for design, development, selection and training. The
Definition: The development of tools to produce virtual reality (VR) and/or synthetic environments (SE). Research to
DSV Development of synthetic environment & virtual reality
4. Validation of OR tools
3. Development of OR tools
2. Development of OR methods
Sub-domains: 1. Stakeholder analysis
circumstances. The power of "what if?" modelling enables exploration of different strategies in a controlled
modelling of its salient aspects, insights can be gained into the performance of the system under different
By systematic investigation of the characteristics of a system (such as the aviation transport system) and the
operational research (OR) methods and tools to optimise the performance of a system has been well-proven.
Definition: Research to aid the evaluation and analysis of OR techniques for application to aviation issues. The use of
ORM Development of operational research methods & tools
Definition: The analysis of aircraft performance enables optimum decisions to be reached about the use of the aircraft,
in terms of the loading (passengers and baggage/cargo), utilisation, and maintenance.
Sub-domains: 1. Development of business modelling methods and tools
2. Use of business modelling methods and tools (e.g. yield/revenue management)
3. Analysis of regulatory aspects of aviation
Definition: The analysis of aviation business matters enables optimum decisions to be reached about the charging
policy, route planning, frequency of flying and capacity offered on different routes. It enables cost-effective
decisions to be taken in the context of the appropriate regulatory environment.
Sub-domains: 1. Development of airport operations modelling and analysis methods and tools
2. Modelling and analysis of aircraft handling/capacity
3. Modelling and analysis of passenger handling processes and procedures (e.g. checking-in, immigration,
boarding etc)
4. Modelling and analysis of cargo handling
Definition: The analysis of airport operations enables optimum decisions to be reached about the design, layout and
operation of all aspects of the airport - including aircraft movement, passenger handling, and baggage/cargo
handling. This should enable the passenger experience to be improved.
Sub-domains: 1. Development of aircraft modelling and analysis methods and tools
2. Modelling and analysis of aircraft capacity
3. Modelling and analysis of passenger handling
4. Modelling and analysis of cargo handling
Sub-domains: 1. Numerical models
2. Mathematical models
3. System dynamics model
4. Faster-than-real-time time simulators
5. Software issues - common software modules, software libraries.
Definition: Numerical models and fast time simulators used in R&D. Includes common software modules and software
NUM Numerical Models (including Fast Time Simulation)
(methods & tools) - R&D INFRASTRUCTURE
BSM Business modelling
APA Airport performance assessment
ACP Aircraft Performance Assessment
GPE General Purpose Equipment
REF Reference Data for R&D Use and live/RT data Use
traffic samples and air movement data.
4. Airborne systems information ( ACARS messages) and AOC systems, aircraft performance statistics,
recording from ATM system - radar, RDPS, FDPS, CFMU, network exchange messages...).
3. Ground systems information (library, airport database, aircraft database, live data distribution and
2. Development of libraries of statistics, reference data, bibliographies etc
Sub-domains: 1. Reference Data (bibliographies, abstracts service, statistical information)
projects - an R&D information resource.
Definition: The capture and analysis of background information and reference data that is likely to be used on a range of
5. Laboratory equipment, calibration equipment
4. Development platforms - flying laboratory, experimental aircraft
3. Measurement equipment
2. Test equipment
Sub-domains: 1. R&D equipment
flying laboratories & experimental aircraft
Definition: General purpose and miscellaneous equipment that forms part of the R&D technical infrastructure. Includes
3. Software issues - common software modules, software libraries
2. Experimental simulator
Sub-domains: 1. Real-time simulator
simulators that are used for R&D purposes, and common software libraries
Definition: Architecture of overall integration simulators, including user requirements and specifications. Also includes
RTS Real Time Simulators
LSX Large scale validation Experiments
(methods & tools) - VALIDATION
way. This leads to reductions in the validation element of RDT&E cycle
Definition: Provision of verification and validation methodologies that contribute to system flexibility in a cost-effective
8. Operational validation by flight testing
7. Validation at component, sub-system and system levels
6. Functional mock-ups
5. Validation of measurement tools and models
4. Pilot installations to ease the large-scale validation of proposed solutions
3. Trials - air/ground, ground/air, air/air
2. Pre-operational trials
Sub-domains: 1. Validation experiments, trials
upon digital techniques based on simulated and validation techniques
especially for complex high-consequence systems. Certification may largely, but not exclusively, be based
Definition: Experiments and trials conducted for the purpose of validation. Validation is a risk-reduction activity,
11. Test plans - acceptance, system and sub-system integration, module-level
10. Requirement specification
9. Coverage-based, fault-based, error-based testing and validation
8. Meta-models
7. Collection, analysis and validation of test results
6. Concept validation
5. integration and validation of technologies
4. system validation through modelling and simulation
3. Studies of certification issues for new technologies and systems
2. Hierarchical methodologies
new technologies and systems.
