Historical Heritage and New Perspectives
Cremona, 25 – 27 November 2009
Museo Civico «Ala Ponzone»
Sala “Alfredo Puerari”
Biblioteca Statale - Sala Conferenze
The Faculty of Musicology
This is the only Faculty of Musicology in Italy and the biggest in the world thanks to the number of grounded
professors. Here it's possible to study Greek and Roman music and also medieval, Renaissance, baroque, classic
and contemporary, learned and popular music, both in historic and systematic point of view..
Courses are characterized by a clear vocation for interdisciplinary interests and pay attention to the several
aspects of safeguard and promotion of cultural musical goods.
Website: ://musicologia.unipv.it
The Faculty of Musicology (FM) was established in Cremona in 2001 after the transformation of the School of
Paleography and Musical Philology (SPFM). The SPFM, which was born in 1952, issued two biennial degree
certificates, one for Paleography and Musical Philology and one for History and Didactics of music.
A quadrennial Musicology degree course was established at SPFM in 1979.
Since 2001 the SPFM became FM and when the university reform came into force they instituted degree courses
of first and second level, both in Musicology and Literary Studies.
The FM activated in academic year 2008-2009:
• a triennial Musicology degree course (first level), structured in five curricula;
• a triennial Literary Studies degree course (first level), structured in five curricula;
• a two-years specialist course to attain a quinquennial degree (second level) in Musicology;
• a two-years specialist course to attain a quinquennial degree (second level) in Modern Philology;
• a doctorate in Musicological and Philological Studies, structured in four curricula;
• The course SILSIS (Intercollegiate specialist School of Lombardy for teaching qualification) in Music and
The Department of Musicological and Paleographic-Philological Studies
The Department of Musicological and Paleographic-Philological Studies (DSMPF, scientific horizon of FM) has
got a specialist Library whose original starting point developed thanks to the bequest of the famous musicologist
from Cremona Gaetano Cesari (property of the public Library of Cremona and lodged at FM).
The library is enriched with bibliographic material bought by SPFM and the Department.
There are also important historical funds, collection of librettos, records, tapes, recording, rolls (from the
beginning of the twentieth century), private donations and a big collection of microfilms from all over the world.
Another important bequest kept in FM is the music instruments Collection Pellini, which where made by English
and German specialist artisans on the pattern of Eighteenth and Nineteenth centuries.
The DSMPF makes researches (even for national and international projects) with Italian, European, American
and Australian scholars.
The DSMPF has two international sections – the musicological one (with its Opera Omnia by Marcantonio
Ingegneri, LIM Lucca) and the interdisciplinary section (“Diverse Voci...” ETS Pisa) – and a computer magazine,
Philomusica online, now at its seventh number (http://philomusica.unipv.it).
The work of each professor, the Erasmus/Socrates project and the organization of lectures, conferences,
seminars and international meeting improve the collaboration among Italian and foreign universities.
Scientific Committee
Maria Caraci Vela is Full Professor in Music Philology and Middle Ages and Renaissance Musical Texts: Historical and
Textual Criticism at the Facoltà di Musicologia, Cremona (Pavia University). She is member of Committees of the
Department Series “Diverse voci…” (Cremona, Dipartimento di Scienze Musicologiche e paleografico-filologiche - Pisa,
ETS), and Marcantonio Ingegneri Opera Omnia (Cremona, DSMPF - Lucca, LIM), and member of scientific boards
of several editions, conferences and researches. She is Head of the Department Journal Philomusica on line
( ://philomusica.unipv.it) and Scientific Coordinator of Progetto Notazioni and of several musicological and
interdisciplinary researches. Since 1998 she organizes the Seminari di Filologia musicale. She has published the first
two volumes of La filologia musicale. Istituzioni, storia, strumenti critici (Cremona, DSMPF- Lucca, LIM. Vol. 1:
Fondamenti storici e metodologici della filologia musicale, 2005; Vol. 2: Approfondimenti, 2009), and at present is working
on the third volume ( Antologia di contributi critici).
Daniele Sabaino graduated in piano and in composition at the Conservatory “Giuseppe Verdi” of Milan, and in
Musicology at Pavia University. His doctoral dissertation in Musical Philology focused on Marc’Antonio
Ingegneri’s sacred music, with a critical edition of Sacrae cantiones quatuor and quinque vocibus. At present, he is
professor of Modality and Theory and History of Medieval Notation at the Faculty of Musicology (Pavia University),
where he is also dean of the Scuola Interuniversitaria Lombarda di Specializzazione per l’Insegnamento Secondario
(S.I.L.S.I.S.), the Educational Department that prepares students for a career in all fields of secondary school
teaching. His research interest are focused on Medieval and Renaissance music analysis, Renaissance modality,
music philology and liturgical musicology. He studies also the interdisciplinary relationships between music and
science and music and theology in the so-called XVII century ‘Encyclopaedism’.
Rodobaldo Tibaldi graduated in 1988 in Musicology at the Scuola di Paleografia e Filologia musicale of
Cremona (Pavia University), where he completed his Ph.d. in 1994. Since 1993, he is researcher at the Facoltà di
Musicologia in Cremona. Research interests His current work is focused on Italian sacred and devotional music
of the XVI and XVII centuries, with emphasis on Northern Italy; he also concentrates on early polyphony and
its notation. For some time now he has also been working on Italian secular vocal music from the late XV and
early XVI centuries.
