New Helicopter Contract
The naming of the new helicopter in Harwich
Colourwash Floodlighting
Tower Hill, London EC3N 4DH
Tel: 020 7481 6900 Fax: 020 7480 7662
The results of a recent trial project held at Lowestoft Lighthouse
US Coast Guard Office
Established since 1790, the US Coast Guard has safeguarded its nation’s
maritime interests in the heartland, in the ports, and at sea.
Issue 16 Summer 2011
The Corporation of Trinity House
editor’s note
Master – Her Royal Highness The Princess Royal KG KT GCVO
We hope you enjoy this issue of HORIZON.
Corporate Board
For updates between issues please visit
our website www.trinityhouse.co.uk
Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert KCVO CB FRIN
(Deputy Master)
We warmly welcome any feedback or
contributions you would care to make.
Please send these to me
by 30 September 2011.
Captain Duncan Glass OBE (Rental Warden)
Captain Nigel Pryke MCIT FNI (Nether Warden)
Simon Sherrard
Vikki Gilson, Editor
Trinity House,
Tower Hill,
London, EC3N 4DH
The Rt Hon The Viscount Cobham
Commodore David Squire CBE FNI FCMI RFA
Captain Richard Woodman FRHistS FNI
Tel: 020 7481 6960
Fax: 020 7480 7662
Commodore Jim Scorer RN
E-mail: [email protected]
Captain Roger Barker
Captain Ian McNaught
Commander Graham Hockley RN
Lighthouse Board
Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert KCVO CB FRIN
(Executive Chairman)
When you have finished with this magazine,
please pass it on or recycle it.
Printed on Greencoat Velvet, a Carbon Balanced
Paper – where the carbon intensity has been
measured through the production process and
an equivalent carbon credit (offset) has been
purchased, made from 80% recovered fibre,
diverting waste from landfill, contains material
sourced from responsibly managed forests together
with recycled fibre, certified in accordance with
the FSC, manufactured to ISO 14001 and EMAS
(Eco-Management & Audit Scheme) international
standards, minimising negative impacts on the
Commodore Jim Scorer RN
Captain Roger Barker
Jerry Wedge
Captain Nigel Pryke MCIT FNI
Chris Bourne
Max Gladwyn
Dawn Johnson
PEFC /16-33-405
Jon Price
Introduction by the Executive Chairman ...................................
A review of the last six months ...............................................
Engineering Briefing ..............................................................
New Helicopter Contract ......................................................
e-Navigation & Space Weather ...............................................
ASTO ................................................................................
Portfolio – Trwyn Du .............................................................
US Coast Guard Office of Navigation Systems ............................
Trinity House Charitable Activities ............................................
Lighthouse Finance ...............................................................
Around the Organisations .....................................................
Around the Service ..............................................................
Michael Sturley – www.sturleydesign.com
Trident Printing – www.tridentprinting.co.uk
Sir Jeremy de Halpert
We acknowledge the assistance of the
many individuals and organisations who
have kindly provided images for this
Particular thanks are due to:
Northern Lighthouse Board
© Mark Dalton
THV Galatea
12-13 Seamen’s Families’ Society
16-19 © US Coast Guard
© James Reid
© RNLI / Nigel Millard
© Red Funnel Group
© Getty Images.
COVER IMAGE: Situated near the north west tip of Wales, the tiny islet
known as South Stack Rock lies separated from Holyhead Island by 30
metres of turbulent sea, surging to and fro in continuous motion.The coastline from the breakwater and around the south western shore is made of
large granite cliffs rising sheer from the sea to 60 metres. South Stack Lighthouse was first envisaged in 1665 when a petition for a patent to erect the
lighthouse was presented to Charles II.The patent was not granted and it was
not until 9th February 1809 that the first light appeared to mark the rock.
ast year HRH The Duke of Edinburgh announced he did not wish to stand for
re-election this year, after 42 years as Master. He has presided over a period of
massive change in Trinity House and has clearly guided our path for the 21st
century. At a special Court in January it was proposed that HRH The Princess Royal
should be nominated to stand for election as Master and she was elected in May.
She is no stranger to our work and has taken a keen interest in all our activities. At
Trinity House we continue to implement the Atkins Report’s recommendations
under the direction of the Joint Strategic Board, chaired by Chris Bourne, a nonExecutive Director of Trinity House.This Board takes an independent and impartial
view of the issues and reports to the Minister on its achievements. As part of a
continuing review of assets and operations the Shipping Minister has given approval
to a recommendation thatTHV Patricia remains in commission until around 2020,
thus ensuring we have the fleet size to meet our tasks. With regard to
radionavigation the eLoran Project will continue to Initial Operational Capability in
2013. These are two good results for Trinity House and indicate our proud record
of reducing costs, embracing technology, and making savings for the shipowner,
whilst ensuring the safety needs of the mariner.
In the financial year to March 2011 theTrinity House
Charities spent over £3 million in furtherance of
their objectives. Of this in the region of £1.3 million
was by way of grants to other maritime charities. At
the end of April the Trinity House Maritime Charity
announced that it had approved a very substantial
grant of £2.1 million to the Nautilus Welfare Fund to
support the latest phase to develop accommodation
and welfare facilities at its 15-acre Mariners’ Park
Estate at Wallasey.
This important charity support, described in the
next three paragraphs, allows us to deliver a very high
level of corporate social responsibility in support of
our operational tasks in navigation safety. In our
support of marine welfare we operate almshouses
at Walmer in Kent and provide for a number of
annuitants. Direct support is made through
occasional one-off grants to former seafarers and
their dependants and substantial major grants are
made to a number of welfare charities operating in
the maritime sector.
In support of youth training the Corporation
supports four major charities engaged in the
provision of such activities: The Marine Society and
Sea Cadets,Tall ShipsYouth Trust, Jubilee Sailing Trust
and the Scout Association. For those who seek to
pursue careers in sail training, the Corporation funds
career development bursaries awarded by the
Association of Sea Training Organisations (ASTO) to
enable candidates to obtain formal qualifications. In
addition the Corporation provides regular grants in
support of the Sea Cadets and the water-based
activities of the Scouts Association.
Education and training in navigation, seamanship
and marine engineering is mainly provided through
the Corporation’s Merchant Navy Scholarship
Scheme. Through this young people training to
become officers in the Merchant Navy are supported
by bursaries during their academic courses and seagoing training. Additionally, we operate the
ProfessionalYachtsman Bursary Scheme to encourage
the training of officers for the large yacht industry and
here funding is provided for candidates undertaking
courses at two recognised establishments.
Towards the end of 2010 we conducted a staff
survey.There had been a similar exercise four years
ago which produced some excellent results.
Happily, the outcome of the latest study was even
better than the previous one, despite the fact we
find ourselves operating in a more difficult political
and economic climate than before. Of our staff
87% of respondents indicated that they are fairly
satisfied or very satisfied in their roles with a similar
percentage satisfied with Trinity House as an
employer. Clearly, the vast majority of our staff are
committed to the organisation.
On that good note, towards the end of the year I
will hand over a sound ship to Captain Ian McNaught
who succeeds me as Chief Executive. It has been an
enormous privilege to serve in that post and I look
back on the challenges we have encountered and the
great successes we have achieved together. The
valuable support of the staff of Trinity House has
enabled me to perform with confidence during my
years with this great organisation.
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 1
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a review of the last six months at TRINITY HOUSE
Debbie & Mark who were married at Nash Point in April 2011.
Shortly before the end of 2010 we reported that
Nash Point had been central to the wedding plans
of 50 couples over the past six years. The venue,
which has held a wedding licence since 2004, is, of
course, a fully operational lighthouse. Said Chris
Williams, Attendant at the station, “We really have
seen everything here. Aside from the restrictions of
the venue size, which appeals to the many couples
not wanting a large impersonal event, it really is
anything goes. We have had brides and grooms in
formal wedding attire and others turn up in wellies
and cycling gear.”
At the January Court Captain Ian McNaught was
appointed Deputy Master of the Corporation of
Trinity House and Executive Chairman of the Lighthouse Authority. He succeeds Rear-Admiral Sir
Jeremy de Halpert who will stand down towards
the end of this year. Captain McNaught has 40 years’
maritime experience and is presently serving as Master
with Seabourn Cruises. He has been an employee of
Cunard since 1987 when he joined Queen Elizabeth
2 as a Second Officer. He rapidly rose through the
ranks and was Master of the luxury cruise ship Sea
Goddess 1, and more recently held Command of QE2
until she was paid off in 2008. Captain McNaught
will join Trinity House in September 2011.
There were great celebrations
in Scotland to celebrate
the 200th anniversary of
the commissioning of
Bell Rock lighthouse on
1st February. Situated 12
miles off Arbroath marking the treacherous
Inchcape Rock it is directly
on the route for vessels
entering the Firths of both
Forth and Tay. Designed and
built by John Rennie and
Robert Stevenson,
construction began in
1807. The station was
automated in 1988.
At the Lizard Lighthouse Heritage Centre a Talking
Portrait will regale audiences with stories of what it
was like to live and work in a lighthouse.This is a living
contribution to a fascinating story that has particular
connotations for Cornwall with its rugged coast and
myriad offshore rocks and hazards. Here there are
shown vivid images of how lighthouse keepers and
their families lived at remote locations. Very young
visitors can even build their own lighthouse. There is
something for all ages to appreciate as well as the
opportunity to climb the lighthouse tower. The
Lighthouse and Heritage Centre are open throughout
the year. School, educational and other groups can be
entertained and special rates may apply. A new
temporary exhibition, The Lighthouse at the Bottom of
the Road will continue throughout 2011.
Captain Nigel Pryke, Nether Warden, presided on
12th April when HRH The Princess Royal opened a
new garden at Felixstowe Seafarers’ Centre. Trustees
are the Sailors’ Society with the Mission to Seafarers
and Apostleship of the Sea. Here are provided rest,
recreation, entertainment and spiritual guidance for
seafarers in Felixstowe and the other Haven Ports of
Harwich and Ipswich. The centre provides the usual
amenities found in a social club together with a small
shop selling toiletries and other personal items. A
bank of fixed telephones, cordless phones and an
internet cafe with webcams allows seafarers to keep
in contact with their families.Additionally the centre
operates a minibus which for safety and security
reasons transports seafarers from their ships to and
from the centre.Three chaplains are also based here.
the end of 2010 Trinity House conducted a
staff survey and it was pleasing to note that the
In a ceremony on 5th January the new Trinity House
contract helicopter was officially named Satellite on
the helideck of Galatea at Harwich. In the ship were
members of the new helicopter operator Police
Aviation Services and members of the Trinity House
operations team. (See pages 8 and 9).
PAGE 2 horizon SUMMER 2011
The General Lighthouse
Authorities of the UK
and Ireland (GLAs) of
which Trinity House is
one, announced in
mid-March that they fully support the findings of
the Royal Academy of Engineering’s paper on the
dangers of heavy dependency on GPS, discussed by
Professor Martyn Thomas at the 2011 GNSS
Interference, Detection and Monitoring Conference.