Sub-domains: 1. Validation methods, methodologies, procedures, metrics, tools. Includes studies of validation issues for
MTH Methodology
LSP Large scale validation Platforms
10. Advanced experimental testbeds
9. Combined validation platforms for multiple technology programmes
8. Validation vehicles for powerplants, avionics, aircraft structure, aircraft systems, flight software
7. Digital mock-ups
6. Prototyping tools
5. Wind tunnels
4. Integrated platforms for system development, safety analysis and certification
3. Technology demonstrators, technology integration platforms (TIPs)
2. Aircraft equipped for test and validation in an operational context
Sub-domains: 1. Ground validation benches
component, sub-system and system levels
performance parameters. Links with 'Flight / Ground Tests'. Validation platforms may conduct validation at
Definition: Large-scale validation rigs necessary to establish and validate the integration of technologies and
OVA Overall ATM
Definition: Contains all sub-domains relating to system-wide and gate-to-gate issues.
Sub-domains: 1. Concepts and Scenarios: Operational concept, Operational philosophy, Mission, Objective, Context
scenario, Operational objective, User requirement.
Comments: concept options and evaluations; concept definition; operational concepts (ATFM, ASM, ATC);
standard scenarios; institutional issues; ATM Objectives, User requirements; definition of operational
2. ATM Architecture and Overall System Engineering: System-wide issues, system engineering, transition
strategy, transition planning, implementation planning, implementation roadmap, functional architecture,
logical architecture, physical architecture, infrastructure, operational requirements.
Comments: Overall ATM system architecture including the ground, airborne and satellite functions and
system elements, system standards, system engineering, specifications, operational requirements,
configuration management, implementation planning issues, transition design issues, system safety.
Addresses system-wide issues, including transition.
3. Information Management in Operational ATM: Information Requirements, Information Architecture,
Communication requirements for controllers and pilots, Data Warehousing, Information Sharing, Information
Resource, Information Pool. Acquisition, storage, processing, distribution of information. System-wide
information. Information Quality, SWIM, System-Wide Information Management, security-confidentialityownership of the data, European AIS Database.
Comments: system-wide studies of information needs and information systems, including information
requirements, usage, sharing, acquisition, processing, storage, dissemination, deletion. Includes information
sharing, particularly in the CDM context, also encompassing information exchange and sharing with external
stakeholders in ATM. Information quality issues are covered. Includes information requirements for
controllers and pilots (e.g. flight plan and surveillance data, air derived data, met data, airspace structure
data, ASM data); communications requirements for controllers and pilots. Links with CDM - 'Collaborative
Decision Making', IKM 'Information management & Knowledge management'.
4. Radio Frequency Studies: Frequency Allocation, Frequency Coverage, Interference, Modulation Class,
Spectrum Utilisation, Propagation, ITU.
Comments: studies of the allocation and usage of radio frequencies. Covers the entire useful RF spectrum,
allocation to different services, geographical allocation, geographical coverage, changes of use, current and
future usage, interference problems etc. ITU issues. Propagation studies, modulation techniques, spectrum
utilisation efficiency, path reliability and related studies. RF Licensing and charges issues.
5. Capacity, Safety and Economic Appraisal Studies: Performance indicators, Cost-benefit analysis, CBA,
System capacity, Service capacity, Airspace capacity, Capacity utilisation, Safety, Internal efficiency, System
effectiveness, Service Levels, QoS, Delays, TLS, Resilience, Security, Charges, Simulations, Business Case,
Basic traffic forecast.
Comments: identification of capacity, safety and efficiency measures, cost-benefit analyses, performance
indicators. Includes studies of capacity and delay, ATM efficiency, safety, resilience, security. Includes
application of fast-time and real-time simulations to assess capacity, safety etc., also cost-benefit
assessments in the preparation of business cases.
Taxonomy – Aera 7: Air Traffic Management
AMG Airspace Management
FCM Flow and Capacity Management
information requirements, co-ordination requirements, data processing, operational data bases.
Comments: Flow Management, Capacity Management and Demand Management concepts, working rules,
Demand Forecasting, Traffic Load Prediction, FMP.
IFPS, Demand-Capacity Balancing, DCB, Demand Management, Slot Allocation, Capacity Prediction,
Sub-domains: 1. Air Traffic Flow Management: Air Traffic Flow Management, ATFM, CFMU, Initial Flight Plan Processing,
Definition: Contains all sub-domains concerned with ATFM, Demand Management and Capacity Management topics.
environments (SSR, ADS, multi radar coverage), also free flight, height monitoring.