Philology and Musicological studies on the threshold
of the 21st century
During the 20th century, textual criticism has been applied in different fields, therefore contributing to the
renovation of Western culture and having a very active and critical role. Important achievements are today deeply
rooted in our culture
- philology is finally considered a critical and overall interpretive activity (and not only a mere technical
knowledge with an editing purpose);
- text is a dynamic object and its cognitive value can be ascribed to its author and tradition’s movement.
Modern music philology has made up for lost time in the past, as to the method and the interdisciplinary
connections. This recent recovery has enriched the perspectives and has achieved important results in different
fields: textual bibliography, author’s reworking, variants’ studies, trends and cross-connections between tradition
and reception; material philology, study of music notations (early, modern and contemporary, as well as
European and non-European); interaction between orality and writing and its influence on the tradition of music
Although some areas are still neglected, studies and researches are in constant evolution. Therefore, the
Dipartimento di discipline musicologiche e paleografico-filologiche, that has always focused its reasearch on textual criticism,
promotes and supports this Conference, in order to nourish a fruitful and diversified debate, based on different
points of view and cultural backgrounds.
Alexandra Amati-Camperi
(University of San Francisco)
Omicidio in Tracia: Un Orfeo shakespeariano
nella Venezia del Seicento
As is well known, the orphic myth underwent countless transformations in opera. One of these, found in the
opera Orfeo by Aureli and Sartorio (Venice, 1672), has hitherto hidden a surprising and unexpected influence: that
of Shakespeare’s Othello (London, 1604). Despite the fact that the mythological plot has been bent to fit the
demands of contemporary Venetian opera, which included among others the requirement that there be two pairs
of lovers and a sleepwalking scene, the most noteworthy transformation is the one undergone by the
protagonists. In this rendition Orpheus is amazingly similar to Othello, blinded by a homicidal jealousy, while
Eurydice resembles Desdemona in being an innocent victim, unfairly suspected of cheating. The parallelisms
between the theatrical text by the supreme bard and the libretto of Venetian opera are too numerous to be
merely coincidental. For example poor Eurydice, aware of having been sentenced, sings an aria to a tree
(“Querce annose”), which fulfills the same emotional function and is in the same dramatic position than
Desdemona’s Willow Song. Similarly, at the height of the intrigue there is a scene that is parallel and equivalent
to the handkerchief scene in Othello, where Orpheus eavesdrops and misunderstands everything Eurydice says,
confirming in his jealous mind her presumed guilt. While Eurydice was trying to convince Aristaeus to look for
love where it can be found (with his wife) Orpheus believes he hears a declaration of love. Besides, Aristaeus
fulfills in part the destructive function of Shakespeare’s Jago.
It seems probable and it is certainly possible that Othello would have reached Venice in the 1670s, as translated
and adapted by some traveling company of actors. The parallelism between the two works is almost uncanny,
even though it has been so cleverly covered under the mythological story as to go undetected for centuries. This
paper examines the textual relationship and traces a possible path of filiation, keeping in mind the frame within
which the opera was to be placed—that of Venetian opera in the second half of the 17th century, with its
expectations and requirements. It also briefly discusses the opera as an independent and coherent work in and of
itself, without, however, disregarding the Shakespearean influence.
Alexandra Amati-Camperi, originally from Italy, holds a BA/MA in Slavic Studies and Philology from the Università degli
Studi di Pisa (Italy), degrees in piano from the Conservatory of Music of Lucca (Italy), and both an MA and a Ph.D. in
Musicology from Harvard University. She has taught at Harvard, UC Davis, and the San Francisco Conservatory of Music,
and is presently Associate Professor and Director of the Music Program at the University of San Francisco.
Her interests include the Italian Renaissance, Italian opera, Feminist criticism, Romantic piano music, and German Baroque
choral music. She has published and read papers on Renaissance, operatic, and gender related topics in several journals and
conferences. Her book, Philippe Verdelot: Madrigali a sei voci, was published in 2004. The critical edition of Rossini’s 1810 oneact farsa La cambiale di matrimonio for Baerenreiter Verlag is in the editing stages, and she is now working on a book about the
presentation and treatment of women in opera, as seen through a few settings of the Orpheus myth, tentatively titled
Euridice: The Evolution of the Mythical and Musical Other.
She has served on the Council of the American Musicological Society, as the President of the Board of Directors of the San
Francisco Bach Choir, the Chair of the Artistic Advisory Committee of the San Francisco Boys Chorus, and on the Board
of Directors of the Lycée Français Lapérouse.
Maria Teresa Arfini
(Univerrsità della Valle d’Aosta – IED Milano)
Mendelssohn Philologist: towards Critical Edition and Philological Performance.
The twenty-year-old Felix Mendelssohn conducted the first complete performance of Matthäuspassion after the
composer’s death, following the use of reorchestrating and adapting the score to the audience listening habit,
without too many scruples. He changed the instrumentation, and he added phrasing prescriptions, dynamics –
including the use of crescendo and diminuendo –, and tempo marking. Gaspare Spontini – General Musikdirektor at the
court of Berlin – did the same just one year later, when he conducted an incomplete performance of B Minor
Mass Credo. This was the normal performance practice of the Berlin Singakademie under the direction of Friedrich
Zelter, Mendelssohn’s composition teacher; it was the normal performance practice throughout Germany.