Trials have demonstrated that on the jamming of
GPS information is still provided and delivers
erroneous data, some of which can be hazardously
misleading. To mitigate over-reliance on GPS the
GLAs have developed Enhanced Loran (eLoran) as
a complementary system.
results were even better than a previous survey in
2006, despite the fact we find ourselves operating in
a more difficult political and economic climate than
before. The survey was completed by 83%. Results
found that 87% of respondents are fairly satisfied or
very satisfied in their roles, and 88% are satisfied with
Trinity House as an employer.The vast majority (76%)
of Trinity House staff are committed to the organisation and wish to either stay in their current position
or seek advancement opportunities within the
organisation. A large proportion, 84% of staff, said
they are well motivated. Essentially, the survey results
indicated that Trinity House has either improved or
maintained an excellent position in areas such as job
satisfaction, commitment and motivation putting the
company in the top set for most of these themes.
At the Annual Meeting of The Court on 11th May HRH The Princess
Royal was elected Master of the Corporation. Since becoming an Elder
Brother in 2004 the Princess Royal has taken a very keen interest in the
activities of Trinity House, attending many events including presiding
over the opening of the Lizard Lighthouse Heritage Centre. She is also
Patron of the Northern Lighthouse Board and Happisburgh lighthouse.
The Princess Royal succeeds her father, the Duke of Edinburgh, who
was elected an Elder Brother in 1952 and is the Corporation’s longest
serving Master having been elected in 1969. During his 42 years as
Master of the Corporation of Trinity House,The Duke of Edinburgh has
witnessed many changes in the way the organisation operates. In
particular it has been a time of great technological advances and
improved efficiency with the automation of the lighthouses and
lightships and the solarisation of rock stations. There has been the
development of GPS,AIS, electronic charting and e-Loran. On the charity
side the Corporation has become the largest endowed maritime
charity in the UK, regularly distributing over £3million per annum
amongst the UK’s frontline maritime charities.The Duke of Edinburgh will
continue to be involved withTrinity House in his role as an Elder Brother.
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 3
Construction method: The lighthouse is concrete in
construction reinforced with standard steel bars and highstrength steel bars known as post-tensioned tendons
because they are inserted and tightened after the
concrete has been completed. The structure was built in
three sections on the beach at Newhaven.The base and
vertical pillar section were floated into position and sunk
on to a levelled area of the seabed and the upper cabin
section and superstructure were then floated over the
pillar section. The pillar, which was integral to the base,
had an inner telescopic section which was then attached
to the cabin and jacked up 13 metres and locked into
position. The underside of the cabin is well above the
maximum wave height and the navigation light is 28
metres above sea level.The cabin section contained
accommodation for keepers who manned the lighthouse
before automation in 1994. The flat upper deck of the
cabin section provides a helicopter landing platform.The
lighthouse tower, with the control room, fog signal room
and lantern is located at one corner of the main deck with
direct access to the cabin section below.
Hidden problems: In 2008 during a full structural
THV Galatea unloading materials onto the helideck.
oyal Sovereign Lighthouse, completed in 1971, is
unique and instantly recognisable, situated some
seven miles south of Eastbourne. Designed by
William Halcrow and Partners of London and
constructed by Christiani & Nielsen, the structure
is of complex design with reinforced concrete
elements with reliance on a post-tensioned
system which has had a chequered history
since its conception. Structural inspections had
indicated sub-surface corrosion in 2008 and
structural works were undertaken in August
2010 to maintain the integrity of the station
as it enters its fifth decade.
Access and other challenges: Simply providing access
to the area of concern was going to be a challenge. The
initial scaffolding quote estimated that erection would
take eight days. They were persuaded to reduce this
to four days, and in reality it was achieved in six.
Accommodation on the station is good for a rock station,
largely as a result of the additional room that is provided
by the cabin design. However, some mental fortitude was
required to try and forget that the tower that was being
broken out during the day was the only support to the
cabin that was providing the accommodation.There were
several exceedingly light-hearted conversations with the
contractors about “the sort of noise a tendon makes when
it snaps” and where the safest place to go when this
happened might be.
The picture that was responsible for initiating the project
showing the rust staining at the top of the tower.
The top of the tower in close-up.
Investigations: Severely spalled areas were noted to
approximately 80% of the circumference of the tower
sufficient to expose the outer face of the plates that
anchor the tendons into the tower. All concrete
structures suffer spalling to some extent although here
it was more severe than had been anticipated. The join
between the underside of the cabin and the top of the
tower (see images below left) was of greater cause for
concern.The joint had originally been sealed with mortar
but this had been scoured by the elements leaving an
open joint and was of major concern.
Repairs: Action was required to address two problems:
spalling to the concrete cover around the anchor blocks
and the corrosion of the tendons exposed to water ingress.
Spalling had been anticipated and standard mortar patch
repairs would rectify the problem. Protecting the tendons
against corrosion was more difficult to achieve. Eventually
galvanic anodes were positioned and mortared into place
after each tendon had been cleaned back to bare steel
with high-pressure water jetting and protected with a
corrosion inhibiting primer. Once all the anodes were in
place two outer layers of repair mortar were applied.The
join between the tower and the cabin was reformed and
sealed with flexible sealant. The whole area having
applied a cementitious waterproof outer coating to
prevent water ingress in the future.THV Galatea was used
to crane scaffolding, tools and materials onto the station,
a task normally undertaken by helicopter.The tender was
also used to provide accommodation during the initial
investigation phase and THV Alert attended as safety
vessel on the departure of Galatea.
It is estimated that performance of the galvanic
anodes will need to be verified in five years and the life of
the station beyond this time will largely depend on the
condition of the tendons and the amount of zinc
remaining in the anodes.
in mm
Cabin soffit
Cabin tendon
Tower tendon
tendon nut
Tower tendon
washer (not
Tower tendon
anchor plate
Galatea unloading materials onto the helideck seen from
the scaffolding attached to the tower.
Royal Sovereign
PAGE 4 horizon SUMMER 2011
integrity inspection/report by Scott Wilson (Consulting
Engineers) rust staining was noted at the top of the tower
just below the bottom of the cabin, further inspection
took place in March 2010. Photographs from the visit
were analysed by the engineering team and it was
anticipated that spalling to the concrete had caused some
metallic elements to be exposed. However, it was
important to trace the source of the rust staining because
this was the area at which the post-tensioned tendons in
the upper tower terminate. The post-tensioned tendons
are critically important because they not only carry loads
applied to each section of the lighthouse but they also
hold the separate sections of the lighthouse together.This
protects the tendons but makes inspection without
breaking out works impossible. Therefore, if water
penetrates to the tendons they can slowly corrode
unseen within their ducts potentially causing a catastrophic
failure without any outward sign of structural distress. It
was therefore deemed necessary to perform a structural
investigation to determine the condition of the tendons
at Royal Sovereign.As this would require heavy machinery
and access to the full circumference of the tower it was
decided to scaffold the tower.Assuming the tendons were
found to be in manageable condition during the
initial investigation phase it would then be possible to
perform structural repairs during a second phase of the
project.As structural failure would occur during high winds
it was possible to investigate the problem provided there
was a way to leave the station if the weather deteriorated.
However, until the integrity of the tendons could be
verified it was decided not to stay on the station overnight.
Tendon C1 after it has been
exposed and had the corrosion
Anodes placed in position
adjacent to tendon D1 before
being covered with repair mortar.
Tendon sheath
Tower tendon
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 5
Colourwash floodlighting of
he use of modern radionavigation technology has encouraged mariners to
venture into waters not previously navigated and this has consequently increased
requirements for visual aids to navigation.The growth in coastal residential areas has led to
an increase in street lighting and when viewed from the sea it is sometimes difficult to
distinguish the aid to navigation lights against this background illumination.
objectives. Three Pulsar Chromaflood 200(W) RGB LED
Floodlights were positioned 1.5 metres away from the
tower at an angle of 50° to ‘down light’ the lighthouse.
Three more floodlights were positioned three metres
away from the base of the tower at an angle of 45° to
‘up light’ the lighthouse as shown in the figure opposite.
Position of floodlights below the lantern
gallery at Lowestoft Lighthouse.
In other words, the light exhibited by the lighthouse is
nowadays less conspicuous than when the aid to
navigation was originally installed, even though the light
itself has not changed.A method is required of ensuring
that fixed aids to navigation lights can provide a quick
visual confirmation to the mariner against concentrations of high intensity background lighting.One method
of achieving this is to colourwash or floodlight the
existing structure of a fixed aid to navigation at night. In
order to determine the most suitable colours, the most
effective geometry and the intensity required to
floodlight a structure and meet a navigational requirement of a two nautical mile range, a trial was held
at Lowestoft Lighthouse. The results show that the
floodlighting of lighthouses can be effective as a short
range aid to navigation to give the mariner a quick,
recognisable fixed point of reference.
A number of recommendations should be applied
when considering the use of floodlighting. The most
appropriate colour should be chosen to contrast with
PAGE 6 horizon SUMMER 2011
the surroundings and the geometry used to floodlight
the lighthouse should evenly illuminate the area.
Furthermore, the area should subtend a minimum angle
of 3 minutes of arc at the eye of the observer at the
maximum distance of recognition and, finally, a suitable
value of illuminance at the eye of the observer should be
chosen to overcome any adjacent/background lighting.
An initial feasibility study was carried out using floodlight
housings with different coloured BLV 240V 250W (E40)
TOPFLOOD Lamps. Blue, Orange, Green, Magenta and
NearWhite were the colours used.The conclusion of this
study was that colour contrast was the dominant factor;
therefore, in order to evaluate the optimum colours for
floodlighting, more saturated colours would be desirable.
LED floodlights were evaluated in a further trial
where it was confirmed that colour contrast was
indeed the dominant factor. With that in mind, a trial
at Lowestoft lighthouse was designed to meet the
Four experienced observers were used in these
trials and all were asked not to confer until observations
had been made. Exhibited lights were identified by numeric
indicators when presented to the observers in order not
to influence the outcome of expectation. An observation sheet, developed by Trinity House Research &
Radionavigation in conjunction with international best
practice was used to obtain the optimum results from
observations. All observations were made from THV
Alert at a distance of two nautical miles due east of the
lighthouse.A total of 72 observations were made. Floodlights set at quarter power were not acceptable with
orange, yellow and white the worst performers. Red,
green and cyan were the best colours by contrast with
the adjacent street lighting.At half intensity in a second
trial green, cyan and red were observed as instilling the
most confidence as an aid to navigation with cyan being
the most conspicuous and orange, yellow and white
unacceptable.A third trial saw the cyan shown to be the
most conspicuous.
A number of measurements and calculations were
made to attempt to quantify results gained and it was
found that the floodlighting of lighthouses can be
affective as a short range aid to navigation to give the
mariner a quick, recognisable fixed point of reference.