Comments: Separation standards and minima for procedural environment and for different surveillance
Separations, ADS Separations, HMU, Height Monitoring, Collision Risk.
2. Separation Minima: Separation Minima, Separation Standards, Procedural Control, Radar Minima, Radar
co-operation; ASM procedures, procedures for use of the airspace and for air traffic control.
Comments: working rules, methods, routes network; airspace structures; airspace management; civil/military
Procedures, ATC Procedures.
Organisation, Airspace Structure, Routes, Flexible Use of Airspace, FUA, Airspace Regimes, ASM
Sub-domains: 1. Airspace Organisation and Procedures: Airspace Management, ASM, Airspace Design, Airspace
for flight and traffic control.
Definition: Contains all sub-domains relating to the structure and organisation of the airspace and relevant procedures
NAS Navigation Systems
Definition: Contains all sub-domains relating to communications technology and systems.
Sub-domains: 1. Satellite Navigation Systems: GPS, GPS Integrity, Differential GPS, GNSS, GLONASS, GNSS-2, WGS 84,
Geodetic References, GNSS Augmentation, GPS Augmentation systems, Pseudolites, EGNOS, GPS
Comments: navigation data base and grid co-ordinate systems, specifications, interfaces, validation and
safety of subsystems, augmentation and overlay systems.
2. Operational Navigation System: RVSM, PRNAV, RHSM, RNP, Navigation System, Altimetry, terrestrial
nav-aids, LORAN, DME, beacons, VOR, NDB.
Comments: all means necessary for aircraft to determine its own position, height and other dynamic
characteristics; guidance of the aircraft; validation and safety of subsystems. Includes Reduced Vertical and
Horizontal Separation, Precision RNAV, RNP Standards, multi-mode integrated navigation systems. Include
altimetry techniques; terrestrial navigation aids.
Definition: Contains all sub-domains relating to navigation techniques and systems.
Sub-domains: 1. ATN & Communication Architecture: Aeronautical Communications Network, ATN, Network Architecture,
Communications Architecture, ISO OSI Communications, Network Management.
Comments: overall design, interfaces, system standards, specifications, network management, validation and
safety of subsystems.
2. Satellite Communication Sub-network: Satellite Communications, Satellite Datalink, Satellite sub-network,
Satellite Communications Security, Satellite Communications Integrity.
Comments: overall design, interfaces, system standards, specifications, validation and safety of subsystems.
3. VHF Data Link and Voice Sub-network: VHF Datalink, VDL, VHF Voice, 8.33 kHz, VHF Digitised Voice
Communications, VHF communications integrity, VHF Sub-network, VHF communications security, VHF
Frequencies, VDL Mode 1, VDL Mode 2, VDL Mode 3, VDL Mode 4, STDMA.
Comments: VHF data link and voice sub-networks and technologies for all modes of VHF communications.
Includes overall design, interfaces, specifications, validation and safety of subsystems.
4. Mode-S Datalink Sub-network: Mode-S Datalink, Mode-S Sub-network, Mode-S SARPS, Mode-S
Communications Integrity, Air-Air datalink, Broadcast Datalink.
Comments: overall design, interfaces, system standards, specifications, validation and safety of subsystems.
Includes Mode-S technology for air-air (ACAS) datalink and broadcast (ADS-B).
5. Ground Network: Ground Networks, Ground Sub-networks, Network Management, Communications
Routers, WANs, Gateways, Internet, ARTAS, Voice networks, AHMS.
Comments: overall design, WAN interfaces, system standards, specifications, validation and safety of
subsystems. Includes ground communications networks for: voice, data and radar data distribution, (e.g.
ARTAS), and ATN ground sub-networks and ATN internet/backbone.
CST Communications and Systems Technology
SSS Surveillance Sensor Systems
Comments: validation methods, prototyping, sources of surveillance data, standards and procedures.
4. Surveillance Sensor Data Processing: Sensor Data fusion, ARTAS application.
and state vector information. Include ADS-B and ADS applications using any datalink technology.
Comments: standards, specifications, validation and safety of subsystems, means to derive position, identity
ADS-B, Aircraft derived data.
