lt8
r $"rr"ra (r
cJryqae c $parnrerrrou) uIIrvI BblparKeHze
rro [oBoAy oAnofi r,rs npo6neu, 3arporryrblx B
$u-nrue (nucruerurufi unv ycrnufi orBer AoJDKeH crpol,rrbctr c
oKoHqaHn
co6crseHHoro MHeHLTI
r{cnoJrb3oBaHHe HoBoro JreKcrrKo-rpaMMarl4rocKoro MaT€p[ana). onpoc
nogo6noro AoMarrrHero 3aAaHrxr Mox(gr 6urr nponeAen na gawtrvn
[paKTr{KyMa ycrnofi peqH; KpoMe Tono, oAHa lI3 TeM, 3arporryrbrx B
$umue, unu rpotrBr{Blur.D(cr B npoqecce o6cyr44erua.a npocMorpeHHoro
Sunrua uJrr4 ero Sparuerrra, Mox(er raKxe nepefiru B TeMy 3aHflTr.ul,
nocesrueHHoro nparcrmylry ycrnofi pevu (ru6op reMbl He cflolrraHeH, a
3apaHee npeAycMorpeH nporpanruofi). Taxuu o6pasou, Ha ocHoBe
Mex(,qr{cquflnvHapHoro nsauuo4eficrnnr Marepuan BBoAHTc.t
KoHqer{puqecKr4, qlo cnoco6crnyer upuo6pereHl{Io uporrHbtrx sr;Lavuir.
* nPoEnEMbr
nEPEBORA B OEnAGTn
TTANb'HGKOTO R3bIKA
P.A. foeopyxo (MFV un. M.B. Jlononocoea)
AByC
TO P O
HHUV n E P E BOA
KA K h CTO tl H
14
K
14
3v
t{ E H
Ll
f,
rPAMMATLIKII Y3YCA
,{nr ronopxrqero Ha HHocrpaHHoM r3brKe BcerAa aKTyanbHa rrpo6neM
gcrecrBeHHocrn, nocroJrbr(y neKcruecrcrni peuepryap B ero pacilop
Hr{H orpaHrusH, H cyMMa npaBilJr, xoropofi oH pyKoBoAcrByercf,
ynorpe6renvu r3hrKoBbrx gArrHrIII, 3aBeAoMo He ffBJlterct nonnoft.
groMy Anr xoporuero BnaAeHurr rrHocrpaHHblM .s3bIKoM rpaftre
((CIICTEMbD), HO I{ (KOJIJIEKTHBHOTO
YIIUTbIBATb TTPABNNA HC TOJIbKO
Boro y3ycu. lloa y3ycoM MbI rroHuMaeM ecrecrBeHHoe y
rr3brKoBoro cpeAcrBa, cBr3aHHoe c nrr6oporu nau6orree agerrarxofi
HLIUbI lI3 MHOXeCTBa BO3MOIKIIbTX CIIHOHrIMI'IqHbIX .[3bIKOBbIX
Bneprue pa3AeJrrrrb ypoBerfi ((perIID) npeAno)<r{n B.f f ar,
(zHnlrBr4D/anbHyro perrb)), He noMarcqyrcc.rr crporoMy orrvcaHr{ro,
(HOpMy peql,r)) r{Jnr (KoJrJreKTuBHbrrr y3yc), 3aKoHoMepHocrl
rvroryT 6rrrr suf,sreHbr flyreM IlsMepeHvfl ornocr.rrennnofi y
Hocru r3brKoBbrx eALrHr{II [cru. 1:554; 2:30-311. Konnercnmr*rfi
Wyc rrpeArrcraraer co cropoHbr roBopflIqero cno6o4rrufi u He 3HarI
TOqKlr 3peHrrr cMbrcna nrt60p, B orJII{q[e or necno60Arrrrx u cev
.
cKH 3HaqzMbrx 3aKoHoMepuocrefi cxcreMbl r,r necro6o4Hblx, He3Ha
ll9
orHortreHr{vrpe6oBanLrir HopMbr 13:248-251]. Tarc, rro;ro)Kr.t-
B cMbrcJroBoM
{unrv, roropxrqufi uo-SpaHrSrscKr{ cKuDKer'. J'aime ce
film me plait. lIo-vnaJrb{HcKr{ oro 6y4er 3Byqarb xax: Mi
piace questo film, no se *Amo questo film. llo-pyccrcu lre Bo3Nro)KHrr o6a
Bapuarrra: Mue upaeumcn smom fimau. -,fl noSnn emom Qunuu. Bupax(ar craMrrarr{ro K qenoBeKy, rro-prrarrr.flHcrt4 Mo}r(Ho cKzuarb: Mi sembra
simpafico, TaK ?Ke xat< u Lo trovo simpatico. B pyccKoM xe ,r3brKe rrpu
TeJrbHo oqeHzBaul
film, a rrc
*Ce
nefirpalluoM xaparoepe BbrpDreHrlur Ou uue Ka)rcemct crlr4namutttbttt,
thpasa .fl uaxoucy ezo cuA4namuqHbtM orr{yrqaerc.s KaK crr4;rucTriFrecxr.r Me-
Hee Aofiycrt4Matr, He ceoficrreHHa-f, r3brKoBoil,ry y3ycy.