Cyan was regarded as the most recognisable colour,
appeared to be the brightest whilst green and red,
although effective, may be confusing to mariners
because of the lateral significance associated with these
colours. Blue was found not to outline shapes giving a
blurring effect and magenta did not lend itself to floodlighting because of atmospheric scattering. Orange,
yellow and white were not found as suitable colours
for the trial.
Drawing of Lowestoft Lighthouse showing the positions and angles of the floodlighting, down light and up light.
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 7
n a ceremony at Harwich on 5th January the new Trinity House contract
helicopter was officially named Satellite onboard THV Galatea. Members of the
helicopter operator Police Aviation Services (PAS) and senior members of the
Trinity House operations team met to celebrate the start of the new helicopter
contract between the two organisations.This new contract will bring economic
and service efficiencies and will better reflect the modern maintenance and
operational requirements of the Trinity House Lighthouse Service.
Speaking after the ceremony, Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy
de Halpert Executive Chairman of Trinity House,
commented, “It was important to us to be able to
mark the start of the new helicopter contract as it
forms such a vital part of our day to day maintenance
and operation. We took the opportunity of having
the helicopter in Harwich undertaking flight training
and crew familiarisation to do this.”
Earlier in the day Harwich-basedTrinity House staff
had the opportunity to view the helicopter up close,
for many the only time they will ever get to see
her as she will usually be based in the South West in
order to service the many offshore lighthouses in that
area. Police Aviation Services secured the contract for
the provision of helicopter operations for Trinity
House following a competitive tender.
Police Aviation Services Ltd is part of the
Gloucestershire-based Specialist Aviation Services
Group. The company has been providing aircraft,
pilots, maintenance services as well as special
training for public service and other specialist
flying operations for over 25 years. The Group
currently supports a fleet of over thirty police
helicopters and air ambulances both in the UK and
elsewhere around the world.
At the time of writing Satellite, (there have been
three Trinity House vessels bearing the name) was
involved in flight trials around the coast enabling
our staff to appreciate the new machine’s
capabilities and for PAS aircrew to accommodate
our requirements for example afloat with Galatea
and offshore at rock stations.
Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de Halpert with
Henk Schaeken, Managing Director of Police
Aviation Services on the Galatea helideck at Harwich.
Above: The new helicopter operating at Les Casquets lighthouse.
PAGE 8 horizon SUMMER 2011
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 9
DR NICK WARD, GLA Research Director Vice-Chairman of the IALA e-Navigation Committee
What is e-Navigation? e-Navigation is the future concept for maritime
navigation and has been defined by IMO as:‘The harmonised collection,
integration, exchange, presentation and analysis of maritime information onboard
and ashore by electronic means to enhance berth to berth navigation and related
services, for safety and security at sea and protection of the marine environment’.
e-Navigation – an update
Progress in IMO
Initial user requirements were established during
2010 and a ‘gap analysis’ is now underway to
determine what is needed to meet those
requirements, what is already in place and what
needs to be developed.This process is being carried
out through a Correspondence Group (CG) and
Working Groups in the IMO Sub Committees
(NAV1, COMSAR2 and STW3 ), all ably co-ordinated
by the Norwegian Coastal Administration.
Minimum Satellite Availability
Number of Satellites
Other organisations
Several other international organisations are
contributing to the development of e-Navigation.
In particular, IHO4 has the task of ensuring that
adequate coverage of ENCs5 is available to enable
ECDIS6 to be effective. IHO has introduced its
S-100 registry for hydrographic and other geospatial data and offered to facilitate establishment
of data domains by other organisations.
IALA supports the IMO e-Navigation initiative
through its e-Navigation Committee, providing
input to the IMO CG, COMSAR & NAV on user
requirements and the gap analysis - in particular
on communications,VTS7 and positioning-systems.
Resilient communications and position-fixing are
fundamental requirements for the success of eNavigation. Questions to be resolved regarding
communications include the need for global
broadband, how to increase the efficiency of the
VHF maritime mobile band and the future
development of AIS.
accidental and deliberate.
GLA R&RNAV (the Research and Radionavigation
department) have carried out a case study on the
cost benefit of alternative approaches to resilient
PNT8. Four different scenarios were considered: ‘do
minimum’ (no backup); enhanced physical and radar
aids to navigation;‘Hardened’GNSS; and eLoran. It is
generally agreed in IMO that relying on a single
source of position data is not an acceptable way
The case study has shown that eLoran can give a
large positive return over the lifetime of the system,
whereas other options (physical and radar aids to
navigation and GNSS hardening) would give negative
returns. Only eLoran has been demonstrated to
provide security against the vulnerability of GNSS,
thus allowing the full benefits of e-Navigation to be
Benefits of e-Navigation
The benefits that might be expected from eNavigation are: fewer accidents; more efficient use
of resources; reduced damage to the environment
and better auditing of environmental impact.
Efficiency of shipping should be improved by better
access to information and automated reporting,
resulting in reduced waiting times for boarding
pilots, picking up tugs and entering port, better
passage planning and track-keeping.
The development of e-Navigation is at the stage
of analysing the gaps between what is required and
what is available, notably in the areas of
communications and position-fixing. Attention will
then shift to the difficult areas of risk analysis and
cost benefit analysis. The schedule for completion
of an implementation plan is 2012.
he unpredictable effects of space weather events on GNSS availability pose
a distinct threat to maritime navigation. Sun spots and solar flares are
randomly triggered and can bombard the earth with intense periods of
electromagnetic radiation (e.g. x-rays). Huge coronal mass ejections can fire
high-speed protons at the earth. Such effects cause ionospheric scintillation and
propagation delays that can significantly degrade the GNSS signals as they are
transmitted from satellites to the earth’s surface. Hence, space weather has the
potential to affect GNSS availability, either by preventing signal reception or by
affecting the performance of the satellites themselves.
Solar activity is cyclical, peaking at a maximum
approximately every eleven years, with the next
solar maximum predicted to occur during 2013.
The effects on GNSS performance are most severe
at equatorial, auroral and polar latitudes, but even
at the mid-latitude of the UK range-equivalent
GNSS signal delays of typically around two minutes to 15 minutes can occur without warning.The
intensities of solar maxima vary considerably; over
many cycles, solar ‘superstorms’ can occur such as
the ‘Carrington Event’ of 1859 (which induced
huge currents in telegraph systems causing fires)
that would have very severe consequences for
GNSS performance. Solar events capable of
disrupting power transmissions have been recorded
in 1972, 1989 (nine hour power outage in Canada)
and 2003. GNSS operation is very recent on a solar
timescale so experience is limited.
Above, simulation of the effects of reduced GPS constellation.
Committed probability of maintaining 24-satellite constellation
Actual probability of maintaining 24-satellite constellation
Safety of Navigation
Communications Search and Rescue
Standards of Training and Watch-keeping
International Hydrographic Organisation
Electronic Navigation Charts
Electronic Chart Display and Information System
Vessel Traffic Service
Positioning, Navigation & Timing
Editor's Note: In early March the Royal Academy of Engineering published
a report on GNSS Interference, Detection and Monitoring in which it warned
The need for resilient position-fixing has been
expressed by the IMO Maritime Safety Committee:
‘e-Navigation systems should be resilient and take into
account issues of data validity, plausibility and integrity
for the systems to be robust, reliable and dependable.
Probability of maintaining a Constellation of at least 24 GPS
satellites based on a reliability schedule as of March 2009.
of the dangers of heavy dependency on GPS. The General Lighthouse
Requirements for redundancy, particularly in relation
to position fixing systems should be considered.’
GNSS will be the primary method of positionfixing, but GNSS is vulnerable to interference, both
haveconducted GPS jamming trials to investigate and demonstrate the
Authorities fully supported these findings and indicated that they
effects of GPS failure on the maritime industry, which has placed enormous
reliance on GPS for PNT information. Furthermore, the GLAs have
emphasised the need for resilient PNT information and have been working
on Enhanced Loran (eLoran) as a solution.
Risk of disruption
Maritime navigation systems and services that rely
on GNSS are at greatest risk of disruption from the
ionosphere during the period from 2011 to 2015.
The effects vary with latitude, season and time of
day (the hours soon after sunset being most
affected). At worst, the GNSS receiver may not be
able to track the signals from one or more satellites
and its navigation data may be intermittently
unavailable over a period of several days. Such interrupts are rare in the seas around the UK, but
there is the possibility of hazardously misleading
information being produced by the ship’s
navigation system.
The GLAs provide beacon differential GPS
(DGPS) as an aids to navigation (AtoN) service, to
provide GPS augmentation for littoral navigation
and harbour approach. During quiescent periods
of solar activity, DGPS corrections compensate for the effects of the ionosphere such
that the residual errors do not pose a
problem to maritime navigation
performance. However, at the
peak of the solar cycle, with
high levels of sunspot
activity, the differential
corrections may be less
effective and the increase
in position errors may
introduce an integrity
risk to maritime navigation. Even during a
relatively quiet solar
maximum, the occurrence of sun spots
could give rise to
significant effects for
discrete events.
Need for mitigation
The threat of space weather for maritime navigation highlights the need for mitigation of these
effects, internally within the GNSS receiver (e.g. by
enhancement of ionospheric models or novel
algorithms empirically based on field measurements)
and externally using space weather monitoring,
GNSS performance predictions and timely notices
to mariners. Achieving reliable predictions of ionospheric effects over sufficiently long periods remains
a tough challenge even for today’s state-of-the-art
technology of monitoring and forecasting.
The reliance on GNSS throughout ship and shore
systems will grow with the advent of e-Navigation,
integrating GNSS information across applications.
Global maritime activity is increasing, not least in
regions (such as polar) where ionospheric scintillation
effects are greatest. Global warming is predicted to
leave the Arctic ice-free in the summer months by
2030, opening a commercially attractive sea route
where GNSS has increased vulnerability. Maintaining
high global GNSS availability and safeguarding
accuracy and integrity performance for global
maritime operations will be challenging during the
solar maxima of the 21st century.
Polar scintillation, courtesy University of Bath.
Ionospheric scintillation and delay, courtesy University of Bath.
PAGE 10 horizon SUMMER 2011
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 11
Young Sail Trainees
keeping the boat trimmed.
James Stevens, Younger Brother of Trinity House and Chairman of the
Association of Sail Training Organisations explains the thinking behind sail
training and how it is supported by Trinity House.
Lee, aged 15, rejected by his parents and eventually
by his teachers was spiralling into crime. On one of
his rare days at school a behaviour support teacher
arranged for him to spend a week on a sail training
yacht. He was pretty reluctant to go, but turned
up, was allocated oilskins and lifejacket and was put
into a watch system.
It was an inspired decision for Lee. For the first
time in his life he became a valued member of a
team and was awarded the prize for the best crew
member of the week. He now attends school
regularly and has applied to stay on to the sixth form.