Mendelssohn arranged for the Singakademie performances even Händel’s works, with the same criteria, which were
not far from Mozart’s arrangement of Händel’s Messiah. Nevertheless, Mendelssohn soon changed attitude and
tried to restore the musical works of the past, editing them scientifically and proposing an original performance
This paper aims to reconstruct the evolution of Mendelssohn’s approach to musical edition, as well as his
attitude as a conductor towards early music performance practice. Firstly, I will analyze his reworking of
Händel’s Acis und Galathea HWV (49) in 1829, a task commissioned by the Singakademie before the
Matthäuspassion’s revival. Secondly, I will consider the oratorio Israel in Egypt HWV 54 performance at the XVth
Lower Rhine Music Festival in 1833, and, principally, his edition for the London Handel Society, printed in 1845-46
by Cramer & Beale. In this edition, Mendelssohn followed a more modern philological method, that he clearly
explained in the Preface. He wrote: «I think it [is] my first duty, to lay before the Society the Score as Handel
wrote it, without introducing the least alteration, and without mixing up any remarks or notes with those of
Handel»; he argues about Händel’s impromptu additions during the performance, the resulting tradition and
states that: «it becomes my second duty to offer an opinion in all such cases; but I think it [is] of paramount
importance that all my remarks should be kept strictly separate from the Original Score, and that the latter
should be given in its entire purity». This is, more or less, the modern Urtext method.
Maria Teresa Arfini has studied piano and composition (Turin Conservatory) and graduated in Italian Literature and
History of Music (University of Turin). She have got a Ph. D. in Musicology at Bologna University, where she won also a
post-doctoral fellowship. She’s teaching History of Music at Istituto Europeo di Desing (IED) of Milan and Didactic of
Music Tradition and Ear Training Laboratory at Valle d’Aosta University. She is fellow of many international research
associations and published in the most important international musicological reviews. At moment she’s completed a
monograph about Mendelssohn.
Thomas Betzwieser
(University of Bayreuth)
H ow to edit musical quotations?
Salieri’s Prima la musica e poi le parole (1786) and its
operatic pre-texts
Within the history of opera there can be found a lot of works dealings with musical quotations, from Mozart’s Le
nozze di Figaro to Hindemith’s Cardillac. A special ‘vogue’ of this phenomenon can be observed in the Italian
‘metamelodramma’ of the 18th century, where operas made use of pre-existing musical material. In this respect,
Salieri’s Prima la musica e poi le parole (1786) is regarded as a paradigm for the issue of musical quotation, since
Salieri incorporated pre-existing music in a way that quoted music became an integral part of his score. Nearly a
fifth of the divertimento teatrale Prima la musica is not by Salieri but by Giuseppe Sarti, namely from the opera
seria Giulio Sabino. In contrast to the genre of pasticcio, Sarti’s music is really integrated in Salieri’s score, on the
other hand, the libretto (by G.B. Casti) clearly indicates the citations through quotation marks.
The first concern for an edition of Salieri’s opera is the question how the musical text could make transparent
these ‘foreign’ parts of/in the score. The crucial point, however, is the issue in which way a critical edition should
take the original music into consideration, i.e. the sources of Sarti’s opera. For minor quotations as for some bars
in Le nozze di Figaro, this seems obsolete, however, for quotations as large-scale arias (e.g. Sarti’s Là tu vedrai chi
sono) it seems reasonable to take the sources of the original music into closer consideration. Most interesting is
the fact that Salieri’s authograph score is uncomplete for some larger Sarti quotes, only to be found in other
copies. (At one point Salieri indicates that „quel che manca si troverò nell’archivio di Corte o del Teatro.”) In
other words: Salieri’s authograph does not contain the whole music of the opera; he therefore advised the
scribe(s) to complete the lacking passages of the score by explicitly refering to the Viennese Sarti sources. It is
obvious that the scores of Sarti’s Giulio Sabino served at least for one aria as direct basis for the ‘completion’ of
Salieri’s score.
The paper, in a first step, will demonstrate the different procedures of Salieri’s use of pre-existing musical
material; in a second step, it will discuss general problems of dealing with musical quotations in critical editions.
Since Salieri’s Prima la musica is part of the new editon series OPERA – Spektrum des europäischen Musiktheaters
(University of Bayreuth), the paper will also give a broader view on ‘unusual” problems of operatic editing, as the
issue of multiple authorships.
Thomas Betzwieser born in 1958 near Mannheim; studied musicology, German languages and philosophy at University of
Heidelberg; 1989 Ph.D. in Musicology; 1990-1995 Assistant Professor at Freie Universität Berlin, Department of
Musicology; 1995 DAAD-Fellowship at the Maison des Sciences de l’Homme, Paris; 1996-1998 DFG Research Scholarship; 2000
Habilitation at Freie Universität Berlin; 1999-2001 Lecturer in Music at University of Southampton; since 2001 Professor of
musicology at University of Bayreuth.
1999-2008 Member of the advisory board Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart (France, 18th century); since 2003 Editor of
Perspektiven der Opernforschung (with Jürgen Maehder); since 2006 member of the advisory committee for Süddeutsche Hofmusik
(Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften); since 2009 Member of the musicological committee of the Akademie der
Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz; since 2009 Head of the edition project OPERA – Spektrum des europäischen
Musiktheaters (Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur Mainz).
for further information: www.prof-musikwissenschaft.uni-bayreuth.de
Angela Carone
(Facoltà di musicologia, Università di Pavia)
Tempi concertati di Luciano Berio nel proprio tempo:
un caso di filologia intertestuale
Luciano Berio’s production represents a problematic case within the philological studies related to 20th century
music. With few exceptions, the limited quantity of autograph material available today (virtually non-existent in
many compositions) and its typology have prevented a meticulous and in-depth study of the origin of Berio’s
works; the limited number of sketches obscures the access to both compositional aspects and the composer’s
modus operandi. In some cases, the reconstruction of the process forming the base of a musical work can be based
also on material, that is not necessarily compositional: for example, Berio’s published and non-published
writings, especially his correspondence. Tempi concertati (1958-1960) for flute, violin, two piano and four
instrumental groups represents a good study-case.