B ro npeva rar
crircTeMHbre oco6eHnocrr,r HHocTpaHHoro -fl3brKa, TaK )Ke KaK z pa:luoo6pa3Hble HopMaTuBHbre orpaHvrreHrirr, HaxoA-f,Tcf B qeHTpe BllvrMallvs. rtpur
efo u3yqeHurz B ayAr{Topzz, no4o6nnu oco6erurocrrM y3yca qacro yAer.serc-tr HeAocraroqHoe BHrrMaHne. Me44y reM vMeHHo 3Aecb qarrle Bcefo
Bo3HrrKaer unrepr[eperuryr, a [oroMy qsrrxonofi y3yc 3acnyxc4Baer [oApo6noro I{3yqeHLIs, B Tor\{ rrrllcJre B corlocraBlrreJrbHoM rrJraHe. Yxaxeu Ha
HeKOTOpbre noAxoAbr K TaKoMy r{ccneAoBaHr4ro.
Baxnrru
I{croaIHr.IKoM KorrrpacrLrBHoro aHzurrd3a
y3yca MorKer cny-
)Kr,rTb cpaBHeHZe .s3brKoBbrx cpeAcTB, rrcrroJrb3yeMbrx HocprTeJrfMr.r pa3Hbrx
B srofi cs.ssz 6Hr ocyqecrBJreH rirrrepecrnrfi AarcKo-r.rrarlr.sncxrfi rpoeKr rIoA pyKoBoAcrBoM G. Slsytte [4].
Y.racrruff al,rn [poeKTa craJrrr oKoJro copoKa cryAeHToB (npa6nusarermHo
no 20 AafiaH r.r r.rraJrbrrilIen), xoroprrlr 6rrnra noxagaHbr ABa KoporKrurx
cKerqa 6es cron arrrnuficroro KoMzKa Mr.rcrepa EuHa. 3arerr.r rpe6ona:rocl
lepecxa3arb yBnAeHHoe KaK B ycrHofi, ran H B nlrcbMeHHofi Sopue. Cos4aHnufi TaKHM o6pa":orr,r Kopryc reKcroB 6u:r npoaHanrr3rrpoBaH rpynuofi
HccneAoBarerefi , n pe3ynbrare rrero rosBt4rracb rpexroMHa-a nrouorpa$ua
<Crpyrcrypa rexcra B rdralrbrHcKoM rr AarcKoM .rr3brKoot. flplmegelr na3Bat;;Lrfl HeKoropbrx ee pa3AenoB: SxcmpanuHzaucmuLrecrcue Qarcmoput u
n3wKoaat rcoduQurca4un, neKcwtecKoe sapbupoaaHue, cmpyKmypa meKcma u munotozut auaQopuuecKux crt3eri, xapaKmepucmuKa clo)rcHo?.o
npednocrceuun, cmpyKmypa pequ u cpedcmea censu. O6t4rafi xornzrznurrfi
[oAxoA I{ccneAoBaHLilI nposBr4nc.{, B qacrHocrr{, B ToM, qro 6olrruoe
BHT.IMaHUe B HeM O6paqaerc' Ha re SneMenru AeficrnrrreJlbHocrkr, Koropbre roBoprqze or6upanv[ AIw cBoLrx paccKunoB. Hauprruep, HTanb-rrHqbr,
our.rcbrBair 3rrr43oA, KorAa crpvnxqrafi noA HoraME repofl rron [pvBneKaeT
K HeMy BHl4MaHLIe, CrIeqVanbHO OTMeTIaJIH, IITO IIOII <4eper.aHHufi> (n
pe4rocrr), B To BpeM.rr KaK AarqaHaMH gra
Vratruu AepeBf,HHbre noJrhr
Aeranb orMeqeHa ne 6u:ra. flogo6Horo poAa pa3nmrrr B KonneKTaBHbrx
r3brKoB B oAr{HaKoBofi cwrya4vru.
t20
npeAcraBneHr.ux,qoJDKHbI OCO6O OTMeqarbc.f, [penoAaBareneM, nocKonbl{y
oHV MoryT co3AaBarb rpyAHocra npu [epeBoAe. llpuae4eu n grofi cssgz
$parrvrerrr opvrHHilrbHoro AHaJrOra zs orcc$op.ucKoro Kypca vraJrbtHcKoCome hai fatto a imparare a
ro r3brKa <L'Italia dal vivo> [5:81]:
Ho cominciato con un
distinguere i funghi velenosi da quelli buoni?
piccolo
-
libretto
6yxn. Rax mat uayfl Haqatt c 6poutoHecMorpt Ha ero rpaMMarI'I-
.
-
ttuJtce omruuama ndoeumate epudat om cuedo6ua*? -
pbt, W.Pyccwritrencr,
qecKyro [paBuJrbHocrb, rrpeAcTaBlrfleTc'I HecKoJIbKo cTpaHHbrM: B I{TaJIb'
rHcKoM -g3bIKoBoM co3HaHrrlr TIoHTITI/III <rpu6ru rI (ropbl)) nporlHo cBt3anu (leca pacronoxeHu a ropnofi qacrl,I crpaHu), a n pyccxofi KaprI,IHe
uupa raxofi cB.x3v Her,
,{pyrznr BarKHIIM ucrorlHuKoM KoHTpacrLIBHoro LrgyqeHru KoJrtreKTlIBHoro ygyca flBrrflercfl ABycropoHHr.rfi uepeno4, rcoroprrfi MolnHo paccMar-
pvBarb KaK <oco6rrfi ctryuait Me)I(b.x3hlKoBoro nepu$pa":rpoBaHlxD)
[6:1291. Ouenu4no, rrro repeBoA - crlo)KHblit wvnmulyalurufi TBoprIe-'
crufi npoqecc, JrI{IIIr B He3Haql{Tenrnofi Mepe noAAaroqlrfics
sa\wu.