Sail, training regularly suffers from publicity
along the lines of “Delinquents sent on Yachting
Holiday”.There is nothing soft about these voyages,
and considering the alternatives they are good
value for money. Experienced skippers know that
the real benefit starts beyond mobile phone range
when the crew realise they all have a vital part to
play in ensuring the safe passage of the yacht.
They also know that for some young people the
experience will have a profound effect on their
lives. The primary intention is to improve social
confidence rather than learn to sail but many
trainees want to learn more and some progress to
Navigation experience.
PAGE 12 horizon SUMMER 2011
Working together to hoist the sails.
RYA qualifications and become skippers.
In the UK the organisations running sail training
are mostly charities that are faced, as any
millionaire will tell you, with huge costs for
maintaining their large yachts and sailing ships.The
money comes from donations and voyage fees and
all have a well organised fund raising system.
Additionally they belong to the Association of Sail
Training Organisations, ASTO, which both represents
them and distributes its own charitable funds.
The 35 member charities of ASTO range from the
Tall Ships Youth Trust and Sea Cadets who own tall
ships, to a Local Authority Sailing Centre on the Isle
of Wight which runs a 32 foot yacht with a skipper
and four trainees. Most members, such as the Ocean
Youth Trusts operate yachts around 70 ft long with
skipper mate and bosun and 12 young people.
The Jubilee Sailing Trust operates two tall ships,
Tenacious and Lord Nelson and specialises in taking
people with disabilities to sea.The ships are specially
adapted for wheelchair users and provide a unique
experience for able bodied and disabled alike.
Building these ships and managing to comply with
the merchant shipping regulations was a significant
Trainees come from all walks of life. Along with
young people from difficult backgrounds supported
by charity or local authority funding, are trainees who
can pay for their voyage are keen to become part of
a varied team and share the adventure. Two of the
UKs sail training fleet are run by Public Schools,
Gordonstoun and Dauntsey’s.
EachYear SailTraining International organises aTall
Ships Race which brings together sail trainers, their
ships and yachts from all over the world to meet,
compete and party with each other.The arrival of the
Tall Ships Race is a big festival for the host port
attracting up to half a million visitors. This year the
Tall Ships race fromWaterford in Ireland to Greenock
arriving there on Saturday 9th July. On 12th July they
set off for a cruise in company to Lerwick in the
Shetland Isles.
This huge international event involves hundreds of
young people of many nationalities, and for organising
it STI was nominated for a Nobel Peace prize.
In the UK Sail Training is subject to a whole raft
of legislation. Following the loss of the British
sailing ship Marques in 1984, the Sail Trainers were
first to come under the MCA Code of Practice for
sailing vessels. ASTO, representing its membership
worked hard with the MCA to ensure these
regulations were appropriate and workable.
Fortunately the MCA, some of whose staff sail on
Tall Ships realise the importance of Sail Training and
ensure that, on the whole common sense prevails.
Part of the ASTO fleet off Cowes preparing for the annual
Small Ships Race.
Even so, the European Directives on crew
accommodation and Working at Heights can
threaten the existence of these fine vessels. Also
important is to ignore safety experts who think
playing conkers is dangerous and would
consequently put a stop to children going aloft.
Until recently the value of sail training was
anecdotal, but in 2007 Edinburgh University
published a study which proved beyond doubt that
taking young people to sea can have enormous
benefits. The researchers interviewed 300 trainees
on a variety of vessels from 13 countries. The
interviews were conducted before and up to six
months after the voyages. The results showed a
measurable improvement in social ability, self
confidence and ability to make friends and
overcome fear. The full report can be seen on
www.sailtraininginternational.org .
Trinity House Bursaries
A vital part of running a sail training vessel is
ensuring the sailing staff is well trained and
qualified. The skippers and mates have to be
exceptional people, capable not only of taking
charge of a large sailing vessel in all weathers
but also ensuring the crew have a challenging
experience without subjecting them to excessive
risk. The young people, like Lee, are not easy to
manage, so controlling the crew can be as hard as
controlling the boat.
Skippers and mates are required by law to hold
RYA Yachtmaster qualifications, or on the large
square rigged ships, MCA masters and mates
certificates.Wages are pretty modest in sail training
so the cost of becoming qualified can be a heavy
burden for sail trainers. The Corporation of Trinity
House, recognising this, provides bursaries to pay
for the courses and exam fees. The scheme is
administered by ASTO who selects suitable
candidates from its membership. A joint Trinity
House/ASTO panel interviews each one, usually at
STS Tenacious.
Trinity House in London, and if successful
subsequent course fees are reimbursed. ASTO also
run a Skippership Scheme to provide structured
training for promising young sail trainers to start
their seagoing career. The scheme is part funded
by ASTO and partly by the Trinity House Bursary.
Each year around £35,000 is distributed this way
and the effect on sail training has been profound.
Many of the senior skippers and former skippers
who are now administering the ASTO charities
have been beneficiaries of Trinity House funding.
One is Lucy Gross manager of ASTO, who received
a grant as a young skipper with the Sea Cadets.
“Working in Sail Training is hard graft but hugely
rewarding. Progressing from small yacht skipper to
working on larger vessels takes a lot of study and
commitment. It involves practical and shorebased
courses the cost of of which was well beyond my
income. I successfully applied for a Trinity House
bursary and completed my training, following which
I was appointed manager of ASTO.”
The rise of superyachting and its large salaries
for skippers has provided an attractive and lucrative
alternative for large yacht skippers involved in sail
training but against the financial odds there is still
a regular stream of high quality people prepared to
undertake the highly demanding and financially
unrewarding job of taking young people to sea.
For more information about ASTO and its
member organisations, and about Sail Training and
the opportunities available for young people,
contact ASTO at [email protected] or look
at our website www.uksailtraining.org
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 13
Kevin Lewis (http://www.photosbykev.com) sent us this fine photograph of Trwyn Du lighthouse made from 2016
separate ten second exposures taken over six hours on the night of the 31st August 2010 and then post-processed
to create the single composited image. The red/green lines on the right of the frame were made by a fishing
vessel that sailed past at about 0100.
We are always happy to receive photographs from readers with a view to creating a regular feature to take up the centrespread in
each edition. We are prepared to feature material from several photographers. If you wish to submit work it will be helpful that
photographs are submitted in JPEG format, scanned at 300 dpi or greater and sent to the editor attached to an e-mail and not
embedded in any text. You will see details of how to contact the editor and the closing date on the inside front cover. Your caption
should be as comprehensive as possible and not exceed 250 words.
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2011 horizon
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PAGE 015
WITH CONTRIBUTIONS FROM: J. Michael Sollosi; Commander Gregory Tlapa; Burt Lahn; George Detweiler and Lieutenant-Commander Anthony Maffia.
Portions of this article have been excerpted from the Spring 2011 edition of The Coast Guard Journal of Safety & Security at Sea: Proceedings of the Marine Safety & Security Council with the permission of the authors.
ince 1790, the United States Coast Guard has safeguarded its nation’s
maritime interests in the heartland, in the ports, at sea, and around the
globe. The USCG protects the maritime economy and the environment, defends
maritime borders, and rescues those in peril. Today’s US Coast Guard, with nearly
42,000 active duty military personnel and 8,000 Federal civilian employees, is
a unique force that carries out an array of civil and military responsibilities
touching almost every facet of the US maritime environment. The Coast Guard’s
motto is Semper Paratus – Always Ready.
By law, the USCG has eleven missions, including
ports, waterways, and coastal security; drug
interdiction; search and rescue; living marine
resources; marine safety; defense readiness;
migrant interdiction; marine environmental
protection; ice operations; other law enforcement;
and the focus of this article, aids to navigation.
At the core of the Marine Transportation
Systems Management Directorate, the Office of
Navigation Systems at US Coast Guard Headquarters
is the custodian of the buoys and lights, maintains
the Navigation Rules, and has responsibility for
policy regarding ships routing measures, limited
access areas, federal anchorages, and navigation
risk assessments. They also own AIS and Electronic
Chart carriage requirements and are the primary
US Government participants in the international
effort to produce an e-Navigation implementation
Below: CGC Elm working on a floating aid.
In addition to the broader programs of visual
aids to navigation, e-Navigation, and navigation
standards, the Office assists USCG and Department
of Justice attorneys in litigation involving aids to
navigation and marine information. Navigation
Systems also reviews and comments on National
Transportation Safety Board and marine casualty
investigations involving aids to navigation and
leads US Coast Guard representation to the IALA
Aids to Navigation Management and e-Navigation
Visual aids to navigation
The USGC establishes, maintains, and operates
visual maritime aids to navigation (AtoN) in the
navigable waterways of the United States. This
includes approximately 32,100 buoys and beacons,
plus approximately 16,000 additional aids in the
Western Rivers. Operating and maintaining this
system requires the efforts of 2,564 military
personnel assigned to 58 cutters, 57 Aids to
Navigation Teams (ANTs), and 7 small boat stations
assigned primary AtoN servicing duties.These units
are overseen and directly supported by staff and
maintenance personnel at several organizational
levels within the USCG.
The establishment of US maritime aids to navigation predates American independence. The earliest
aid to navigation in American waters was Boston
Light, established in 1716. According to an
historian of USCG AtoN, “…a system of lighthouses
erected along a proven British model, along with a
few beacons and several cask buoys, represented the
bulk of American navigational aids at the inception
of the lighthouse service in 1789.”
The AtoN program (see illustration below),
through a series of strategic initiatives and
efficiency improvements carried out over the last
decade, has dramatically improved the reliability
of AtoN hardware and has reduced the demand on
cutter resource hours needed to maintain the AtoN
system. Consequently, seagoing buoy tenders
(designated WLBs) have methodically transitioned
from being needed as a dedicated AtoN platform
for the great majority of their operational hours to
the point where in fiscal year 2009 they spent only
39% of their operating hours performing
AtoN. The remaining 61% of their operational hours were dispersed across the other
10 statutory mission areas. The coastal buoy
tenders (WLMs) have experienced similar effects
in mission employment, but to a lesser degree. In
addition to this, the expansion and effectiveness
of the shore-based Aids to Navigation Teams
(ANTs) to maintain and respond to discrepant
AtoN has improved as well.
The buoys and beacons along the US coast may
look much the same as they did 30 years ago.
However, there has been a systematic transformation of AtoN equipment and hardware.
The most notable improvements have
been the use of Differential GPS for
positioning, the solarization of lighted
AtoN, the transition from incandescent
lighting systems to light emitting
diodes (LEDs), the use of self
free systems, and
Main Picture:
Thomas Point Light
screwpile lighthouse is
sited in Chesapeake
Bay, Maryland on the
east coast of the
United States.
improvements to buoy coating (paint) systems. Many of these initiatives
may have gone unnoticed to the shipping industry and boating public, but
their impact on Coast Guard operations cannot be overstated.