3. ADS & Data Link Surveillance: ADS SARPS, Automatic Dependent Surveillance, ADS, ADS-Broadcast,
applications, tracking radars, Mode-S for enhanced surveillance.
antennas, sensors, technologies. Includes specialised radars for wind-shear and wake vortex detection
Comments: studies of radar-based surveillance systems. Primary and secondary ground-based radars,
Surveillance, Specific sensors for SMGCS : microphones, laser, optical, proximity sensors etc…
Wind Shear Detection (by radar), Wake Vortex Detection (by radar), Weather Radar, Mode-S Enhanced
Antennas, E-Scan, Millimetre Wave Radar, Tracking Radars, Doppler Radars, Electronically Steered Radars,
2. Radar Surveillance and other independent sensors: Primary Radar, Secondary Surveillance Radar, Radar
measurement/calibration issue.
and their processing systems. Include height measurement where it is a surveillance
Comments: development of facilities and methods for the analysis and evaluation of surveillance systems
Data fusion accuracy, Surveillance coverage, Height measurement, HMU, ADS accuracy, Surveillance
Sub-domains: 1. Surveillance Analysis & Calibration Tools: Radar measurement, Radar calibration, Surveillance accuracy,
'Navigation/Flight Management/Autoland'.
Definition: Contains all sub-domains concerned with surveillance technology and systems. Links with NAV -
AAS ATM Automated Support
Sub-domains: 1. ATC Automation & Controlling Tools : ATC automation, controller tools, simulations with tools, level of
automation, MTCD, planning tools, sequencing and metering tools, conflict resolution tools, conflict probe,
conformance monitoring tools, SMGC tools, STCA, MSAW.
Comments: ground based data processing to support automation for the controller, simulations with tools,
level of automation. Include STCA, MSAW, MTCD, Planning support tools, Conflict resolution tools,
Conformance monitoring tools, sequencing and metering tools.
2. Controller Work Station and Situation Display: Controller workstation, Display systems, Controller
preferences, Electronic Strips.
Comments: work station architecture (software and hardware), display systems, HMI design.
3. Flight Data Processing Systems: FDPS, Flight Data Processing, Flight Plans, Flight Progress Monitoring,
Aircraft Derived Data.
Comments: Flight data processing systems: flight data database requirements and design, exploitation of
aircraft-derived data.
4. Traffic Management and Trajectory Planning: Traffic Management, Trajectory Planning, Multi-sector
Planning, Planning Horizon, Trajectory Planning Systems, Ground movement planning, Slot swapping /
shifting, Airspace Allocation, Conflict Free Trajectory Clearances, Traffic Management - ATFM interworking,
Traffic Management-Sector Interworking. Advanced Planning, Extended Planning, Start up and pushback
planning, Trajectory Synchronisation, Traffic Sequencing, Traffic Metering, Queues, Holds, Buffers, Choke
Points, AMAN (Arrival manager), DMAN (Departure Manager).
Comments: Traffic Management and Trajectory Planning processes and systems. Multi-sector planning.
Extension of the trajectory planning horizon. 3D and 4D Planning of conflict-free trajectories and
clearances/airspace allocations. Traffic sequencing, metering and trajectory synchronisation. Advanced
trajectory-based planning systems. Processes that sit between ATFM and Tactical Control. Interfaces and
interworking between TMTP processes and systems and those associated with ATFM and CFMU also those
associated with tactical sector control. Includes co-ordination between choke points, management of queues
and buffers.
5. Air Ground Integration Studies: Air-ground integration, Air-ground interworking, Pilot-Controller Cooperation, Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications, CPDLC, AOC, AAC, AIS, FIS, ASAS (not procedures).
Comments: Air/Ground Integrated studies focusing on the application and use of datalinks. Includes ATS and
(where they utilise the same datalink) the impact of AOC applications. The main focus is on air-ground
interworking, pilot-controller co-operation, integration of the aircraft into the ATM system.
6. Monitoring & Support Systems including Reliability & Integrity Studies: ATM system monitoring, system
reliability, system resilience, incident monitoring, separation infringement, recording and replay.
Definition: Contains all sub-domains relating to ATC Planning, Controller Tools and Automation. Links with domain
'Decision Support Systems'
APT Airport Traffic Management
during taxiing. Low visibility issues for surface movements, separation of aircraft and ground mobiles and
Comments: ground movement surveillance, Airport ATC systems. Covers issues of aircraft identification
Push-back, Ground Trajectory, Tower Control, Airport Surveillance, SMGC, A-SMCGS.
4. Surface Movement Guidance and Control: Taxiing, Manoeuvring Area, Taxiway, Pre-departure Clearance,
Information services provided by the airport, e.g. ATIS.
Comments: Application interface between Airports and Wide Area Networks (WANS) for gate-to-gate ATM.
communications system, Airport LAN, Gatelink.