llpr
.qnycropoHHeM repeBoAe rlacro rporcxoA.flT rpancQoplraryIu
cMbrcJra, nplr Koropbrx roBoptqviil nwl'ytlrfi nrrnyx4en
aKcrrnurlrdpoBarb oAHLI gJreMerrrbl cMblcJra u, nao6opor, onycKarb,
rurrL Apyrrde ero gJreMeHTbI. Heroropue rpaHc$opualwr npll SroM
o6sgarermnufi rpauvarurecxral xapaKTep LI no3BoJltlor AeJIarb BbIBoAbI
clrcreMHbrx pa3nruun( Me)Iq4y t3brrttMlr. 3rn pasnnvuls) r.aK rrpaBluo,
flroxo ofrvcaHbr
B
cooTBercrBylolq[x KorrTpacTuBHbIX rpaMMaTuKax
Lr
co6unc. ro
repeBoAy. B ro )Ke BpeMt rpanc{opuaqraa,
((rpaMMaruKofi peuu> (repnruH B.f. fara), orrl{carb cJIo)ICHee,
oHr{ He {Bmrorcs crporo o6.sgarerrrtrMr4, rITo rro3BoJuler flepe
KorrrlpoBarb op[HaHaJr, B ToM qrtclre BorrpeKu
poAHoro r3brKa. Hecnrorpx Ha oqeBVAHbIe rpyAHocrll oupeAeneHlrrl
6ennocrefi r3brKoBoro ygyca, npeAcraBJlf,ercfl, rITo Ha ocHoBe
a:aarrvga AocraroqHo 6orluroro Kopnyca napzrnirenbHrrx rercron (
6rrlo npoaHanv3[poBaHo 6onee ceMuAeclrtl opuruHaJrbHblx reKcroB
AByX r3LrKaX r{ pD( [epeBoAoB, [pHIIeM qacTo HcrroJlbsoBaJrHcb
npene6perarb
vtv^ra,
nepeBoAoB oAHofo rexcra) Mo)KHo BbIAeJII{rb onpeAeneHHble re
fiocrpoeHwr HTarb.flHcKoro reKcra B cpaBHeHHI,I C pyccKlrM.
Ocnonrrurun <<npo6neunrrMr{ 3oHaMrD), B Koropbrx na6nrogarorc.r
6onee xaparrepHble I,I 3HaqI,IMbIe AJUI nocrpoeHrilrl TeKcra pa3rnr*tx,
Irfrorcfl raKcvrc:aas opraHruaI$,IJI BpeMeHHbD( $opt, cr{creMa ana$o
cKr,rx cpeAcrn [7], coorHomeHl{e ceMaHTIrFIecKoro u rpaM
12l
F-----
fa [8], noptAoK cJroB I{ cl{rrrarM Brryrpl{ BbIcKa3bIBaHu'I }{ BbIcKafi nnyrpu reKcra, SKcnnuqplTHufi,/ rartnnzqurnlrfi xaparTep Bblpa-
oupeAeneHHblx MoAaJrbHux crr'lrrcnon [9]'
yKoKeM nrlrtrb HecKolrxo oco6ennocrefi rocrpoe
,*t"^
cloxnofi
clrHTaKcl,Flecrofi roncrpynr\Lrn' a B
cr qenovrofi upocrbrx npe4noncerrafi
B o6orrx .s3brKax upoqecc o6rr.rHO
ApyroM
nepeAaer-
.
BbIpzDKaeTc.g
c
IIOMOIIIbIO
JII',ITIHOI'I
tfoopnru rJlaroJr
orrpege:rennofi
6arusa. nsa
ceMaIITI.FIecKIIMlIoTHoIueHvAMvI..coflocTaBI4TeJIbHbIMLIcoeAI{HzTeJIbHbI-
cBt3b c noMolrlbro coqlrHrrreJlbHbrx t4JlLt
nofr xe cqwraerctrcBt3b, KorAa oALrH rrp
flps
na raralrxncxufi
crurHOCTbrO
nee
121.
TO
coro3oB' CLIflb-
rer co6ofi nrq-
ecrL npu [epeBoAe c pyccKoro
aerct nepexoA Ha 6orree errcoxufi
r22
l. Cna6rre $opruu cBs3rr, a HMeHHo rpocrtul [ocJleAoBareJrbHocrb BbIcrcasrrsaxzfi nu6o o6re4I,IHeHIre AByx BblcKa3rrsaHrill B oAHo c noMorqblo
6eccorosHofi cBflsvI, peryfispHo rpanc$opnaupyrorct B cpeAHne Qopurr
ceasra (c rroMolrlbro cotILIHI4TerIbHbrx Id [oguslantanbHblx coro3on). IIpuBeAeM XapaKTepIIbIe [pI'IMepbI OTILICaTeJIbHbIx KOHTeKcTOB, B KOTOpbIX
rrporosr,rr{Hr Pl nrrcryuaer KaK Qon, ornpaBHarl Toqra, npeABapfiolqall
pil3Br,rrne cuoxnofi clfryaquu r P2. B sTOM CJryqae Ant pyccKoro reKcra
xaparffepHo 6eccoro3ue, Ailfl vnalrbs:ncKoro - coquHenne. Cp. :
Brrn yxce aBrycr, @ xoe-rge na Era gid agosto, g sulle behrlle, qua e
6epesax
Blrcerrlr
NO}I(EJITEBIIII{E
nepnue ld, pendevano
rrrcrb.,r ingiallite,
(IIaycroncxnfi).