The national AtoN infrastructure uses a multi-tiered management
philosophy in that each aid and each waterway is serviceable by more than
one single unit, ensuring maximum system reliability while allowing multimission flexibility for the servicing units. In the multi-tiered maintenance
system, a channel may be marked with large ocean and coastal buoys which
are maintained by a coastal or seagoing buoy tender. This same channel will
commonly have smaller buoys, ranges, and fixed aids that are maintained by
an ANT. If the buoy tender is unavailable and can’t respond to the
maintenance or discrepancy needs of the waterway, the ANT can respond in
a temporary manner until a buoy tender is made available. The ANTs play a
critical role in maintaining the entire waterway when a buoy tender is
deployed elsewhere.
The Visual Aids to Navigation program also oversees the
Integrated AtoN Information System (I-ATONIS) and Automated
Aids Positioning System (AAPS). I-ATONIS is the
primary database for the federal short
range AtoN maintained by the USCG.
AAPS is a subset of the I-ATONIS database
that utilizes differentially corrected Global
Position System (DGPS) data inputs to
provide the user with real time
positioning information, tracks
the positioning information
of federal aids maintained
by the Coast Guard,
provides a legal document
confirming the AtoN’s position at its last servicing, and
inputs the latest
AtoN positioning
data directly into
I-ATONIS for use
in the publication
of time critical
® Continued on page 18.
PAGE 16 horizon SUMMER 2011
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 17
US Coast Guard Office of Navigation Systems – continued from page17.
Above: Trailerable Aids to Navigation Boat (TANB) working a
floating aid.
navigation products.
The Visual Aids program also develops, reviews
and evaluates all national and service-wide plans,
policies, procedures, standards, and resource and
training requirements necessary for program
execution and performance. The US system of aids
to navigation is managed in accordance with
Federal statute (14 U.S.C. 81 through 14 U.S.C. 86)
and through Federal regulations (33 CFR parts 62
through 76). The program initiates, reviews, and
approves plans for establishing and changing aids
to navigation and disseminates information to the
mariner concerning aids to navigation. This includes
the publishing of the Light List and other aids to
navigation publications.
The e-Navigation Program includes radionavigation, charting, tracking, and dissemination and
presentation of marine information. Once known
as the Radionavigation program, the e-Navigation
Program oversees those legacy activities but also
participates in the international development of
e-Navigation. This program coordinates the Coast
Guard input to the Federal Radionavigation Plan
and the Department of Defense Master Navigation
Plan. True to its name, the e-Navigation Program is
continuing to help define and shape e-Navigation
through its efforts at the IMO and at the IALA eNavigation Committee. Domestically, the program
is the lead for the development of a US e-Navigation
Strategy for the Committee on the Marine
Transportation System (CMTS).
Other external efforts include representation at
the US Department of Transportation Navigation
Working Group; other Federal committees which are
concerned with the development of national plans
and policies for radionavigation services; and the US
Department of Homeland Security Position Navigation and Timing (PNT) workgroup. This program
serves as the USCG representative to the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical
Committee 80 (TC80) Working Group 8A on AIS
and Working Group 14 on non-shipboard AIS.
The Committee on the Marine Transportation
System (CMTS) is a Federal inter-departmental
committee which is chaired by the Secretary of
Transportation and its purpose is to create a
partnership of Federal Departments and agencies
with responsibility for the Marine Transportation
System (MTS). The CMTS is directed to ensure the
development and implementation of national MTS
policies are consistent with national needs and
report to the President its views and recommendations
for improving the MTS.
In April 2010, the CMTS approved an interagency
e-Navigation Task Team to be led by the US Coast
Guard, specifically the Office of Navigation Systems
and its e-Navigation Division. The purpose of the
Task Team is to develop a national e-Navigation
strategy to inventory the suite of Federal e-Navigation services in order to harmonize activities and
determine priorities. The strategy will describe how
the US will implement e-Navigation concepts in a
cross-agency manner coordinated with industry
and other stakeholders for the benefit of the safety,
efficiency and protection of the US MTS. It will
identify agency roles and responsibilities, and
define specific implementation efforts. It will be
guided by and linked to IMO, IHO, IALA and other
international e-Navigation strategies and efforts to
ensure consistency with those efforts. This strategy
is expected to be finalized in the coming months.
Navigation standards
The Navigation Standards Division supervises the
implementation and enforcement of the marine
traffic management provisions of the law known
risk in the marine environment. The development of the PAWSA process grew out of the tremendous changes
that took place during the 1990s in the Coast Guard’s Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) program. The PAWSA process
is a disciplined approach to identify major waterway safety hazards, estimate risk levels, evaluate potential
mitigation measures, and set the stage for implementation of selected measures to reduce risk. The process
involves convening a select group of waterway users and stakeholders and conducting a structured workshop
to meet these objectives. The risk assessment process is a joint effort involving waterway users, stakeholders,
and the agencies and entities responsible for implementing selected risk mitigation measures.
Main Picture:
Southwest Pass Light.
The primary objectives of a PAWSA are to:
1. Provide input when planning for future Vessel Traffic Management (VTM) projects and investments related to aids
to navigation, regulations, or Vessel Traffic Services (VTS),
2. Further the Marine Transportation System (MTS) goals of improved coordination and cooperation between
government and the private sector, and involving stakeholders in decisions affecting them,
3. Foster development and strengthen the role of Harbor Safety Committees (HSC) within each port, and
4. Support and reinforce the roles and responsibilities of the Coast Guard in vessel traffic management and
environmental stewardship.
The Navigation Rules Division serves as the agency lead for the development of policies and regulations surrounding Offshore Renewable Energy Installations (OREI). The “lead permitting agency” for an
OREI has jurisdiction over the installation site and develops the environmental impact statement.
Wind farms that are located on the outer continental shelf fall under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of
Ocean Energy Management, Regulation, and Enforcement in the Department of Interior. Although
the USCG is not a lead permitting agency for OREIs, after an OREI developer performs a systematic
assessment of the risks to navigation for a given installation, the USCG will review this assessment
to develop a safety of navigation opinion and any required mitigation measures. This information is
provided to the lead permitting agency. The Navigation Standards Division also serves as USCG
liaison with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and its division
National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to ensure vessel traffic management measures do not
impact endangered or migratory species such as right whales.
The Office of Navigation Systems, at the heart of the Marine Transportation
System Management Directorate, is at the forefront of the e-Navigation
revolution, oversees roughly 50,000 visual aids, and develops regulations,
standards, and enforcement policies for the prevention of collisions, allisions, and
groundings. In short, they are providers, users and regulators of navigation services,
systems and products.
Editor’s Note:
We are extremely grateful to
receive this definitive article from
the United States Coast Guard,
a sister organisation to Trinity
House, and aim to continue a
series of contributions from
other aids to navigation
authorities beyond
these shores.
Above: CGC Mackinaw (WLBB Seagoing
buoy tender icebreaker).
Left: TANB towing a floating aid.
Top: TANB working a fixed aid.
Lower: Intercoastal waterway foam buoy.
PAGE180 horizon
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summer 2010
as the Ports and Waterways Safety Act.
The Standards Division develops regulations,
standards, and enforcement policies for the
prevention of collisions, allisions, and groundings,
including the Inland Navigation Rules and International
Navigation Rules; Bridge-to-Bridge Radiotelephone
Act; vessel routing measures, shipping safety
fairways, and areas to be avoided; charting; marine
information; carriage requirements; and artificial
reefs. They provide oversight and policy guidance
for regulatory matters that are delegated to local
USCG District Commanders, such as anchorages,
navigation regulations, including speed control,
Safety and Security Zones, and Regulated
Navigation Areas.
This Division conducts assessments of the
navigation safety in ports and waterways to determine the need for and the effectiveness of vessel
traffic management measures. Three related risk
management programs are used by the Coast
Guard for this purpose: Ports and Waterways Safety
Assessments (PAWSA), Waterways and Mission
Analysis Studies (WAMS), and Port Access Route
Studies (PARS). Each of these programs supports
the goal of reducing marine casualties on the nation’s
waterways, improving safety and efficiency, and
utilizing maritime industry expertise to provide
critical information to the Coast Guard as it plans
for and ensures the vitality of the US Marine
Transportation System. The Division’s risk assessment team is also including IALA’s Waterway Risk
Assessment Program into its repertoire of tools.
The Coast Guard established the Ports and
Waterways Safety Assessment (PAWSA) process to
address waterway user needs and place a greater
emphasis on partnerships with industry to reduce
Above: CGC Muskingum 75ft riverbuoy tender.
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 19
TRINITY HOUSE Charitable Activities
n the financial year to March 2011 the Trinity House Maritime Charity spent
approximately £2.6 million in furtherance of its objectives. Of this in the
region of £1.3 million was by way of grants to other maritime charities. Notes
below demonstrate the broad range of charities in receipt of grants from the
Corporation in the past year.
The Royal National Mission to Deep Sea Fishermen (The Fishermen’s Mission)
The Fishermen’s Mission aims to alleviate deprivation in the UK’s fishing communities by providing
emergency and welfare support to fishermen and their families. Fishing remains the UK’s most dangerous
peacetime occupation. Every year on average 22 fishing vessels are lost, 66 fishermen are killed or seriously
injured. The Mission provides emergency assistance to injured and shipwrecked fishermen; offers financial,
practical and emotional support, including bereavement counselling to families of fishermen lost at sea;
provides welfare services to active, elderly and infirm fishermen and their families; combats
loneliness amongst the
elderly; encourages safetyconsciousness amongst active
fishermen, facilitating safety
training and providing personal
safety equipment. These
services are provided by a
network of over 70 port staff
and volunteers. The need
to cater to an increasingly
dispersed fishing fleet has
meant the Mission moving
away from its traditional
Centres providing homefrom-home facilities to a
more flexible structure of
Welfare Offices and mobile
Shipwrecked Mariners’ Society
In the last 12 months the Society helped seafarers in 2,750 cases of need, distributed grants totalling over
£1.6 million and helped beneficiaries access £31,000 in Government benefits. The organisation received
744 new applications for assistance last year – the highest since 2005 – showing that help for this
vulnerable community is much in demand, particularly in the current harsh economic environment. Chief
Executive of the Shipwrecked Mariners’ Society, Commodore
Malcolm Williams commented, “Our work involves
supporting retired and incapacitated seafarers who have
devoted their lives to the sea. Unfortunately they often retire
on meagre incomes and rely on financial help from us to make
their later years just a little more comfortable…” In addition
to making regular grant payments, often to those with no
savings, the charity makes one-off grants to cover the cost
of items ranging from household appliances, beds and
bedding to rotten window frames, priority debts and
mobility aids.
PAGE200 horizon
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summer 2010
Women’s Royal Naval Service
Benevolent Trust
The Trust’s membership is
open to anyone who was
serving in the Women’s
Royal Naval Service and
transferred to the Royal Navy
before 1st November 1993, or
anyone who served in the WRNS since 3rd
September 1939. Today there are approximately
60,000 former Wrens and occasionally in times of
hardship they turn to their Trust for assistance.