3. Airport ATC and Information Systems: Integrated Airport Information Systems, ATIS, Wireless airport
approach and landing and departure in low visibility conditions.
monitoring. Includes the application of GNSS and augmentation systems to approach and landing, also
Comments: Approach, Landing and Departure aids and procedures : safety and validation of subsystems,
Precision Approach, AWOP, Autoland, Enhanced Vision Systems, SIDs, STARs, low visibility approach and
CFIT, GPS Approaches, WADGPS, LADGPS, GNSS Approaches, Pseudolite, CAT 1, CAT 2, CAT 3a,b,c,
2. Approach Aids and Procedures: ILS, Microwave Landing Systems, MLS, Controlled Flight Into Terrain,
in low visibility conditions
modelling and measurement, runway incursion monitoring, management of wildlife hazards, airport capacity
Comments: Airport capacity and runway utilisation related R&D, including capacity studies, airport capacity
Operations, Runway incursion, Wildlife hazards, Birds, Low Visibility.
Capacity, Airport Throughput, Airport Capacity Optimisation, Mixed-mode Operations, Parallel Runway
Sub-domains: 1. Airport Capacity and Runway Utilisation: Airport Capacity, Runway Capacity, Runway Utilisation, Taxiway
Definition: Contains all sub-domains relating to airport ATC, traffic management and ATM-related airport systems and
APO Airport Operations
ALO Airline Operations
Sub-domains: 1. Airline Operations: Airline Operations, Despatch, Fleet Scheduling, Crew Roistering and Scheduling,
Aircraft Operations, Timetables, Flight Planning Process, AAC, AOC, Flight Efficiency, Flight Economics,
Flight Time, Flight Duration, Fuel Burn, CDM (airlines part), Collaborative Flight Planning, Flight Schedules,
Block Time.
Comments: Studies of the relevant ground operations and flight operations of commercial airlines and other
aircraft operators, where relevant to ATM. Includes all forms of ATM-Airline interworking and collaborative
decision-making as well as co-ordination of planning, operational policies, fleet scheduling, timetabling,
route/service planning and flight planning processes, operational constraints, despatch, airline-aircraft (AOC)
communications, airline commercial issues. In connection with flight operations, this sub-domain includes
studies of flight economics and the impact of trajectory profiles and delays on fuel burn, flight time, flight
efficiency etc
2. Freight Operations.
interactions with ATM.
Definition: Contains all sub-domains concerned with airlines/aircraft operators, their flight operations and their
2. Vertical Take-off and landing traffic handling.
3. Airport Architecture, design and new concepts: Airport organisation and design, Cluster of airports, holistic
design, terminal organisation
4. Airport Passenger and baggage handling Processes: Movement of passengers inside the building, role of
the passenger, information of the passenger. Baggage handling processes.
5. Inter-modality: Interface with other modes of transport: train, hub feeder, road, etc…
Apron Management, Stand Management, Terminal Operations.
Comments: Airport Operations, Terminal Operations, ATC-Airport planning & co-ordination, Handling Agents,
ATC, Ground Movement Control, Apron Management, Terminal Operations, hub operations, hub feeding.
and improvements to Airport-ATM interworking, including interworking among, En-route/TMA ATC, Tower
Sub-domains: 1. Airport Operations: Airport Operations Studies: studies of aspects of airport operations relevant to ATM,
ATM, their processes to handle the traffic, passengers and baggage.
Definition: Contains all sub-domains concerned with airports operators, their flight operations and their interactions with
MET Meteorological
RDM R&D Management and Co-ordination
Comments: includes overhead activities, also international working and liaison activities, meetings etc.
Working Panels, Steering groups, review Bodies.
Sub-domains: 1. R&D Management and Co-ordination: Overhead, Management, Administration, R&D Co-ordination,
Definition: Contains all sub-domains concerned with the management of R&D resources.
Sub-domains: 1. Meteorological Modelling: Climatic Models, Weather Models, Weather Forecasting, Weather
Measurement, Nowcasting, Meteorological data fusion.
Comments: forecasting and nowcasting. Includes the aircraft as a flying meteorological station. Includes the
compilation, distribution and exploitation of meteorological information from the application perspective.
2. Wake-vortex Tracking and Approach Control : Wake Vortex, Vortex Measurement, Wake Vortex
Comments: Wake vortex related studies, detection systems. Include wind vortices measurement and aircraft
wake vortex categories.
3. Other Atmospheric Phenomena: Wind Shear, Wind Phenomena, Atmospheric Phenomena, Mountain
Wave Events, Precipitation, Turbulence, CAT.
Comments: Wind, Turbulence, Precipitation and other atmospheric phenomena, including wind shear, wind
measurement and prediction, wind modelling, volcanic ash and mountain wave events forecasting.