Berio’s correspondence with Severino Gazzelloni and Henri Pousseur provides very important documents in
order to understand how the composer chose the scoring for Tempi concertati (which include ‘structural’ reasons,
in line with Berio’s 1950 poetic). The initial project of the work was interrelated (in an self-intertextual way) to
other works written by Berio in the same period (Serenata, 1957, based on the alternation between a solo flute and
14 instruments), particularly with their instrumentation (Sequenza I, 1958, for solo flute). Additionally, the letters
that Berio sent and received while he composed Tempi concertati clearly show how his decision to subdivide the
orchestra into four groups was influenced by the structure of the work Scambi (1957) by Pousseur for four tape
recorders (in that case the relation between the pieces is architextual). Actually, Berio worked on the new
synchronization of the four tape recorders of Scambi in the Studio di Fonologia in Milan in that same period;
above all, he was influenced by Gruppenkomposition, codified by Karlheinz Stockhausen, which became
paradigmatic during the 1950s and was employed by Berio himself in the two versions of Allelujah (1955-57, for
six and five instrumental groups). The paper illustrates the first steps of the genesis of Tempi concertati, which
demonstrate the close network of intertextual relationships influencing the origins of the work and the choice of
some constitutive elements.
Angela Carone completed her PhD dissertation − a study on Luciano Berio’s formal conception − at University of Pavia,
Italy, in 2008. Currently she is post-doctoral research fellow at the same University. Research interests: Formenlehre and the
reception of Romantic music during 1890s and the beginning of the 20th century. She has published essays on Luciano
Berio’s music, on narratology (in particular on Robert Schumann and Franz Schubert’s music, forthcoming), and on the
concepts of musical work and style in the XVIII and XIX centuries.
Francesco Del Bravo
(Freie Universität Berlin)
Copying and translating Bellini: perspectives on the reception of Vincenzo Bellini’s operatic works in
German-speaking opera houses during the 19th Century.
Studying the reception of Bellini’s melodrammi in German-speaking opera houses during the 19th Century
involves the investigation of a plurality of sources: scores used in opera houses, piano-scores, librettotranslations, and reviews.
The main question facing a study of the reception of a composer’s works concerns –in my opinion– the texts
through which those works were transmitted and, ultimately, received. In the case of opera composers, the
extreme degree of textual fluidity of operatic works produces a plurality of experiences in the transmission and
fruition of their works. In order to identify the specificity of a reception, this plurality has to be carefully
investigated and –within the bounds of the actual status of the sources– defined according to the available textual
evidence. In this paper, we will be concerned with the task of identifying the German receptive path of Bellini’s
melodrammi during the 19th Century.
A philological approach to the study of the reception of a work involves an analytical method based on textual
collation. Given the above-mentioned fluidity of the operatic text, the basic fact of textual variety does not
necessarily imply an alteration of an archetype, as it may be the case that the composer himself tended to modify
his works over time. The task of a philological study of a reception thus consists in differentiating between the
modifications introduced by the composer himself and those introduced by others, in order to identify the
specificity of the non-authorial tradition. This in turn involves a reflection on the Werkbegriff of a melodramma. If it
is evident that an opera composer considered his works to be modifiable, it will be equally clear that he
considered them modifiable only within certain parameters. In other words, there existed a modifiabilitythreshold beyond which the composer perceived that the modification of a melodramma was not possible without
incurring the loss of identity of the melodramma itself. A philological inquiry will allow us to investigate the
convergences and divergences of such an authorial modifiability-threshold and that of a specific textual tradition;
a tradition in which are included both singers –makers of performance-traditions that could become part of the
textual tradition– and capellmeister, who occupied themselves with the editing of the scores that were ultimately
to circulate throughout the opera world.
The study of a specific German textual tradition cannot forgo an analysis of the German translations of librettos
that constituted the poetic form –i.e. linguistic, metrical, phonic– in which the melodrammi were mostly performed
and received in German-speaking countries.
Francesco Del Bravo studied in Siena with Fabrizio Della Seta and in Würzburg with Wolfgang Osthoff. Currently he is
accomplishing a Ph.D at Freie Universität-Berlin with Jürgen Maehder writing a thesis on the reception of Bellini’s operatic
works among German-speaking opera houses during the 19th Century. Recently he wrote about catharsis idea in late 18th
Century Italian opera and about the Italian operatic work of Ignaz Joseph Pleyel.
Antonio Delfino
(Facoltà di Musicologia, Università di Pavia)
Simone Molinaro’s Fantasie: from modern transcriptions for keyboards to a new “classical” reading
Early in the XX century, the Masters of the past seem to have been a source of inspiration for the natural rebirth
of Italian instrumental music. Transcriptions are usually helpful as a means of reviving the instrumental
repertoire, especially concerning the piano. In this case, transcriptions generally reflect the different sound and
the wider technical capacities of the piano.
