Taking Action in Italian Using Regular ARE Verbs What are Infinitives? In English, infinitives are the words To + a verb, such as: to play to read to study What is conjugation? Conjugation is the act of changing an infinitive to a verb used with a subject. For example: To speak Parlare We speak Noi parliamo Conjugating Italian Verbs Step 1: Find the stem of the verb, using the following formula: Infinitive – ARE = Stem Parlare – ARE = Parl Conjugating Italian Verbs Step 2: Bring down the stem to each pronoun. io tu parl parl lui, lei, Lei parl noi parl voi parl loro, Loro parl Conjugating Italian Verbs Step 3: Add the correct endings to the stems io parlo noi parliamo tu voi parlate parli lui, lei, Lei parla loro, Loro parlano Important points to remember • Do NOT translate the word do in Italian verbs it’s already understood: tu parli- you speak, you do speak, you are speaking • When making sentences negative, put the word non directly in front of the verb: tu non parli- you don’t speak, you are not speaking Important Points to Remember • When writing questions, the verb comes before the subject: Parli tu l’italiano? Do you speak Italian? Un po’ di prattica! Translate the following in your notes! We study French. I travel a lot. He explains the lesson. They speak German. -ERE Verbs Examples of –ERE Infinitives Perdere – to lose Vivere – to live Prendere – to take Vedere- to see Conoscere – to know Ricevere – to receive Rispondere – to respond Step 1: Find the STEM Remove the –ERE from the INFINITIVE to isolate the STEM Examples: leggere legg prendere prend scrivere scriv Step 2: Add a new ending Add a new ending to the STEM, depending on WHO is doing the action: Singular (I) Io -o (you - informal) tu -i (he/she) lui/lei -e (you-informal) Lei -e Plural (we) noi -iamo (you all - informal) voi -ete (they) loro -ono (You all- formal) -ono LEGGERE – To read 1. What is the STEM? LEGG 2. What are the different forms of LEGGERE? Io leggo noi leggiamo tu leggi lui/lei/Lei legge voi leggete loro/Loro leggono -IRE Verbs Verbi -ire • What are the –ire endings? -o -iamo -i -ite -e -ono What do you notice about –ire and –ere Paragoniamo (Let’s compare!) • Vediamo (Let’s see): -ere vs. -o -iamo -o –ire –iamo -i -ete -i –ite -e -ono -e -ono Sono simili! (They’re similar!) • -ere and –ire endings are almost all the same EXCEPT in the “voi” form. –ere verbs have –ete –ire verbs have –ite Not so fast! Some –ire verbs add an –isc before the ending we are used to adding on. For example : pulisco, pulisce, finisco, finisci, capisci, preferiscono… -isc with -ire • These are sometimes called “boot verbs” because the –isc is added into all the forms except “noi” and “voi”. Esempio: capire – to understand Capiamo Capisco Capisci 5 letter test • Look at the –ire verb in its infinitive form. Let’s take “pulire” – “to clean”. Start at the END of the word, on the “e”. Count back 5 letters. Do we land on a vowel? 1:e , 2:r, 3:i, 4:l, 5:u YES! 5 letter test • Since we landed on a vowel, we know to add in “isc” for all our forms EXCEPT noi and voi. Pulisco Puliamo Pulisci Pulite Pulisce Puliscono We still have to add our normal endings, too!