B ern uecra yxe Bcrynwla oceHb'
A rycrofi, nanopxcrrrft Berep
cHocraJr Ha cropony ne'trofi grru
us rpy6u. (Merrep).
Era domenica, e mi prepararono il
G con le paste su una bella
tovaglia ricamata... (Ginzburg).
le prime
foglie
Da quelle parti iniziava gin
l'autunno g il vento foroe,
incalzante, deviava il fumo dellb
stufa dal comignolo.
Buno nocxpeceHbe.
HaKpbrJrrr
A
rpacunofi
Att,
BbI
cKaTepTbro croJl, yrocTllJlu qaeM
mrpoxHbrMLr.
Era un dolce
pomeriggio Cro.sr racrosHfi
gli
g
intorno,
che noJr,4eHb. g
alberi
d'autunno
gi
cominciavano a spogliarsi, AepeBbr [raMsHerr,I coq
portavano i colori accesi e il KpacKaMlr, pacnpocTpaHtt
patetico presentimento
del TporareJlbHoe ryBcrBo
y BfrAaEEs.
tapasso (Buzzati).
2. Brryrpll cpeAHr{x Soprr,r crrsu npfi rlepeBoAe c oAnoro t3blKa Ha
Tapr(e na6rnoAaerct H3MeHeHI,Ie ypoBHfl cBt3Hocrz: coqlxilrrerbHal
pyccKoro reKcra uMser reHAeHIrHro r npeo6pasoBaHuro B [oArI
rryro B rrraJrbrHcKou. IlpuuepoM groro MoryT, B qacrHocrn,
KOHTeKCTbI, KOrAa pyccKI4M
[peAno]I€HI,rf,M c oAHOpOAHbIMH
C
I4III,I CNO)KHOCOTIIIHEHHbIM NPEANOXCEHI1I'M B
BercrByror KoHcrpyKIIItu c onpeAeJnlTeJlbHbrMll [pIrAaTorIHbIMI'I
)KeHWIMH, KOTOpbIe B OTeqecrBgHHoI{ JILIHTBUCTI{Ke Ha3bIBaIOTCt
HHTe.rrbHbrMr,I (onucarenrHblMll, pacupocrpaHl'ITenrruuu)>, a n
UTAJTbf,HCKOM TEKCTE
cxofi <relative esplicative (descrittive)> [10; l3]. Cp.:
(
Y6nfiqa ... nor€p ceAble BVcKI{, n L'assassino...si sfofind le
che diventarono nere.
@ cranu vepHuun (Arynun).
Bor s BKrroqzuo ABopHIIKLI, rr oHlr Quindi aziono il tergicristallo,
123
nbrJrb
c no6oBoro creKJra tolgono la polvere dalparabtezza'
BTyIIEHKO)
BHracrraea{ u3 KapMaHa nl{croK
cavando di tasca un foglio [email protected]
gli
tese
- Anctre a dieci anni, quando [tu]
eri - Aa:*e B Aecflrb ler, rorga [ru]
(Tabucchi).
6ynaaru4 rporsruBas eMy'
giri dal ffeno fu erqe coBceM uannrurofi
g[g saltavi -mia
madre rpblran Ha xory c noesAa?
esclamd
corsa?
un monello
in
(Vittorini).
BocKnvKHYJra Marb'
(Pontissia).
no4noxr<Y O'
4'
ib,rcd dalla nebbia un ffam, ghg Llg ryMaHa noKa3attctt rpaMlnair, 4
Carabba si affrettd a prendere Kapa66a nocnemur BcKorIlITb Ha
Yxe orMerlaIlocb [14:l 10], qro
cJIo)KHoe rlpeAno]KeHve c
-u3SSCHVTerbHbrM npr4IaroqHblM, rAe coAep)KaHI4eM
cBt3u flBrsercr peSepeHqrralrbHoe roxAesrBo, Molmer
6rrrr rpancsoprr,rrponano
r
B ABa orAenbHo yrBepxAaeMble npeAnoll(eHl4'I'
BeccorcsHas utftr coqr{Hr4TeJrbHzur KOHCTpyKTIpIJI B pyccKoM TSKC'I.e
nosBoJnler paccMarpr'rBarb P2 KaK caMocrotrenbHylo curyaqruo'
cBt3aHrryrc c Pl ornorueElvllMvt' cJreAcrBrrl> TorAa KaK B uralbtHcKoM
TeKCTe [pu IIOB9pXHOCTHOM IIOATIIIH9HIII/I C IIOMOITIbIO OTIIOCUTOnbHOTO
KoAr4pyeTct
, MecTorrMeHrrs che ustu ero naAeNCHbIx Bapr{aHToB cneAcrBue
rax csoficTBo o6rerra. cp. verupe r{TaJrbrHcKI{x [epeBoAa, MeH'IctuII4x
opuruHaJlbHylo crpyrrypy pyccxofi {paru fipkr $opuanurofi
roqnoro Bocrrpol{3Be4euvs"'
3ia rfiucrrr nopa3llna Aonropa,4 oH p:BBecelrvurc ' (Ilepuonron)'
gfu si rassereno
euesto pensieio (questa riflessione) colpi il dottore
(1) (2)
O"tt" mia idea colpi il dottore, ghg subito si rallegro (3)'