Definition: Contains all sub-domains relating to meteorological phenomena and detection and forecasting systems.
5. Collection of input data: population, aircraft movements, aircraft routes, historical accident data, terrain
4. Validation and evaluation of risk models and data
3. Support to development of appropriate risk tolerability criteria
2. Risk assessments using these tools
Sub-domains: 1. Development of methods, (sub)models and software tools to assess risk to the population in the vicinity of
imposed to a group of a certain size.
resulting lethality. The risk can be expressed in terms of individual risk and / or societal risk, meaning risk
Definition: Quantitative probabilistic assessment of risk to the population in the vicinity of an airport. The risk is
composed of the following three submodels: accident probability per movement, the accident location and the
aviation security in a "safe" environment
to practise and develop their responsibilities, to stress networks, and to establish weak points in the chain of
Sub-domains: 1. Operational planning tools (including decision-support systems)
2. Interactive computer-based systems to model the effects of major incidents, to allow staff the opportunity
systems and personnel involved.
Definition: It is necessary for the aviation security system to be able to respond appropriately to a wide range of different
incidents. The effective management of such crises will require the integration of the efforts of all security
(X-rays) )
4. Weapon Detection (e.g. metal detectors, passive millimetre wave imaging, invasive ionising radiation
3. Trace and Bulk Explosive Detection (e.g. thermal neutron analysis (TNA), CTX machines, canine
Sub-domains: 1. Secure communications links between key parts in the aviation security system
2. Containerised/Palletised Inspection Systems
machines for screeners to use, and bulk screening for cargo and baggage.
cargo through weapons and explosives detection machines: portals for people to walk through, portable
and flammable gas or liquid explosives on aircraft. Achieved by processing passengers, crew, baggage and
Definition: Systems for the detection and neutralisation of threats posed by weapons and explosives. Includes the use of
advanced technology to eliminate the ability of terrorists to conceal improvised explosive devices, weapons,
Airport External Safety
CMG Crisis management
SEQ Security Equipment
Taxonomy – Area 8: Airports
ARS Airport Security
7. Physical protection measures to prevent unauthorised entry into secure areas
6. Tracking of cargo and baggage within the airport (e.g. RFID tags)
Bag Matching - PPBM)
5. Development of systems for strict accountability for luggage loaded on aircraft (e.g. Positive Passenger
geometry, fingerprints, iris recognition)
4. Passenger identification and verification (e.g. biometrics - voice recognition, face recognition, hand
of pre-screened passengers who can be processed through airport security more quickly.
with more intensive human interaction and sophisticated detection equipment. Possible establishment of pool
terrorists and other security risks. Passengers flagged as high-risk should be diverted to a screening process
3. Passenger profiling, co-ordinated with law enforcement and intelligence databases, to detect possible
plates, video tracking)
2. Surveillance systems - processing (e.g. image motion stabilisation, automatic recognition of faces/number
Sub-domains: 1. Surveillance systems - sensors (e.g. CCTV, radar/RF, IR, visual)
‘Surveillance Sensor Systems’.
on the ground. Specific technologies are addressed in the "Security Equipment" area. Links also with SSS –
staff, passengers and crew when on the ground. This includes blocking terrorist access to the aircraft when
Definition: Airport security measures are the physical protection measures required in order to protect aircraft, airport
HPM Human Performance Modelling & Enhancement
Sub-domains: 1. Crew workload optimisation, error-tolerant systems
2. Measurement and modelling of controller and pilot performance in the ATM system
3. Measurement and modelling of aircrew performance
4. Evaluation of human factors procedures
5. Team working
6. Self separation
7. The human as a supervisor (both the pilot and/or the controller)
8. Tasks sharing, task delegation
9. Pilot less a/c
10. Research and techniques to sense and monitor human performance, including physiological sensing and
11. Studies of interventions (excluding training) that enhance individual physical and mental performance
Definition: Measuring and modelling the effectiveness of people in the aviation system, both on the ground and in the
air. Includes the ATM and aircrew (pilot, navigator, flight engineer) requirements for the role of the human in
the systems (i.e. display, ergonomics) including airborne, cockpit and ground control systems
Sub-domains: 1. Knowledge engineering
2. Information gathering
3. Information processing (aircrew, ATM, ground staff)
4. Cognitive aspects of operator performance
5. Human error and reliability studies
Definition: Research into the ways in which humans gather and process information, converting "data" into "knowledge",
studies of human sensory, perceptual and cognitive processes.