The Trust dispenses £300,000 to £400,000 per
annum to over 400 former Wrens who find
themselves in some form of distress. Currently the
main areas of expenditure are regular annuity
payments to those on a low income, care costs,
medical aids such as special chairs and powered
vehicles, house adaptations such as level access
showers and ramps, funeral expenses and help
towards some primary debts. Administration of the
grants is centralised in Portsmouth. There are no
caseworkers and the Trust works mainly with the
SSAFA Forces Help and The Royal British Legion
who complete a confidential report for the Grants
Committee for consideration. The Trust works with
its sister organisation the Association of Wrens to
ensure that all former members of the WRNS
realise that their Trust is still dispensing benevolence
and assistance to its members. The Association
continues to generate publicity and fund raise on
behalf of the WRNSBT.
Sailors’ Families’ Society
Formed in 1821 the Society provides
support to 400 disadvantaged children
of seafarers throughout the United
Kingdom. The charity’s aim is to give each
disadvantaged child the opportunity to achieve
his/her full potential by providing financial,
practical and emotional support. Families helped
are predominantly single parent and usually arrive
following a traumatic event such as bereavement,
diagnosis of a terminal illness or the break-up of
an abusive relationship. Families are supported on
average for five years before returning to being selfsufficient. The Society provides support in many
ways including: Child Welfare Grants - to allow
children to participate in childhood activities such
as brownies, cubs, music and sports lessons;
Clothing Grants – to provide a new school uniform
and a winter coat and shoes and Caravan Holidays
– each family is offered the opportunity of a
holiday for a week away from the stresses and
strains of daily life. Staff (pictured above) also
provide a sympathetic ear and have relationships
with organisations where specialist help is needed.
The Scout Association
Each week, thousands of children find out what it means to take a risk, lead a team,
make a friend and discover that life is as much about possibilities as it is challenges.
Scouting also helps broaden minds and builds bridges between communities. In a time
of when many young people are portrayed as inactive and antisocial, Scouting chooses
to believe in them. The Scout Association not only takes young people outdoors but out of themselves.
Scouting and its young people are able to take part in water activities across the country and funding
enables the association to purchase much needed equipment to teach young people about water safety,
to train leaders who in turn can introduce more young people to differing water activities and enable
them to take part in activities they have never had the opportunity to before. Since January 2008 the
Scout Association has enabled 7,137 young people to take part in sailing activities.
The NAUTILUS Welfare Fund – Mariners’ Park
In April the Trinity House Maritime Charity approved an
extensive grant to the Nautilus Welfare Fund to support
development of accommodation and welfare facilities at the
15-acre Mariners’ Park Estate at Wallasey, which has been
run by the union and its predecessor organisations for more
than 150 years. This project has been drawn up by Nautilus
as part of a long-term development plan in response to
research into the care and welfare needs of the nation’s
retired seafarers and their families. To be formally opened in
2014, our quincentennial year, the project will involve the
construction of a new community facility for the 160
residents of the Estate and also for the wider Merseyside
maritime community (architects’ model seen left), and will
include space for meetings and events, a café, shop, laundry
and hairdressing salon, as well as internet access. It will also
provide improved specialist accommodation and in-house
support services for retired seafarers and their dependants.
The first phase of the project will provide 12 two-bedroom
flats and six one-bedroom apartments, designated as Extra
Care Sheltered Accommodation for former seafarers and
dependants requiring assistance with daily living.
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 21
Jerry Wedge,
Lighthouse Service Finance
hen asked to write an article on ‘Lighthouse Service Finance’ the challenge is to find
interesting material that will prevent the reader from immediately skipping to the next
page. Whilst I cannot promise anything as exciting as England beating Australia at cricket
I can say that recent history shows that ‘Lighthouse Service Finance’ is a success story
The Trinity House Lighthouse Service finances can be
divided up as follows: broadly two thirds of the Service’s
money is spent on front-line operations with one third
spent on support, pensions and other expenditure See
Chart 1, (right).
When I arrived at Trinity House in 2003 I was
fortunate to inherit a team of highly skilled Finance
professionals. They have been vital in maintaining
financial discipline and tight control of the organisation’s
costs. It also helps to work in an organisation with one
of the highest levels of staff engagement in the country,
according to Harris Interactive who carry out staff
surveys for us. What we have achieved in financial terms
in the last ten years is a credit to all the staff who work
at Trinity House Lighthouse Service.
Chart 2 (Lower left) compares the Lighthouse Service’s
running costs with what they would have been if we had
followed a typical government department’s spending
trend over the last ten years. If we had followed the
spending pattern of a typical government department
during the last ten years our running costs would be
reduced running costs by an average of 3.3% each year.
So how did Trinity House Lighthouse Service avoid
following the “typical” central government spending
trend in the last ten years and keep costs so carefully
under control?
There are a number of reasons, Firstly, Trinity House
Lighthouse Service is funded from light
CHART 1: 2010/11 Budget split by Categories
dues not central taxation. The Fraternity
Review article in 2009 about the Light
Marine Services
Dues System outlined how this system
Engineering Services
worked. The essence of this system is that
Support Services & HQ
the user of the navigational service that we
Lighthouses, Lightvessels,
provide pays for it, directly. Indeed, Trinity
Buoys & Beacons
House collects the money from the user
on behalf of the three General Lighthouse
Authorities. The money goes into a fund
called the General Lighthouse Fund, which
is managed on our behalf by professional
fund managers. The pressure on us to
control our costs from the shipowners, who
pay light dues, is a definite incentive for
Trinity House Lighthouse Service to be as efficient as
twice the level that they are today. Of course, during this
possible. The ‘user pays’ system of light dues charges is
period nearly all central government expenditure went
demonstrably successful in helping to control the costs
up by large amounts as it was a time when most parts
of the public sector were spending more. But
during this ten year period we actually reduced our
running costs by 12.2%. In the last six years we have
of the service we provide. One often wonders why such
a simple principle cannot be applied to many other areas
of public sector service provision.
Secondly, Trinity House has excellent people who
are keen for the organisation to work efficiently,
economically and effectively. During the last ten years
Trinity House has initiated a Depot Review, Ship
Review and Business Process Review, along with many
other smaller efficiency reviews. These reviews have
meant that this drive for continuous improvement has
resulted in reduced levels of manpower and significant
productivity gains. The manpower reductions over the
last ten years are shown in Chart 3, (right). Staff
numbers have fallen from 487 in 2000 to 303 in 2010,
a reduction of 38% in ten years.
Better ways of working, such as multi-skilled technicians; more efficient, newer vessels; fewer, streamlined
Directorates and the consolidation of operational sites
have meant that we continue to deliver the same high
standard of service to the mariner but with fewer
people at all levels, from Director level down. We are
also careful to ensure that the ratio of pay to non pay
costs remain in balance. So as our manpower costs have
reduced our other running costs have fallen in parallel.
Thirdly, we have been successful in controlling costs
because of the ‘value for money’ culture we have
developed in the organisation. We encourage staff to be
efficient, to think of new ways of doing things better.
We reward top performing staff with bonus payments;
often these are people who have come up with good
ideas for saving money. Staff are encouraged to develop
higher, job related competencies and better skills, which
help efficiency. We have an organisational ‘value for
money’ target each year. All teams contribute practical
ideas to the ‘value for money’ list of operational
Staff numbers have fallen from 487 in 2000 to 303 in 2010, a reduction of 38% in ten years.
improvements. We have a programme of continuously
reviewing each department to identify, more efficient
ways of working. Despite the excellent performance of
the last decade we are not complacent and we have
already identified future productivity gains. Consequently, we expect manpower levels to fall by a further
13% in the next five years.
Fourthly, central government expects us to demonstrate that we are spending the shipowners’ money
wisely. Central government has recently reviewed us,
using a consultant W.S. Atkins to carry out this review.
One of the outcomes of this review is that Trinity House
Lighthouse Service is now subject to an RPI –X%
formula. This means that we must keep our running costs
below the Retail Price Index (RPI) by an agreed
amount. At the time of writing X% has been set at
3% on average for each of the next five years. This
is a challenging target. It will require all the expertise and skill of the Trinity House Lighthouse Service
staff to meet this financial target and continue to provide
a service of excellence to the mariner. But the record of
the last ten years shows that we can do it.
© James Reid.
Trinity House Lighthouse Service running costs vs a typical Government Department.
PAGE220 horizon
horizon SUMMER
summer 2010
summer 2010
2011 horizon
horizon PAGE
Around the Organisations
Reminiscences from one of those who was there
Nick Cutmore writes:
It is hard to believe that with daily trains from
St Pancras to Paris the norm, that the Channel tunnel
has not been with us forever. One of my earliest
recollections working as Press Officer was dealing with
an enquiry from the BBC for the Trinity House view on
a proposal to build a bridge across the Channel.
Actually there were several proposals, one of which was
a combined bridge and tunnel arrangement.
Pictures: © RNLI / Nigel Millard
At 1436 on 24th March HM Coastguard requested the assistance of the RNLI New Brighton
hovercraft to a report of a jetskier in difficulty near the Runcorn Bridge. The hovercraft had been
called out because it was past
high water and the mud and
sand banks in the area around
Widnes / Runcorn rapidly become
exposed and are hazardous to
anyone unfortunate enough to
become trapped. Fortunately it
was warm and sunny with
reasonable but hazy visibility
and light airs.
Mike Harding the volunteer
hovercraft commander said
“When we arrived at the scene
RNLI Hurley Spirit at New Brighton.
the jetski had broken down and
was at anchor and the man was
stranded on the marsh bank an area with dangerous sinking sand and mud. We took the jetskier on board
the hovercraft, he was shaken up and scared by the experience. We advised him that this whole area
was very dangerous and best to be avoided. We then took the jetski in tow and landed them both at a
slipway near to Runcorn. It is the second time in a week that the hovercraft volunteers have been called
out to a jetskier in difficulties in this area.”
The hovercraft returned to station at 1700 where the volunteer crew refuelled and cleaned it
down ready for the next emergency call.
PAGE 24 horizon SUMMER 2011
Associated British Ports (ABP) reported at the end
of February that it had received consent from
the Marine Management Organisation for the
construction of a new quay wall at Berths 201
and 202.
On completion, the redeveloped quay will be
500metres in length with a 16metre draft and
capable of handling the largest container vessels
afloat today.
Port Director Doug Morrison welcomed the
news, saying, “This consent allows us to press
forward with important works at Berths 201/2.
With the size of container vessels continuing to
increase, the container terminal can no longer
accommodate four of the largest container ships
simultaneously – this development will rectify that
situation by creating the “lost” fourth berth.”
It is understood the main works, which will
involve an investment of approximately £80
million, will commence on site in September
2012 with completion anticipated by the end
of 2013.