piri allegro (4)'
duesto pensiero co$i il dottore, [email protected] si fece
3. orrpegeneuHbro pa3nr4rrrrr na6rno4arorcfl vr trpu BbIpa)KeHI/IIlI
3a ApyroM
BpeMeHHbD( ornomennft, KorAa peqb ltAer o cneAyloqnx Apyr
(3TaIIbI]) B
nOcneAOBaTeJIbHbIe
CO6ofi
[peACTaBJUrrOqLD(
CO6rrrraCx,
rITo
ptt3Bvrrnrta aetrtcrsus, qacro B3ar4MoucKrloqarcque, B ToM cMbIcJIe'
Aoflrrycrl,IMocrr.r ed
HacryrrneHue cneAjfioqero 3TaIIa fipeArronaraer [peKpalqeHlae
npeAblryIqero. B pyccnoM TeKcre raKoro poAa orHoltreHv'I, KaK npaBlrno'
n
BbrpDKaroTcr oAHopoArrbrMr,r cKa3yeMhrMH c corIHHI,ITeJIbnofi crx3rro,
rro
MeHbllrtlfl'
TeKcre
6eccorogne HexapaxTepHo. B IrrtlJIbfHcKoM
CeMaHTI{rIecKzu (HafpyxeHHocrb)
cpaBHeHI,ilO C pyccKHM L
coqHHuTelbHoro colo3a 9, AeJILaeT elo IlpucyTcT4l{e HeAocTaToIIHbIM'
(cr{JrbHoM)) noKa3aTeJle rpeuennofi
AlrrCTyeT neo6xoAuuocTb B 6onee
124
uxrl [epeBoAoB nogo6Hofi KoHcrpyKrlr{r{ Ha
rax4rrfi prs Koropbrx Her{3MeHHo BKrloqaer Hapeque
nocneAoBareJrbHocrr{. Cp.
rztanr.ancxufi,
BpeMeHrr:
- OH uouonqan 4 rpoAoJDxan (Ey:rrarcon).
Tacque, pj riprese... (1) Tacque, C Ei continud (2) lq!_tacque un
attimo e continuo (3) Tacque g pjriprese (4) Tacque, E! continud
(5)
B
pyccnorr,r reKcre noAo6Hoe AonoJrHrrre;rbHoe yKa3aHr.re Ha Bper{eHnyro
rrocngAoBareJrbHocrb Bcrperraercr 3Haqr4TerbHo pexe [cu. I 5].
4 l4rannsnctait u pyccrrzfi r3brKz r{Meror pa3Hbre rrpt4opvrerHbre
cnoco6rr KoAlrpoBztHrrs raKcucHoro 3HarreHur, Koropoe Mo)KHo Ha3BaTb
(floBoporoM B rroBecrBoBaHwvt>. Bu4elr,nr ABa xapaKTepHbrx cnyqa,a.
4.a. Curya4tx P2 ana$opuvecKlr orcbrJraer K crirryatpm Pl, tu6o
pzBBprBzurcb c nefi napalneJrbHo> na6o Aocrrar:ur cBoero upeAena u, B cBoro
oqepeAb, Bbrcryrr,u Sonou Arrq AanrHefiruero pa3BeprbrBanzir rercra. Cp. :
(Van Teller) fece una str'idula (Ban
Terllrep) paspa3ulce
risatq da comacchia. Intanto mi rtpousvneJrbHbrM,
KapK:IIOUILIM
ero seduto al suo fianco (Buz- cuexou.
(A6saq) O Acen psAora.
zatl).
Apro gli occhi e intanto lei mi -fl orxpuraro rJra3a, Q varr qro-To
parla e mi scuote con violenza o6brcHrer MHe u sacroirtuBo Merur
(D'Agata).
pacraJrfl.rBaer.
Orxpunaro rJra3a - xrasofi. { Apro gli occhi - sono ancora vivo.
oAnH ropoAnrnfi une roBopnr... Intanto un folle in Cristo mi dice...
(Arynr.rn)
"Koro rrr, 6pareq, zrqerur?" - "Chi cerchi, amico?" "Tel" rispose il
"Te6.s!" - omaeval KztsaK, ydapue cosacco colpendolo con la sciabola
ero ruurrtrKofi t. ] Q lna K.BaKa [...] Intanto erano sopraggiunti i
scmpemu&uue MeHrr vl due cosacchi, che mi dvevano
credueu.tue 3a y6uirgefi, incontrato mentre inseguivano
l'assassino: sollevarono il ferito. ..
..
(Jlepruonron).
B uranr.sncKoM TeKcre [pucyrcrBygT cnerlu:urbHbrft uapr<ep intanto,
xoropufi B cocraBe 6eccorosHofi ru6o coq[HrrreJrbHofi roHcrpyKrlm
nod ocnenu, rroAHrrJru paHeHoro.
flBT'ETC'I BA}I(HbIM 3JICMEHTOM KOTC3IIIJ TeKcra. B pyccKoM TeKcro
cfreqlraJrbHbrg IIoKEl3aTeJrI1I cBtr3H rralqe oTcyTcTB''roT, vHorAa B poml
SKBVBaJreHTa BbroTyflaer Coro3 4.
t25
Bropoft cuoco6 pagBLrrua reKcra npeAcraBneH <nnegannofr
AByx crrryaqr.rfi, nor4a P2 nosruraer na Sone Pl, npepunax e6.