A typical example of this trend may be found in the lute output of the Genovese Simone Molinaro. He published
only one collection, the Intavolatura di liuto […] Libro Primo, printed in Venice in 1599 by Amadino. The many
transcriptions and arrangements for piano inspired to this collection well exemplify the varied ways a lute score
can be handled. His most famous piece is the Balletto del Conte Orlando, which Ottorino Respighi later found in
Lautenspieler des XVI Jahrhunderts, a collection edited by Oscar Chilesotti. In 1917 Respighi revised the Balletto for
the opening mouvement of the first of three suites composing his own Antiche danze per liuto. In a lesser known
version for piano solo (1917) every addition (doubled octaves, widening of the chords, new definition of agogics
and dynamics, etc.) expands the texture by using the greater sound effect of the piano, changing neither its
melody nor its harmonical structure.
Here, at least another two cases can be brought to mind in which Molinaro’s music has been re-used, both
related to the first complete publication of his book edited by Giuseppe Gullino (Florence, Maurri, 1941). The
first is Ettore De Santi’s small collection, conceived as a teaching aid and published by the same printer with the
title: Sei pezzi per liuto: trascritti per i primi corsi di pianoforte. The second case – which can be considered a paraphrase
- is Bruno Rigacci’s rearrangement of three Fantasie, published in 1943 with the title Introduzione, quasi corale,
toccata: Tre fantasie di Simone Molinaro, a “free interpretation of lute tablatures suitable for piano”.
There are transcriptions that more knowledgeably respect the original and the spirit of its repertoire. This is the
manner in which Marco Enrico Bossi transcribed many keyboard compositions of the past into scores for organ
and harmonium. With the exception of op. 113 (Cinque pezzi per armonio, Torino, Capra, 1898), all his publications
for harmonium date back to the early 1920s, such as the two collections of short pieces printed by Dahlström in
Stockholm. They were conceived for the “Angelica”, a harmonium model with many registers and a very mild
sound, manufactured by A.B. Skandinaviska Orgel & Pianofabriken in the same city 1. Amongst them, the first
collection (1920) groups ten original pieces, while the other (Angelica Album I: 6 Transkriptioner för Orgelharmonium
av M. Enrico och Renzo Bossi) contains six compositions, including one of Molinaro’s Fantasie (corresponding to the
Fantasia nona of the tablature, which he most probably found in the Chilesotti edition mentioned above). Bossi
maintained Chilesotti’s transposition a sixth higher (D instead of F), but also cautiously inserted an extra voice
into most of the two-voice passages. This can be seen clearly in the long initial section (meas. 3-17). The new
sound of the formal structure and the imitative texture depends on the accurate indications for the registers 2, but
also on the frequent dynamic indications (crescendo/diminuendo) and phrasing (legato/staccato).
Since this modern interpretation tends to suggest a “keyboard vocation” for this Fantasia, we may speculate that
this could have been its purpose in the late XVI century. We may then reasonably question whether these
Fantasie were performed on the organ or not. Bearing in mind Molinaro was able to teach and play all
instruments «quibus utuntur musici» and that his organ building skills are documented by his activity as a
consultant in building and testing organs in Genova, we believe our speculation is worthy of consideration.
In his 1599 collection, Molinaro tablated for lute two Canzoni by the organist Gioseffo Guami – originally written
for four separate parts – preserving the counterpoint rigour typical of the keyboard. Even if we leave aside the
conjecture (which, in any case, is difficult to demonstrate) that these fantasie were originally composed for
keyboards, we may assume that they were performed on the organ or the harpsichord, enriching the late
Cinquecento keyboard repertoire. This is particularly true for Genova, where no evidence of any production of
this kind during this period has been found so far.
Bossi also wrote an instruction manual for this instrument in 1920-1921, the manuscript of which is now kept at the Bossi Fund of Como Civic Library.
See the well-balanced alternation between the “forte” (Grand Jeu) and the “piano” (Princip. 8’ Oktava 4’) sections.
Antonio Delfino. At present he teaches at Pavia University (Faculty of Musicology in Cremona); research interests in XV
and XVI century music, particularly sacred music, tablature keyboard repertoire and XIX century Italian instrumental music.
He is member of many scientific boards of critical editions and musicological essays.
Mariateresa Dellaborra
(Istituto superiore di studi musicali F. Vittadini, Pavia)
For a critical edition of Agrippina moglie di Tiberio, (1743) by Giovanni Battista Sammartini
The last music drama composed by Giovanni Battista Sammartini is handed down in a score only partially
autograph (F Pn ms 1224-1226) and through a series of separate arias (D, KA cat. E) and contrafacta (CH-E
543/6; I- PAc 35622 CF 1-2). My paper will focus on several aspects, such as: the collation of all the sources, the
analysis of their role and meaning in its tradition, the understanding of the musical text and its interpretation
related to the libretto, the discrepancies between these two sources, the solution to the problems connected to its
circulation and to the interpolations and rewritings (as to text and music). My paper intends to deal with the
issues related to the method applied in the critical edition of this musical drama. The analysis of some meaningful
or controversial passages; the exact interpretation – necessary because of the hasty handwriting - of the signs of
rhyming or of the deletions scattered throughout the acts; the considerable amount of notes and explanations in
the author’s own hand; the presence, however deleted, of the bassoons (quite unusual in Sammartini’s ensemble)
in a passage of the aria «Viva Augusto, e viva Roma» (Act I, scene 7); the repeated use of trumpets and “trombe
da caccia”; the observations on the different vocal style connected to the various role-singers, whose names are
all known: these are all interesting issues concerning the coeval performance practice and, more specifically, the
author's style. This paper aims at offering a meaningful contribution to the coherent and rigorous interpretation
of his work.
