THE PASSIVE THE PASSIVE Millions of people speak Spanish. Forma attiva Simple present Spanish is spoken BY millions of people. Verbo essere al presente (am/is/are) + Participio passato Forma passiva Simple present THE PASSIVE – positive form Japanese cooks make the best sushi. The best sushi is made BY Japanese cooks. My family loves me. I am loved BY my family. J. K. Rowling writes a lot of books. A lot of books are written BY J.K. Rowling. Simple present THE PASSIVE – negative form Italian cooks don’t make the best sushi. The best sushi isn’t made BY Italian cooks. My family doesn’t love me. I ‘m not loved BY my family. My sister doesn’t write many books. Many books aren’t written BY my sister. Simple present THE PASSIVE – interrogative form Simple present Do Japanese cooks make the best sushi? Is the best sushi made BY Japanese cooks? Does my family love me? Am I loved BY my family? Does J.K. Rowling write many books? Are many books written BY J.K. Rowling? THE PASSIVE Columbus discovered America. Forma attiva Simple past America was Verbo essere al passato (was/were) discovered + Participio passato BY Columbus. Forma passiva Simple past THE PASSIVE – positive form Simple past Manzoni wrote The Betrothed and The Fifth of May. The Betrothed and The Fifth of May were written A ball hit me yesterday. I was hit BY a ball yesterday. A mad fan killed John Lennon. John Lennon was killed BY a mad fan. BY Manzoni. THE PASSIVE – negative form Simple past Leopardi didn’t write The Betrothed and The Fifth of May. The Betrothed and The Fifth of May weren’t written BY Leopardi. A ball didn’t hit me yesterday. I wasn’t hit BY a ball yesterday. Mafia didn’t kill John Lennon. John Lennon wasn’t killed BY mafia. THE PASSIVE – interrogative form Simple past Did Manzoni write The Betrothed and The Fifth of May? Were The Betrothed and The Fifth of May written Did a ball hit me yesterday? Was I hit BY a ball yesterday? Did a mad fan kill John Lennon? Was John Lennon killed BY a mad fan? BY Manzoni? THE PASSIVE other tenses THE PASSIVE The bricklayers are building a new gym. Forma attiva Present continuous A new gym is being Verbo essere al present continuous (am/is/are being) built BY the bricklayers. Forma passiva + Participio passato Present continuous THE PASSIVE The bricklayers have built a new gym. Forma attiva Present perfect A new gym has been Verbo essere al present perfect (has/have been) + built BY the bricklayers. Participio passato Forma passiva Present perfect THE PASSIVE The bricklayers will build a new gym. Forma attiva Modal verb A new gym will be Modal verb + BE (will/can/should be) + built BY the bricklayers. Participio passato Forma passiva Modal verb THE PASSIVE The bricklayers should have built a new gym. Forma attiva Modal verb al passato A new gym should have been Modal verb + HAVE BEEN (will/can/should have been) built BY the bricklayers. Forma passiva + Participio passato Modal verb al passato THE PASSIVE Spesso si usa quando non si specifica chi compie l’azione. Parmesan is produced in Italy. English is spoken here. The thief was arrested two days ago. The Berlin Wall was demolished in 1989. Two banks were robbed last week. Some mistakes were made in the test. A lot of bikes are stolen in Padua every day. ‘Often’ can be pronounced in two ways. THE PASSIVE Verbs with DOUBLE OBJECTS THE PASSIVE Alcuni verbi che in italiano sono seguiti dal complemento oggetto e dal complemento di termine..... Ho mandato un’ e-mail a Tim ieri. ... In inglese di solito sono seguiti da un doppio complemento oggetto (persona + cosa) senza alcuna preposizione. I sent Tim an e-mail yesterday. SEND ASK OFFER GIVE SHOW TELL LEND THE PASSIVE Questi verbi alla forma passiva, di solito, hanno la persona (e non la cosa) come soggetto della frase. An e-mail was sent to Tim yesterday. Tim was sent an email yesterday. They offered me a drink. I was offered a drink. Forma poco usata Forma più usata They told us a lie. We were told a lie. Mark gave her a kiss. They will lend us a lot of money. She was given a kiss. We will be lent a lot of money. They asked Mary a question. Mary was asked a question. SPEAKING – PART 4 INTERACTION What is the most enjoyable school event you’ve ever been to? How important is it for schools to organise after-school activities? Do you think it’s better for after-school events to be just one age group or for all ages of students? When do you think is the best time of year for schools to organise after-school events? Some people say schools shouldn’t organise extra events for their students, they should just teach lessons. Do you agree? Should parents know about everything that happens at schools?