Stava gid per rispondermi
voltato verso
il
ggglq si On xorerl 6uno olservrs,
finesffino:.. o6epnyrcx K oKrry...
W,gW
(Pazzi).
Che lunga notte. Drogo aveva gid Kaxa.a Aonfas no.m! Os ylKe
perso la speranza che potesse mai norsprn HaAex.q/, qro oHa KorAa0erminare quando il cielo comincid nu6ygr Korrrrrrcr, 4 ne6o gpII
Harrtulo 6neAnerr...
a impallidire ... (Buzzati).
gaOrrn
g
MbI Mi ero quasi scordato di mio padre,
oTIIa, E
f, edea xe
quando all'improwiso ci fu un
cBrAe Jlr{cb (Haru6rcI).
inconfro...
Illecrznarrrfi co6rapalcr 6rrno Seidita gli stava per chiedere ancora
cnpocrrrb rrro-To eu€- no pgBltr qualcosa, ouando invece fece un
MaxHyn pyrofi v orrxrb 3apeBex gesto con la mano e scoppio di
nuovo
(flenenun).
a piangere,
B
lrraJlbflHcKoM TeKcre npeo6JlaAaer upI'IAaTorIHoe npeAJIo)KeHLre
BpeMeHil c colo3oM quando, ToI'Aa KaK B pyccltoM I'Icnonrsyercfl
coqfiHlrrerbuar (vacro - flporl,IBl,Irenrnax) KoHcrpyKrII'It c peqeBblM
oJroBoM edpye. fparuuaruvecKilI [prpoAa gKcuJMIIurHbIx KoAl'rpyrcqtlx
gJreMerfroB B KoHcrpyKIII,If,x He3aBncI,IMoro TaKcllca uPeAoTaBnserct
uecrry.lafinofi. Anaoopuuecxoe Hapeqile intanto 6rHsxo
uogvnHnrenurblM coro3aM (cp. noJmoIIeHHbIft coros intanto che), r.e.
K
r
crpoeBbrM, cI4HTarMarI,rqecKHM 3JreMerrraM perlPr, TorAa xarc edpyz - cKopee, qacrfiqa (cp. A edpye ...2), pe'renoe cJIoBo, opilerrrldpoBaHHoe Ha
pa3pbrB floBecrBoBarernuofi TKaHu. Bu6op $opua:rlrrux SJreMgHToB, B
cBoro orrgpeAb, oKtt3blBaer EJIrrrIHI,Ie Ha BocrrpltfiTue reKcra. Yxpennxa
(cnnoqeHHocrb cglrraKcl,r:IecKoro pffA4;> B Sopuanrnov orHotueHl4n, o6a
r{TaJIrTHCKI'D( CBI3yIOUII,D( CJIOBa,
n
u colo3 quando,
B
P2 onpoAenenmrfr
Hapequg intanto,
BbrroJrrurroT tbyffiq*o BrcffoqeHrrr curryar+4Lr
npeuemrOfi KOIITLIIIJryM v TeM CaMbIM Ha ypOBHe CMbICJIa n raxOi-rO uepe
yKa3brBaror Ha npeAcKa3yeMocrb cvr-tyawv. Hauporzr, qacrorHbre B
pyccKoM TeKcre (napray c 6eccorogneu) coloa 4I{ crloBo edpye nepelato't
r.rAero (HenpeAcKa3yeMocrl,I MI{pD [cnr. no4po6nee 16].
5. To, qro ru[oraKcrlcy B I{TaJIbtHcKoM TeKcre rlacro coorBercrByer
rlapaTaKcl{c B pyccKoM, cBIIAeTeJIbcTByeT vI a11aJ;;.4g ornorueurafi
O6yCnOUeuuOcTI,I, npexAe BCerO npru[,IHHO-CneAcTBeHHbIx I,I IIeJIeBbIx.
IIp" BbIpoKeHI,IH cneAcrBut B pyccKoM TeKcre rlalqe nu6rapaercx
corrrrHeHrire,
a rpu rpruuH''x
t;':-""r-x -
6eccorosue, nocKoJrbrg/
U MOxeT KOAIIpOBaTr TOJIrKO OTHOItreHI{f,
flpn o6rc4wnegxilAByx [oIilITI'Ift - rplFIt4HbI It
He
npmHHbI.
a
cJreACTBwr,
3aBucHMOCTb, IIpH KOTOpOfi O6a rrglwrrpIs'
HOBaiI
Bo3HIIKaeT
CJT9ACTBn T TeprroT B o6b9Me ceMarrTruecKofi caMocTorTeJrbHocTr{. Xaparrep
gABvrCVrMOCTkt OnpeAenteT, KaKOe I{3 nOHTIII4II IIOABepraeTCt
Coru4HllTelrblslfi COrc3
gyllpAllreruryrz.s r,r yCTaHaBIIBaA' Tllrurrrryro Anfl AaHHOfi 3aBI'IclIMoCTt4
rpu
6rlrl
MyrilrK
coo6uleHu.s Moryr HaxoAlcrbcf, wM
rrpLi'qlwila
nprueM
B
-Pa3Hor{Y. B
B oolryce
(Q), zirr'I cne.qcrBl'Ie (P). IIpu
nopsAKe
cwryawflr
IIopr/qre
HEVKOHI{II
pyccKoro reKcra xapaKTepgH nepBbrft Twrr Bep6anLl3al{nfi, Ans'
Lrriurbfl HcKofo
-
BTOpOfi
:
Ogni volta che muove un braccio
o Ha
HeM xoffrloBblft KocrIoM, 4
una gamba si sente un fruscio, :l/.arepvfr ltrypllllrr
Dercho indossa un vestito di .qprureruru.
fustagno (Camon).