Mariateresa Dellaborra is professor of music history and aesthetics at the Istituto Superiore di Studi Musicali F. Vittadini
in Pavia, a member of the scientific committee of Fondazione Arcadia in Milan and of Società Italiana di Musicologia (Sidm).
She is author of books, and of several articles published in scholarly journals. She has taken care of the critical edition (all
first recordings) of Nicolò Paganini‘s First and Second Concert for violin and orchestra, Alessandro Rolla and Saverio
Mercadante’s Flute concertos, Ippolito e Aricia by Tommaso Traetta, Lo spazzacamino by Antonio da Fonseca Portugal, and
Memet by Giovanni Battista Sammartini.
Theodor Dumitrescu
(Universiteit Utrecht)
A Reassessment of Stemmatic Techniques in the Digital Age
Over the past several decades, the field of textual scholarship has witnessed potent criticisms of its traditional
methodologies, as well as proposals for alternative techniques rooted in the work of noted philological skeptics.
The Common Error method, formalized upon the basis of the pioneering 19th-century work of Karl Lachmann,
long enjoyed a central status as the basic means of establishing textual readings in modern editions redacted from
variant versions and imperfect copies, but is increasingly viewed as insufficient and even fundamentally flawed.
The attempt to strip away supposed scribal corruptions and thereby produce a single authorial Urtext has been
argued to be historically dishonest and even deformative of the social conditions of textual production and
reception, both for medieval literature (e.g., Cerquiglini and the New Philology) and for texts in the age of
mechanical reproduction and publication (McGann). Newer approaches aim to demonstrate the relations of
surviving textual states divorced from the idea of (original or final) authorial intentions, borrowing approaches
from fields such as computational biology to resolve long-standing methodological quandaries.
Musicology, however, has for much of its history lagged considerably behind textual scholarship in matters
pertaining to textual criticism, where specific methods have been first developed and first discarded. The two
major manuals of music philology in current use, by Feder (1987) and Grier (1996), are recent but largely
advocate the most traditionalist positions. Many music editions themselves exhibit problematic usages, tacitly
sidestepping classic philological rules where they patently cannot apply to particular musical situations, but
asserting their validity otherwise. This reluctance of musical scholarship to engage with modern text-critical
approaches is not purely a matter of reasoned conservatism, but is also predicated upon technological working
conditions. The newest textual methodologies rely increasingly upon computational models, such as the
“phylogenetic” techniques of the New Stemmatics, which are readily implemented for text data whereas musical
data requires significantly more complex programming groundwork.
The situation of music in information technology has fortunately been developing rapidly in the 21st century, to
the point where sophisticated computer encoding of notation is ever more widely standardized and used by
musicologists and performers. The time is ripe for a reopening and reevaluation of text-critical methodologies as
applied to musical sources, taking in the full range of recent approaches. In an investigation which will offer
results applicable to a large range of musics, widely-disseminated mass settings by Josquin and Mouton, edited
digitally for online publication, will serve as a test case for a concrete comparative assessment of various
computational and post-Lachmannian stemmatic techniques. Among the most significant consequences of the
study is the development of a new stemmatological framework specifically tailored to notated musical material.
Theodor Dumitrescu is assistant professor of musicology at Utrecht University, where he directs the CMME Project for
online publication of early music editions. He holds a BA in Computer Science from Princeton University and a D.Phil. in
Musicology from the University of Oxford (2004). His research and publications center on history, analysis, and theory of
European music c. 1500, as well as editorial technique and issues in digital publication. He has recently edited The York
Masses for Early English Church Music (2009) and led the collaborative online edition of The Occo Codex for the CMME
Project (2008).
Reinmar Emans
(Universität Bochum)
Problems with different versions and their representation
in critical editions
Guiding principals of historic-critical editions often reveal a certain loss of how to deal with deviant versions.
Among others, this insecurity is originated in a specific understanding of “opus”. However, meanwhile it has
become apparent that also baroque music must be understood as work in progress. While it was current for a
long time to consolidate different versions in a work that never had existed this way, nowadays this procedure
has been given up in favour of printing deviant versions or even parts of these separately in the appendix. This
way of separating versions may be correct, however, for the user their representation remains problematical, as
he either has to transfer all differences troublesome from the critical report or has to collate them again. One
way out of this dilemma might be a new method, that shall be demonstrated on the basis of some examples from
Bach’s keyboard music: the digital edition. Thus, the changeableness of a musical work becomes clear within an
edition for the first time.
Reinmar Emans gained a doctorate at the university of his birthplace, Bonn, in 1982, with a thesis on the cantatas and
canzonets of Giovanni Legrenzi. Since 1983 he has held a research post at the Johann-Sebastian-Bach-Institut, Göttingen,
of which he was Acting Director up to 1996. In recent years he has taught in Bochum, Marburg, Köln and Hamburg and
has also been active as a reviewer of recordings of both classical and popular music. His publications and research lie mainly
in the areas of Italian vocal music of the seventeenth century, the stylistic evolution of J. S. Bach’s music, source criticism
and the history of German music during the eighteenth century.