Consent was received at the same time
as Network Rail completed extensive works to
upgrade the rail capacity for containers
moving between the port and the West Coast
Solent Coastguard reported at 1300
on 20th March that Paula C, a 90
metre loa cargo vessel, had grounded
on the Shingle Bank, north of the
Needles. The local Coastguard Rescue
Team kept watch over the vessel from
the Needles lookout and the Yarmouth
RNLI lifeboat stood by. After discharging ballast water the vessel was floated
off at the following high water. The
Red Jet 4
nine onboard were reported as safe
and well and remained in the vessel.
Earlier in the month MCA reported that Southampton-based Isle of Wight ferry travel and leisure
business, Red Funnel (see inset image), had been awarded its prestigious environmental accreditation
ISO 14001:2004. This is highly sought after and an achievement Red Funnel staff have been working
towards since achieving the quality standards accreditation ISO 9001:2008, three years ago. ISO
14001:2004 accreditation sets out environmental management standards that are focused on
ensuring organisations are committed to minimising their operations impact on the environment,
comply with all applicable laws, regulations, environmental standards, and continual improvements to
environmental sustainability.
Sir Alan Massey, Chief Executive Officer, MCA (and Younger Brother of Trinity House) commented,
“I am delighted to be able to present this Award of ISO 14001 to the Red Funnel Group, only the second
company to be certified for ISO 14001 by our Quality Assurance department. We are the only flag state
which offers this service to the clients.” MCA announced on 13th March that seven foreign flagged ships
were under detention in UK ports during February 2011 after failing Port State Control (PSC)
inspection. Figures showed that there were four new detentions of foreign-flagged ships in our ports
during February and three vessels under detention from previous months.
Picture: ©2011 Red Funnel Group
THV Lodesman
“At that time with the Trinity House Pilotage Service
working cheek by jowl with the Lighthouse Service I got
a well-known channel pilot Lew Thornton to agree to
an interview at Folkestone. We met at Folkestone Pilot
Station which was then a state-of-the art piece of civil
engineering and the young interviewer from the Beeb
expressed enthusiasm for going out in a boat.
“Lodesman was chosen as being the steadiest for
filming and packed into her tiny wheelhouse was
Captain Thornton, the interviewer, the cameraman and
the poor helmsman. No sooner had Lodesman passed
through the breakwaters than the interviewer was
violently seasick. Almost as soon as he regained his
composure he was ill again and again. We returned in
short order to the harbour where the interviewer
recovered. Undaunted, the young man asked if we
could do the interview with the Lodesman stationary
between the breakwaters so that the view out the
wheelhouse windows was of the broken water
behind. This was suitably impressive when viewed
that evening during the 6 o'clock news.
“Sadly, neither Lew Thornton nor the Trinity House
Pilotage Service as it was, are with us any more.
Lodesman, built in Holland as a heavy weather loading
boat, got a second lease of life when she was obtained
by the Lighthouse Service. I remember going in her
some years later on viewing trials of the sectors of the
Nab Tower under the command of a young Second
Officer called Nick Dodson.
“I left Trinity House in 1998 and now represent
the world’s pilots at the International Maritime
Organisation, the UN Agency responsible for maritime
affairs based in London. I still keep bumping into people
from those great days in the past.
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 25
Around the Service
WELCOME to the following new members
On 11th May 2011, at the Annual Meeting of the
Court, HRH The Princess Royal was elected Master
for the ensuing year. Rear-Admiral Sir Jeremy de
Halpert was re-elected Deputy Master and
Captain Duncan Glass and Captain Nigel Pryke
were re-elected Rental and Nether Wardens
respectively. Following the Annual Meeting the
Elder and Younger Brethren walked to St Olave’s
Church, Hart Street, for the Annual Service where
the preacher was the Rt Revd and Rt Hon Dr
Richard Chartres, Bishop of London.
of staff who have joined us since 1st November 2011…
We are pleased to report that The Right
Honourable Admiral The Lord Boyce, GCB, OBE,
DL, Elder Brother (pictured above), has been
created a Knight Companion of the Most Noble
Order of the Garter.
It is also with great pleasure that we report the
award of the Merchant Navy Medal to Captain
Duncan Glass, OBE, Elder Brother and Rental
Warden of the Corporation (pictured below).
Why has the word service been dropped from
Trinity House’s name? Is the organisation ashamed
of its subservient role?
Raymond Smith, Trainee Deck Rating (FTC* ), joined on
22nd December 2010.
Michael McGurk, Engineering Officer, joined on
29th December 2010.
Robert Watsham, Trainee Catering Rating (FTC* ), joined
on 12th January 2011.
Rachel Bull, Trainee Deck Rating (FTC* ), joined on
12th January 2011.
Jane Thornton, Trainee Catering Rating (FTC* ), joined on
2nd February 2011.
John Morrison, Second Officer (FTC* ), joined on
16th March 2011.
John Lawrence, Second Engineer (FTC* ), joined on
6th April 2011.
Callum McLaughlin, Catering Rating (FTC* ), joined on
6th April 2011.
Joel Small, Third Engineer (FTC* ), joined on
27th April 2011.
Adam Tyler, Electro-Technical Officer, joined on
27th April 2011.
Anthony Nicholas, Second Officer (FTC* ), joined on
27th April 2011.
Trevor Robinson, Lighthouse Technician, joined on
17th January 2011.
Kim Webb, HR Administrator (PT* ), joined on
18th April 2011.
(Question submitted anonymously in response to the reader questionnaire).
Tower Hill
Steve Dunning, Planning and Performance Manager,
Harwich responds…
“What an interesting question. In reality the word
‘service’ has never formally been in the title of Trinity
House. The word ‘service’ was appended to that part
of the business responsible directly for the provision
and maintenance of aids to navigation. In days gone
by lighthouses were the main aid so the label ‘Trinity
House Lighthouse Service’ came into being to
distinguish it from our Deep Sea Pilotage and other
charitable tasks. However, a few years ago it became
apparent that, rather than simplifying, it confused and
some people thought that there was more than one
Trinity House carrying out these various functions. The
decision was taken to rebrand in totality as simply
Trinity House. We are extremely proud of the roles
Trinity House plays in the maritime industry and, as we
approach our quincentenary, we are aiming to tell the
world about what we have been doing happily for 500
years and what we hope to do for at least 500 more.”
Anna Gibb, Legal Advisor (FTC* ), joined on
10th January 2011.
Stephanie Banner, Local Aids to Navigation Officer,
joined on 21st March 2011.
Karen Tomalin, Secretary & PA (PT* ), joined on
4th April 2011.
If you have a question relating to Trinity House please send it to
the editor (contact details on the inside front cover) and we
will do our best to answer it as fully as possible in these pages.
PAGE 26 horizon SUMMER 2011
Support Vessel Service
…AND WE THANK the following
for all their efforts whilst at Trinity House and wish
them well in their new lives …
Support Vessel Service
Philip Spence, Second Officer (FTC* ), left on
8th December 2010 when his contract expired.
Chris Ablott, Cook, left on 22nd December 2010
after five years’ service.
Michael Campbell, Chief Steward, left on
2nd February 2011, after 30 years’ service.
Michael Edwards, Trainee Catering Rating (FTC* ), left on
20th February 2011, after two years’ service.
Jonathan Warren, Electro-Technical Officer, left on
27th April 2011, after three years’ service.
Ben Quade, HR Administrator, left on 7th November
2010, after six years’ service.
Around the Service
Robert James Alexander Beattie, former District
Maintenance Engineer in Harwich, on 2nd July 2010 aged
71. He served 14 years.
Sir Brian Shaw
Admitted as an Elder Brother in 1989, died 5th
February 2011, aged 77.
Terence Anderson, former Lightsman LVS, on 7th September
2010 aged 59. He served five years.
Alfred Walter Hollingsworth-Palfrey, former Industrial
Technician in Harwich, on 9th October 2010 aged 79.
He served 11 years.
David Elliot Peacock, former Principal Keeper, on 1st
November 2011 aged 81. He served 27 years.
Raymond Stonehouse Trowell, former Lamplighter LVS,
on 30th November 2010 aged 86. He served ten years.
John Henry Walker, former Bosun SVS, on 3rd December
2010 aged 84. He served 33 years.
Harold John Dawe, former Bosun LVS, on 1st February
2011 aged 90. He served 35 years.
George Parker, former Assistant Keeper, on 4th March
2011 aged 84. He served ten years.
Dennis Parker, former Lightsman LVS, on 4th March 2011
aged 82. He served 15 years.
Alfred Wallace Allum, former Master LVS, on 10th March
2011 aged 87. He served 22 years.
William James Williams, former Assistant Keeper, on
5th April 2011 aged 85. He served 15 years.
Michael John Noons, former Lightsman LVS, on 11th April
2011 aged 68. He served nine years.
Keith Lock, Engineering Officer (FTC* ), left on
17th November 2010, after one year’s service.
Jemma Goodman, Commercial Administrator (FTC* ),
left on 13th February 2011l, after one year’s service.
Angela Hydes, HR Administrator (FTC* ), left on
31st March 2011, when her contract expired.
Ian Tutt, Principal Development Engineer, left on
3rd April 2011, after 24 years’ service.
Jamie Long, Apprentice (FTC* ), left on 5th April 2011,
after three years’ service.
Dick Kemp-Luck, IT Support Officer, left on
30th April 2011, after 16 years’ service.
Tower Hill
Dr Sally Basker, R&RNav Strategy Director, left on
30th November 2010, after five years’ service.
Christine Savage, Secretary & PA, left on 17th February
2011, after five years’ service.
John Cannon, Navigation Services Officer, left on
31st March 2011, after 38 years’ service.
Paul Fuller, Advisor (FTC* ), left on 30th November 2010,
when his contract expired.
Latest date for submissions: 31 March 2011.
Note: * FTC refers to Fixed Term Contract employees, and
* PT to Part Time employees.
Educated at Wrekin College and Corpus Christi
College, Cambridge (MA), he did his National Service
in the Cheshire Regiment and in 1957 was called to
the Bar at Gray’s Inn and made a Bencher in 1992. In
1957 he joined the Pacific Steam Navigation
Company in Liverpool and became company secretary
in 1960. The following year he was company
secretary of Royal Mail Lines and appointed a director
from 1968 to 1987. He was a manager with Furness
Withy and Company in 1969, a director in 1973,
managing director from 1977 to 1987 and chairman
from 1979 to 1990. He was also chairman of the
Shaw Savill & Albion Company from 1973 to 1987.
Other board positions included with ANZ Grindlay’s
Bank, Overseas Containers Limited, the National Bank
of New Zealand, the New Zealand Line, Orient
Overseas (Holdings), Enterprise Oil, Walter Runciman,
Andrew Weir, Henderson plc and of Centrica plc. In
the City he was a member of the General Committee
of Lloyd’s Register of Shipping from 1974 to 2000
and Chairman of the International Chamber of Shipping from 1987 to 1992. Also he was on the Council
of the European and Japanese National Shipowners’
Association (CENSA) and in 1985 and 1986 was
President of the General Council of British Shipping.