Cy4a no BceMy, oH npoltsBen Ha
HgC BNEIIATIEH.LIE, II OHA OKil}AJIA,
qro nPnAer 3a
cHIIMKaMI'I...
rpu
Kalr{AoM
Doveva averla proprio
colpita
sarebbe
subito
che
oerch6 lei disse
tornata a ritirarle ...
lI4cxau,uep).
BIIAIIIMo, Una volta Arturo dovette perdere la
f:accia, oerch6 non si senti Piit.
g 3aMoman (Kararon).
uruo, rr oHo Mo4poe, lMl1gl
ti
3ro
certamente
e
tu
Questo d sapone,
IITO MbIN
g
TbI
TOJIbKO
d
il
saPone
lavi le mani spesso,
PYKLI,
O4un pa3 Apryp,
oKoJroJlct
ancora bagnato (Tabucchi).
6. IIpu HawlrwuAByx He coBr4A:lrcrryD( Bo BpeMeHu cwryarydr P Q,
"
KoHTpoJ[rpyeurrx ArencoM, cPnyarryIt Q uoxer 6rrrr npe4craBneHa
peamnuft ItJrH KaK floreHl+{llJlbruft pesyrnrar clrryal4al P.
perreBar crparerl{t, cKopee, xapal(repHa AJIf, pyccKoro reKcra, BToptuI
AJr.rr r,rTaJlbfl HCKO|
Apri I'uscio g
O
:
dare un occhiata
anche sulla strada,
e
nessuno!
Haxoseq orKpbln
IlolntAen
Ha yJIId{y
-
craBHIo
To}r(s HlIKofo.
(Collodi)
La serva mi accompagnd ogni volta Cnyncama [poBoAr4Jra Merrrl
127
in cucina g
di fave cotte
offrirmi una scodella ryxruo
(Silone).
r
upeAnoxs4rra MHe raperrKy
napenrrx 6o6on.
arule. 3areu
6yuana. A
rpyAa.,.
amento e poi
o di fogli. per
di
grande
Tpz c uonoerrHofi HeAenr{ x 6wt s sono stato tre settimante e mezzo a
flpare, Q sar*w,alcr apxrrBaMrr ... Praga g esaminare certi archivi ...
(Tparlonon).
I{enenar o6ycnoarennocru B rrraJrbrHcKoM TeKcre rrpeArronaraer
ILINOTETI{IIHOCTb CWryATJtrILI, TTAUEqEI*rOfi K
OCYqECTBJIEHHIO,
npe4{KaTr.rBnnfi qeHrp flpHAaroqHofi qacrn npeAcraBneH zn$unuruaona,
znfroprvraqux o roM, AocTnrHyr JrH )r(eJraeMbrfi pesymrar, H3BJIeKaerCr H3
B pyCCrou reKcre npu nu6ope ornorueHr,rft cne4onanzx o6e
rrpono3nrluu LrMeK)T acoepraBr{brit crtryc, rrpH 3ToM ycrpauxercr (unu
BbrplDKaercr JreKcrfrrgcKH) urrrenquoHaJrbHarr cocTaBn rroula.rr KaK IIpr{3HaK
cy 6rercra upono3r.[+il.r.
KOHToKCTa.
HeroroDrre nrrso.(u
tr4rax, n KaXAoM
ABlx paccMorpeHHhrx r3brKoB flpu uepeAarre oAHoro
fipnopurerHrre crparerulr u7],
paBHoqeHHhre gneMeHrbr cMbrcJra noryrraror panHoe Sopuanrnoe
BbrptDKeHne. B LrralbrHcKoM TeKcre upeo6nagaeT rlrrroraKcuc, ero
v roro
r,r3
)Ke coAepxaxnx 4eftcrn5nor pa3rrbre
3JreMeIrTbI IaepapxFlecKa opraH[:]oBaIIbI, TorAa KaK B pyccKoM TeKcTe oHr,I
qarqe r{Meror paaHonpanrrrfi cruryc, np€AuorrreHue orAaerc.tr
rraparaKcucy. flpe4cranilfleTcfl, rrro HecoBnaAennfl, B peqeBoM y3yce
LrrarbrrHcKoro u pyccKoro r3brKoB, na nepnrrfi BTJUTA npeAcraBneHHbre
BHerrrHg pa3p€HeHHbruyt sn;rerrssMrr,
Hg TTBJUIK)TcI cnyuafinuuz. IrIx
r<onrnlexcnrrfi aHarr[3 MoxeT crry]orTb ocnonofi Nffi cTpyrffypHoTr,rrroJrornqecxofi xaparrepvrcrprr<n KaxAoro r3brKa, KoTopyrc cocraBJu{ror
(prAbr B3arrMHo o6ycnouernrrx sarcron JreKcEKr,r a fpaMv^arvrnvr,
ycraHaBJrrrBaeMbrx [yr€M conocTaBJreHHrr.rr3brKoB) [l8:160]. Brr.ssreHHbre
o 4annofi paoore oco6ennocrr nocrpoeHn r pyccKoro r{ r.rrrurbf,HcKoro
TeKCTOB OpraHruHO Brrr.rCblBarcTcr B npeAcraBJreHHe O6 rrranlxncxotr
fl3blKe KaK o t3blKe (aHaJlnrLrqecKoro) TLIna, rAe Jlorr{Ko-cllHTaKcrrqecKr{e
cBt3LI MeXAy npe/qno)[email protected],rrrMu gKcnnm+rTHbr tr BbrpiDKilroTcr npex(Ae
Bcero c noMorrlbro corogoB r{ KoHHeKropoB coro3Horo rlrrra. C 4pyroii
croponbr, pyccxzfi - fl3brx npeuMyulecrBeHHo (cr,rHTerrcrecKoro) Tr,rra,
rpaMMaTr.rrrgcKtur clrcTeMa KoToporo Ao[ycKitoT Bo3MO)KHOCTb nporycKa
b.