Stéphan Etcharry
(University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne)
Hispanicism and intertextuality in the musical works of Henri Collet (1885-1951): nature, modality,
When it is not completely forgotten, the name of Henri Collet is usually associated to the musical critic of
Comœdia who created, in two of his articles dated 16 and 23 of January 1920, the advertising slogan « Groupe des
Six » in order to group together six young composers of the French musical avant-garde around the « leader »
Jean Cocteau (Georges Auric, Louis Durey, Arthur Honegger, Darius Milhaud, Francis Poulenc and Germaine
Tailleferre). At best, some rare specialists and scholars may have crossed his essays dedicated to the Spanish
musicography like Le Mysticisme musical espagnol au XVIe siècle [The Spanish musical mysticism in the 16th century]
(1913), Victoria (1914), Albeniz et Granados (1926) or L’Essor de la musique espagnole au XXe siècle [The Expansion of
the Spanish music in the 20th century] (1929).
Yet, being all at once professor of Spanish, translator, musicologist, music critic, director of collection, while
participating actively in the musical, cultural and society life of the Paris of the first half of the 20th century, Henri
Collet defines above all himself as a composer. The majority of his works inevitably evokes the Iberic peninsula,
from the tone poem for piano El Escorial (1910-1911) and the Poème de Burgos for violin and orchestra (1912) to
the light operas Don José and Le Fils de Don Juan [The son of Don Juan] (1951), passing throught the Chants de
Castille [Songs of Castile] for piano (1920), the set of mélodies Poema de un día (1920), the piano quartet Castellanas
(1921), the Sonate castillane for violin and piano (1921), the Trio castillan (1921), the wind quintet Romería castellana
(1925), the ballets Clavelitos (1928) and Los Toreros (1932), the Quatorze chants polyphoniques espagnols du XVe siècle
[Fourteen Spanish polyphonic songs of the 15th century] (1935), Les Amants de Galice (1942), the first Concerto
Flamenco for piano and orchestra (1946), the second Concerto Flamenco for violin and orchestra (1946-1947), the
Symphonie de l’Alhambra (1947)…
Behind these exotic titles which obviously classify Henri Collet in the movement of French musical hispanicism,
all these compositions bring to light, above all, a purified melodic style which comes directly from the Castillan
popular music or, only for a few examples, from the music of Spanish Renaissance. This musical style has
particularly recourse to many melodic borrowings. Thus, intertextuality plays a fundamental role within Collet’s
musical works. At the turning-point of the 19th and 20th centuries, in a general context in which hispanicism in
France progressively becomes a scientific discipline with scholars, specialists, creation of chairs in the
universities, libraries, archives, research centers, congresses, symposiums, reviews…, does the musical
hispanicism of Collet – who graduated himself in spanish at the university of Bordeaux – adopt a new
configuration through the use of intertextuality ?
Firstly, the communication propose to identify the nature of the different musical sources used by Henri Collet
in his own music. Then, it will observe the way he exploits these quotations, revealing the very essence of his
compositional process. At last, we will propose to think about the deep meaning of these references and the aim
of the composer in this intertextual approach.
Stéphan Etcharry is Associate Professor at Reims University (URCA) and teaches in Jacques Ibert Conservatoire in Paris.
His musicological research turns towards French music in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries, and particularly
towards hispanicism. He collaborated, writing about forty articles, to the Gran Enciclopedia cervantina directed by Carlos Alvar
(Madrid, Castalia, 2005-…). He takes part in international symposiums (Australia, France, Ireland, Italy, Spain, U.S.A.) and
he publishes many articles in reviews, books and encyclopaedias. Very interested in the pedagogy of solfeggio and musical
hearing, he is also the author of a serie of didactic scores which combine solfeggio progress and development of the singing
voice (Mélodimania, 4 volumes, Paris, Billaudot).
Daniele Valentino Filippi
Intertextuality in sixteenth-century music:
studies and perspectives
Musicologists happen to borrow terms, concepts, and methodologies from other disciplines: these borrowed
tools are often exploited for a short span of time, just to be left aside (much too soon) when a new fashion
comes along. It could be said that the term intertextuality (with all its complex implications) has met a similar fate:
outside a few particular subfields, it seems to have become a standard though underdeveloped part of the
methodological equipment, without stimulating significant systematic explorations and fresh perspectives on
major problems.
The aim of the present paper is to draw a balance on the study of intertextuality in sixteenth-century music.
Because of the very nature of its creation, distribution, and reception patterns, the music culture of Cinquecento
seems particularly rich in intertextual phenomena. But what has been the real impact of this approach on textual
as well as stylistic studies concerning this epoch? Which areas would benefit from a more consistent focus on
intertextual dynamics?
Basing my exposition both on existing literature and on my own research work, I will contend that a methodical
study of intertextual issues can raise new questions and give new answers regarding major composers (from
Josquin to Lassus, Palestrina, Victoria), their compositional process and stylistic genealogy, Gattungsgeschichte,
reception history, and so on.
In the last part of my paper, I will present a research project that reflects this systematic approach to
intertextuality. The aim of this project, entitled «An intertextual portrait of Palestrina», will be to challenge the
vulgate (and obviously chimerical) idea of a monolithic Palestrinian style, through a global examination of
borrowing procedures and intertextual streams flowing from other composers to Palestrina and vice versa.