From 1987 he was a board member, and from
1993 Chairman of the Port of London Authority,
retiring in 2000. He was appointed Knight Bachelor
in 1986. Sir Brian was president of the Seamen’s
Hospital Society from 2003, a Prime Warden of the
Worshipful Company of Shipwrights in 1993 and
1994 and Freeman of the Company of Watermen
and Lightermen of the River Thames in 1994.In the
late 1980s Trinity House was undergoing great
change in both its operational task of providing
navigation safety, and its charitable arm, as the
country’s largest endowed maritime charity. Trinity
House completed the automation of its lighthouses,
a widespread introduction of solar power of its aids
to navigation, and an overhaul of its charitable giving.
In his 12 years on the Board Trinity House benefited
greatly from his sharp mind and expertise that had
been developed in his earlier careers in law, ship
owning and banking. Guiding Trinity House carefully
through the major modernisation programme his
wisdom helped enhance the stature of Trinity House
both as a navigation safety authority and as a major
maritime charity. He continued to be a very strong
supporter of Trinity House after stepping down from
the Corporate Board in 2001, attending Court on
most occasions, and with his wife Pennie, the social
Kenneth Morton Wiles
The death was reported on 2nd April at the age of
66 of Ken Wiles, former officer in the Trinity House
Pilot Vessel Service. He was based on Dover and
Folkestone Pilot Stations, initially as Second Mate,
from 1967 shipping and landing pilots in the
London District, then the biggest Trinity House
Pilotage District. This task involved operating in all
weathers and also delivering vessels to pilotage
districts elsewhere in our waters.
THPV Valonia of a class familiar to Ken Wiles.
Pilotage remains an important part of how the
ports carry out their business maintaining a service
day in, day out, year round, ashore and afloat. On
the transfer of district pilotage to the ports following the Pilotage Act of 1987 Ken Wiles joined
Estuary Services Limited at Ramsgate. In the words
of John Yeomans, a contemporary in the Service
and now a resident of Trinity Homes, Walmer, “He
was a very competent officer and Coxswain.” Ken
was known for his undiminished good humour,
enthusiasm and expertise. He retired in 2001.
Before joining Trinity House Ken Wiles went to
sea in the vessels Bearwood, Chelwood, Deerwood
and Granwood of the Constantine Steamship Line
of Middlesbrough.
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 27
Around the Service
The 2012 Lighthouse Photographic Competition, now in
its eighth year, goes from strength to strength.
This year this popular event is being judged by Rory
McGrath. The winner will be announced in the Winter
issue of Horizon. 12 images are chosen to form the 'Lighthouses' calendar, produced in association with J Salmon
Ltd. The lucky winner will also win a short stay in a
Trinity House lighthouse holiday cottage, operated in
conjunction with Rural Retreats.
2 images from this year’s shortlist are pictured below:
Trinity House entered two teams in this year’s
Soldiers, Sailors, Airmens and Families Association
(SSAFA-Forces Help) Golf day on 18th May held at
the South Essex Golf and Country Club, Herongate,
Our Trinity Wet Team was made up of Malcolm
Nicholson (Captain), Gary Murphy, Wayne Belsey
and Ian Scowcroft (pictured below, left to right).
Bouncy fairways and inconsistent greens made
scoring difficult, but each team member
contributed and whilst not firing on all four
cylinders managed a respectable score.
am a former Lighthouse Keeper of 19 years
service. With regard to the practice of kite
fishing on Lighthouses, I never used this form
of fishing although I went about with a rod as
often as possible and with lobster pots at many
stations we enjoyed a great diet of much of the
sea’s bounty. On some stations and when the
weather and tides were suitable we would use
another form of angling which consisted of a
floating receptacle such as a Marvel dried milk
tin secured with a stout line with the lid fixed
on and an optimum amount of holes pierced
in it. From the underside of the tin a length of
fishing line with hook and bait were attached.
The tin was cast into the sea and allowed to
sink slowly (the size and quantity of holes was
adjusted in the light of experience) at what was
considered the best distance from the tower
when the tin would fill with water and sink
taking fishing gear and bait to the bottom. A
reasonable amount of success was achieved
depending upon where the tin sank.
recent discourse of mine on kite fishing at
lighthouses may now be part of the
National Maritime Museum Cornwall exhibition
on lighthouses in Falmouth. I have also written on
the subject for the Association of Lighthouse
Keepers. In 1961 I was transferred to Eddystone
Lighthouse as an Assistant Keeper and had heard
stories of kite fishing by the then Principal Keeper
who claimed to have made good catches
although I never saw him fish nor anyone else
there. There were three kites in the lantern of
different sizes made from rocket sticks and old
lantern curtains. The paying out line was made
from old halyards up to about 150 feet in length.
Ken Clark, a temporary keeper came to the
station and he was a river angler equipped with
rods and gear and I showed him where to fish
from the set off and he was very successful but
not at high water or in bad weather. Later I
showed Ken the principle of kite fishing although
I admit I only caught one by this method. Ken was
more persistent and caught several, the best being
a 9lb bass. He was later to be transferred to
Hanois and then left the service. On one occasion
I demonstrated to an Alderney restaurant owner
the method as he wished to be able to fish at the
breakwater into the race which on the one hand
was too far out for rod fishing as well as being
difficult with contrary winds. I never knew if he was
successful as I left shortly afterwards.
I have one further question regarding
HORIZON, can you please tell me where Guile
Point is? One of my grandparents was a Guile and
we believe the name has Huguenot origins
although this has not been proven. There have
been two communities of Guile, one in the north
west and the other in the south east. One wonders
if the name comes from a family or an emotion.
Mervyn Williams, Haven Street, Isle of Wight.
Harold Taylor, Bognor Regis.
Photo by Getty Images.
Dynasty of Engineers:
Unplanned Passage.
By Roland Paxton, published by Northern Lighthouse
Heritage Trust / Whittles Publishing, Dunbeath,
Caithness, KW6 6EG 128 pages, hardback
ISBN 978 0 9567209 0 0 price £20.00
By Captain Peter J D Russell, published by Pen Press
an imprint of INDEPENPRESS Publishing Ltd, 25
Eastern Place Brighton, East Sussex, BN2 1GJ
332 pages, paperback
ISBN 978 1 78003 058 6 price £16.99
This volume celebrates the achievements of the
Stevenson family of engineers, details the construction
of the 200 year old Bell Rock lighthouse and provides
a chronology of over 200 more. There is an insight
into Robert Louis Stevenson’s experience as a
reluctant engineer. In addition to providing biographies
of the eight members of the Stevenson family who
from 1786 to 1952, contributed significantly to the
nation’s infrastructure and international lighthouse
engineering. The book also sheds light on the design
and erection of the lighthouse and the work of its
engineers. From contemporary sources Paxton has
provided an authoritative account clarifying the key
roles of the eminent John Rennie and the relatively
inexperienced Robert Stevenson. His painstaking investigation reveals that this sustainable marvel of
lighthouse engineering was a masterpiece of joint
achievement by Rennie and Stevenson as chief
engineer/resident engineer, finally laying to rest the
well known and often bitter 19th century dispute
between their respective families. The final part
of the book is a reminder that the Stevenson
inheritance lives on, with an up to date list of lighthouses the family were responsible for in Scotland
and the Isle of Man. Nearly all of these are still
operating, 18th, 19th, and 20th century structures,
now all unmanned where 21st century technologies
ensure that the lights still shine.
This is the biography of a Master Mariner with 50
years of seatime and covers his apprenticeship, his
years in the RFA and 32 years as a Trinity House
Cinque Ports and PLA London District Pilot. Starting in the Second World War the story is one of
challenge, achievement and responsibility. It is of
ships large and small, of the characters who served
in them. It is about pilotage in all weathers, its
inherent risk and re-organisation. In retirement
Russell maintains his maritime connections as a
Younger Brother of Trinity House, as a liveryman of
The Honourable Company of Master Mariners and
as a Life Governor of The Marine Society and Sea
Cadets. He was President of the Nautical Institute
from 1998 to 2000.
Of this career Julian Parker, also a Younger
Brother, wrote in the foreword, “I would like a wide
audience to share the experience of ‘Unplanned
Passage’ There are so many lessons to pass on. It is
too personal to be a novel. The characters in a novel
are imagined and do not have to be believed. Here
however we have a real person, a family man, a
mariner who reached the top of his profession, a
charitable Rotarian who believed in enriching the
local community and is a creative artist. This is also
the story of how rewarding a life at sea can be.” In all, an
excellent record of the career of a master mariner.
A useful introduction to the work of the maritime pilot.
PAGE 28 horizon SUMMER 2011
Above: Start Point, near Dartmouth by Tricia Kennedy.
The Trinity Dry Team consisted of Simon Millyard
(Captain), Alwyn Williams, Vince Laing and Stuart
Mason. They too struggled with the conditions, but
the Swansea boys played consistently and the
team was able to post a decent score. A small
wager was made between the two Trinity Teams
and was donated to the thousands raised on the
day. For over 125 years SSAFA have been supporting those who serve in our military as well as those
who used to serve and the families of both. An
enjoyable day was had by all and it is hoped that
we continue to support this worthwhile event.
Above: Hartland Point, North Devon by Ian Wright.
All photographers are invited to submit an image of any
Trinity House lighthouse. The closing date for the next
competition is 29th February 2012.
Further details and how to download an entry form can be
found at: www.trinityhouse.co.uk/photo_competition
To place an order online for the 2012 calendar (available September
2011), please visit www.trinityhouse.co.uk/shop or telephone
+44 (0) 1255 245156 with your credit/debit card details.
Please note that unfortunately we are unable to accept American Express cards.
any contributions to HORIZON then please forward your
information, and a photograph if possible, to Vikki Gilson.
Contact details are on the inside front cover of this edition.
To make the most of your images in print, they should be
submitted as 300dpi jpegs – the larger the image file the better
– please do not embed the image within a Microsoft Word file.
Latest date for submissions: 30 September 2011.
Editor’s Note: Guile Point Lighthouse along with Heugh Hill Lighthouse gives a lead for vessels entering Holy Island harbour.
on the Northumbrian coast. Trinity House assumed responsibility for marking the approach to the harbour on 1st November
1995. The Seamark is a stone obelisk with the light fixed about a third of the way up the structure.
This photograph was taken on Penzance quayside in the early 1950s
and features the starboard watch of the THV Satellite. This name has
now been assigned to the new helicopter at the recent official
naming in Harwich.
thought you might like to see the accompanying picture of a cake
decorated with an image of THV Mermaid. My partner Hazel had this
made as a surprise for my 80th birthday celebrated with family and
friends on 1st May. Although Mermaid was sold out of service a few
years ago, and I was never a member of her crew, she was the only
Trinity House vessel of which Hazel had a picture and this enabled her to
maintain the surprise. Mermaid, built 1986, is now operated by the Gardline Group as Ocean Observer and is a frequent visitor to Great Yarmouth.
Stanley Mayes, Gorleston-on-Sea.
SUMMER 2011 horizon PAGE 29

- Trinity House