cJroB, orrrlrtluat"" ,*.on*a*r]t*t"xapaKrepoM cBq3u Mex.ry qacrtMH TeKcTa.
pzAa cMbIcJIoB
r{
HetBHbIM
Sr,r6nnorpaSu qecxlf, cnrrool(
l. farc B.f ..flsbmonbre npeobparooarurr. M.: -fsrrrur pyccltofi rynrrypu, 1998.
2, Kponoe C.,4. Herotopble oco6eHgocrl{ nl4HJBl'rcrl4qecroil rorulerqrat B.f. fara
ll fzwr u AeftcrurreirbHocrb: C6opmuc HayqIrbIX TYAon lr€lMgrrl B.f. fana. M.:
nEAHM, 2007. c.27-4r.
3. Coseriu E. Sistema, nolrna e <<parola> // Studi linguistici in onore di V. Pisani.
Brescia,1969.
4.
5.
6.
Sl+ytte,
G., Korzen, 1., Polito, P. e Snudsholm, E. (a cura di). Skutturazione
testuale in italiano e in danese. Risultati di un'indagine comparativa. Copenhagen:
Museum Tusculanum Press, 1999.
"L'Italia dal vivo". London: BBC Books, 1989.
I.Iopdaxcxaa JI. Memuyx LI.A. Cru.stcn Il coqeTaeMocTb B cJloBape. M.: -flsrrxu
cnaBtHcKlrtx xy
mryP,
20O7
.
7. foeopyxo P.A. flpaeuna [epellMeHoB
pyccKoM ur yrraJrbrncKoM t3brKax.
ravlfl.
oAHoro I1 roro
// flpo6nerrrrr
xe
peQepenra
tnulJlbfiHrrcrl4Klr.
r
Brrrrycr l,
-fsr,rKogHaHue. M. : PITY, 2OO5, c. 7 -22.
8. GovoruchoR. Il primo attante in russo e in italiano: aspetti sintattici e pragmatici,
// Il verbo italiano. studi diacronici, sincronici, contrastivi, didattici (Atti del
XXXV Congresso Intemazionale di Studi della SL|, a cura di M, Giacomo-
Marcellesi e A. Rocchetti. Roma: Bulzoni, 2OO3. p. 417-428.
9. foaopyco P"4, Srcnnnrprrnocrb Mo,ryca r4)ono3ululonanrnofi ycranonrr
rrralbtlrcKoM rrure. // Bonpocbl $rlfiofiorlul Ng 2; M., 2OO6 c' 24-32'
a
l}.serianni L Grammatica italiana. Torino: UTET, 1988.
7l.farc B. 1- CpannureJlbHat rufloJlorrx QparuSrccKoro E pyccKoro ssr'ffos. JI.:
flpocneqenae, 1 977.
T2.Govorukho R. Sintassi e pragmatica nella coesione testuale in italiano e in russo //
Studi di grammatica italiana. Firenze: Accademia della Crusca, 2001. p.53-67
1
l3.Pyccrar rpaMMarLIKa. M.: Hayra, 1980.
74.Quine W. O.Word and object. Cambridge, Mass., 1960.
75 foaopyco P.A. He:,ar.uclfllrbn? TaKcuc B lrraJlbtHcKoM rI pyccKoM t3blKax I{
6neurr peqeBoro ysyca ll Bonpocu Qranonorwr Nl 6 (Cneq. nurrycr), M.,
r.2.
c.37-48.
76.loeop1nco
qrd
Pr4. Heroropbre rrrrrbr rl'ttlJrbtncrlD( ,I pyccKID(
r.r upo6neMa cBf,3Hocrtr reKcra. // Becrruu<
MfY
BpeMeHHbD(
Cep. 9. Orlnolorul,
Ne 5 (n uev.)
lT.Eepzentcott M.8., Ku6pux A.E. flpawnrvtecrru)t nplnr4m npnopr{rera u ero
ll Mo4enraponanue sgbrxosofi Ae.fiTeJrBnocrr! B
TelneKryaJrbrrbrx crrcreMax. M.: Hayra, 1987. c.52-62.
lS.Anucoea T.B. Osepxu cmrraKcuca coBpeMeEHoro IrraJlbfiHcKoro t3brKa.
pax(eHue B rpaMMarlrKe xsnn<a.
Mfv.1971.
Scarica

oKoHqaHn r $"rr"ra (r cJryqae c $parnrerrrou) uIIrvI BblparKeHze