Human Information Processing
Sub-domains: 1. Human-machine/computer interface (HMI, HCI, MMI) - design and evaluation
2. Displays - Colour, 3D display, Virtual reality, Information presentation
3. HF integration
4. Development of methods, tools and processes to support the integration of people with complex systems
5. Vision modelling and auditory communication studies
6. Anthropometric studies
Definition: The integration of separate strands of human factors (HF), and the interfaces between humans and
technologies, to provide a holistic picture of the role, effectiveness and improvement of human personnel in
the aviation systems.
Human Factors Integration, Man-machine Interface
Taxonomy – Area 9: Human Factors
HSP Human Survivability, Protection and Stress Effects
8. Personnel protective systems - ground crew
7. Personnel protective systems - passengers
6. Personnel protective systems - aircrew
5. Personnel response to blast and fire (injuries sustained, casualty rates etc)
4. Health and safety/occupational health aspects for passengers (methods, facilities, evaluation)
3. Health and safety/occupational health aspects for ground crew (methods, facilities, evaluation)
2. Health and safety/occupational health aspects for ATM personnel (methods, facilities, evaluation)
Sub-domains: 1. Health and safety/occupational health aspects for aircrew (methods, facilities, evaluation)
personnel, both in the air and on the ground.
Research to understand issues covering the physical and mental health (including stress) aspects of
impact of irregular duty cycles, sleep loss, physical and mental strain, prevention of musculo-skeletal injuries.
Definition: Studies relating to the impact of stressors on human performance, behaviours and well-being. Includes
10. Management of skill acquisition and skill fade
9. Training needs analysis
8. Certification and licensing aspects
7. Staff management and working practices (shift work, roistering etc)
6. Training of ground crew (methods, facilities, evaluation)
5. Training of ATM personnel (methods, facilities, evaluation)
4. Training of aircrew (methods, facilities, evaluation)
3. Recruitment and selection of ground crew (methods, facilities, evaluation)
2. Recruitment and selection of ATM personnel (methods, facilities, evaluation)
Sub-domains: 1. Recruitment and selection of aircrew (methods, facilities, evaluation)
personal qualities, physical characteristics, manpower modelling and system complementing.
management of all personnel in the aviation system, both in the air and on the ground. Addresses aptitude,
Definition: Covers the requirements for recruitment, selection, training, licensing, working practices and staff
SEL Selection & Training
HES Human Element in Security
5. Background security checks for personnel having access to secure areas
4. Baggage and cargo screener management (shift and duty time rosters, team leadership)
3. Baggage and cargo screener training (e.g. Threat Image Projection, performance management)
2. Baggage and cargo screener selection
Sub-domains: 1. Pilot training for response to hijack incidents (computer- and simulator-based)
aviation transport system should be addressed.
performance monitoring . Relates especially to the various detection technologies, but all personnel in the
Definition: Optimisation of human performance and contributions through better operator selection, training, and
Definition: Scenarios provide a means for raising the awareness of decision-makers towards the implications of
BTT Breakthrough technologies
Sub-domains: 1. New materials
2. Advanced design technologies
3. Alternative fuels
4. Safety enabling technologies - remote control of aircraft, fully automated approach and landing
5. Unmanned aircraft
6. Free flight control regime
7. Technology watching
8. Nanotechnology
Definition: New air transport paradigms may evolve from speculative, exploratory research and concept studies
Sub-domains: 1. Blended wing/body airliners
2. Supersonic or hypersonic airliners
3. Lighter-than-air (LTA) vehicles/airships - cargo transport, surveillance, communications, remote imaging
4. Very large payload capacity aircraft - cargo transports, airliners, utilisation of Wing In Ground effect (WIG)
5. Fully automated aircraft - 24 hour a day operation
6. Tilt-rotor and other vertical take-off and landing (VTOL) configurations
7. Hybrid configurations
8. Dedicated freight aircraft operations using separate infrastructures from passenger airliners - inter-modality
9. Interface with airport ground systems
resulting from highly integrated airframes, avionics and engines.
for more specific tailoring of cabin space for business or leisure purposes) and reductions in operating costs
Definition: Radically new concepts in aircraft design could provide step changes - in flexibility of cabin layout (allowing
Sub-domains: 1. Identification of drivers of change (technological, demographic, cultural, political)
2. Elaboration of basic trends (societal, cultural)
3. Key uncertainties - derivation, analysis
4. Scenario generation
5. Scenario analysis
6. Drivers for future research - agenda setting and evaluation
outcome of existing paradigms and trends.
plausible possible futures, Scenario-based planning tells a series of consistent stories about the future
UCC Unconventional configurations and new aircraft concepts
SCE Scenarios analysis
-83NLR-CR-2002-688 Taxonomy – Area 10: Innovative Concepts & Scenarios
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Conclusions & Recommendations
In a short timeframe, a Working Group consisting of NLR, QinetiQ and ONERA constructed
the ACARE taxonomy for aeronautical R&T. This is a hierarchical taxonomy that builds upon
existing European structuring efforts, such as the GARTEUR taxonomy and
The ACARE taxonomy has been defined, reviewed and agreed upon by a considerable group of
experts from different fields within the European aeronautics community. This has given the
taxonomy a strong foundation.
Given the timeframe and budget available, the ACARE taxonomy is believed to be as
representative and functional as can be achieved in such a short period of time. A pragmatic
approach was adopted, in which progress with the development and population of the taxonomy
continued even when the time available for meetings with stakeholders was limited. This
prevented long discussions about details concerning a specific location in the taxonomy or the
mapping of certain topics from slowing down progress. Using previous material and current
expertise also ensured the development of a taxonomy that can be accepted by a large and
diverse group of representatives in the European aeronautical field.
The meetings with the Steering Group provided valuable discussions for the Working Group to
work with. Their expertise was brought in from different perspectives and putting them together
provided valuable discussions, which led to this pragmatic taxonomy using already existing
topics and domains. Also, experience from members directed the taxonomy away from previous
experienced problems and towards an agreed approach.
The taxonomy presented in this document should be regarded as the first baseline. It is expected
that the taxonomy will go through a number of evolutions as European co-operation evolves.
Therefore, regular updates are considered necessary. A taxonomy is never completely finished,
especially when attempts are made to cover such a wide area as European aeronautics R & T.
Therefore, the taxonomy should be reviewed on a regular (at least yearly) basis, thereby also
maintaining and possibly extending the support from the stakeholders involved.
The issue of what perspectives on the taxonomy are useful for various types of users remains
highly relevant. Discussing this further will surely bring considerable benefit to users of the
taxonomy. However, in order to remain productive one should always follow the basic idea with
what the taxonomy was meant for in the first place. Keeping our targeted audience in mind
surely helped focussing for the direction taken.
Further, in order to let the taxonomy be widely used within the aeronautical community, it
should be well known and easily accessible by its targeted audience. This means publishing
through media available to all. The easiest way for this would be publishing the taxonomy on a
web page.
Through the web the taxonomy is visible to all and can be updated by those responsible in more
than one location across the European countries. Also the web makes it possible to navigate
through the taxonomy in a fast and easy way. For example, it would enable easy searching
through the taxonomy by keywords specified by the user.
It is therefore recommended as continuation of this first step in defining the ACARE taxonomy,
to take the taxonomy and to publish and maintain it by using the web and pertaining tools.
Secondly, with the first phase of defining and specifying the ACARE taxonomy being
completed, it is recommended that a procedure is formulated, which will ensure realisation of
Vision 2020. This procedure should encompass further assessment and modification of the
stakeholders’ internal definitions, and support mutual alignment with the ACARE taxonomy.
In short, to ensure a successful implementation the following steps are strongly recommended:
Internet availability of the complete latest version of the taxonomy
Provision of an on-line feedback mechanism
Further alignment with stakeholders’ internal definitions
Regular assessment of the taxonomy with stakeholders
Appointment of taxonomy representatives to maintain the taxonomy.
These steps will keep the taxonomy in the foreground of ACARE activities. Active use of the
ACARE taxonomy will help to achieve the European aeronautical community’s goal to make
Europe the world leader in aeronautics through strengthened collaboration and guided by a
single shared vision.
1. 6th Framework programme: Thematic Priority - 1.4 Aeronautics and Space WORK
PROGRAMME 2002-2006
2. ACARE: Strategic Research Agenda – volume 1 & 2, October 2002
3. EUROCONTROL, ATM R&D Strategy in support of EATCHIP, issue 3.2., March 1998.
4. EUROCONTROL, ATM Strategy for 2000+
5. EUROCONTROL, ARDEP 2000: Analysis of the Data
6. European Communities, A vision for 2020 – Meeting society’s needs and winning global
leadership, January 2001
7. GARTEUR view on future aeronautics research & technology, Taxonomy published in
GARTEUR Annual Report 2001, Document X/C – 32, May 2002.
8. Hannessen D.P., Donker, J.C.: ASTERA project management document,
9. NASA, The NASA Aeronautics Blueprint – A Technology Vision for Aviation
10. NASA, NASA Thesaurus – volume 1 & 2, NASA/SP-1998-7501, 1998
11. SCITEC – WEAG Science and Technology Strategy, March 1998

ACARE Taxonomy A common European taxonomy for aeronautical