Daniele V. Filippi Born in Milan (Italy) in 1975, Daniele V. Filippi studied in Cremona and in Heidelberg. He graduated in
Musicology in 1999 with a dissertation on Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina’s Motecta festorum totius anni. In 2004 he completed
his PhD at the same institution, where his principal teachers have been prof. Maria Caraci Vela and dr. Rodobaldo Tibaldi.
He is active in Milan as an independent scholar, working meanwhile as a consultant editor at Adelphi, one of Italy’s most
prestigious publishing houses.
MAIN INTERESTS: sacred music (motet); Sixteenth-century devotional music and aestethics; Roman composers (Palestrina,
Victoria, G.F. Anerio); form in Renaissance music; intertextuality. In the Renaissance field, he’s author of books (Tomás Luis
de Victoria, L’Epos, Palermo, 2008; Book; Selva armonica. La musica spirituale a Roma tra Cinque e Seicento, Brepols, Tournhout,
2008), articles and critical editions (GIOVANNI FRANCESCO ANERIO, Selva armonica, A-R Editions, Middleton, 2006;
GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI DA PALESTRINA, Motecta festorum totius anni cum communi sanctorum quaternis vocibus (1563), Edizioni ETS,
Pisa, 2003).
Constance Frei
(Geneva University)
The influence of printing on violin works in 17th century Italy
In the 17th century most of the Italian violin repertoire was printed using movable type, even though this system
was showing signs of decline. A printed score is considered to be the complete work, but it is only a mere
indication of the way it was played: the limits imposed by the typography would seem to be one of the reasons
for the difference between written works and their interpretation. There are often numerous problems and
graphic inaccuracies in the printed versions of articulation signs, ornamentation, scordatura and polyphony. In
connection with polyphony for example the solutions offered by 17th century printers working in Venice,
Modena and Bologna were not as refined as those of the 16th century Serenissima, when printing keyboard
intavolature. This kind of ‘simplification’ was not the result of seeking perfection but, rather, the consequence of
abandoning a system that was too costly; it resulted in printing techniques that often had little to do with the
original version and were sometimes difficult for violinists to decipher. Printers and composers developed new
stratagems to eliminate some of the problems, such as the ingenuous ways of arranging the notes on the staff to
indicate a musical design, accentuation or phrasing. The signs and symbols that appear in the second half of the
17th century (e.g. dots, dashes and semi-circles) do not seems to be the result of progress in printing, but are
more likely to have been the response to composers’ new expressive requirements. At that time, just when
printing systems seemed to be on the decline, violin techniques were evolving, and more and more important
signs and symbols appeared.
At the end of the 17th century, countless works began to be engraved, a technique that held no limitations for
musical notation, and had already been used in the 16th century, but not widely, due to its cost.
A comparison between the indications in the two systems (movable type and engraving) allows us to assess how
much limits in printing influenced composers and, vice versa, how much musicians’ requirements influenced
printing techniques.
Constance Frei, born in Geneva in 1973, studied musicology at the University of Geneva and graduated in 2001. She then
has been an assistant to Etienne Darbellay from 2001 to 2008. She obtained her PhD on articulation and ornamentation in
Italian violin literature of the 17th-century, for which she received a grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation to
complete her research in Bologna (2005). At the University of Geneva, she taught musicology from 2001 to 2009 on various
subjects among which 17th-century music and Aufführungspraxis, D. Shostakovich, general music history courses and
chamber music.
She studied violin (with Liliane and Corrado Romano) and piano (with Bahar Dördüncü). She has performed in various
formations (orchestra, quartet, duo) and has taught violin after having obtained the diploma of the Swiss Society for Music
In the field of musicology she has collaborated on the realization of various critical editions published in Italy by Suvini
Zerboni; she is currently working on the history of music printing in Italy during the 17th century, on the Italian violin
manuscripts of the Baroque era and on the literature for strings quartet especially from D. Shostakovich. She is now
preparing a three-hours documentary (DVD) on the history of violin technique in Italy during the 17th century.
Piero Gargiulo
(Conservatorio L. Cherubini, Firenze)
Da Willaert a Merulo: testi e madrigali nel ‘Primo libro a 4 voci’ (15332, poi 15379) di Philippe Verdelot.
The Primo libro de madrigali di Verdelotto (1533) was published a few years later the Madrigali de diversi musici libro
primo de la serena (1530), one of the first reliable evidences of the new term ‘madrigal’ in the title-page of a
collection. Verdelot’s several musical settings spread out through handwritten sources from 1521-1525 until the
1533 print (the Bassus only surviving in I Fn) and finally appeared in the complete 1537 edition. The collection
include 28 settings: 14 anonymous and 14 ascribed. The poetic text, mainly belonging to the canzone and, above
all, to the ballad genre, allows the rest to the poetic madrigal. Only the two sonnet’s quatrains of Petrarch
(Quando Amor i belli occhi a terra inchina) are based on the madrigal Quand’Amor i begl’occhi.
Among the poets, we find Francesco Petrarca (3), Bonifazio Dragonetto (3), Ludovico Martelli (1), Niccolò
Machiavelli (1). Text and music tradition cross over a period of twenty years - from 1533 to 1557 - through
handwritten and printed sources. A study group of the G.A.T.M. (Music and Theory Analysis Group, Bologna),
focused on pre-tonal analysis, estimated the incidence of a traditio within a long lapse of time determining
Verdelot’s fortune and circulation in Italy. The paper aims at checking a collation among sources: from Willaert
15368 (Intavolatura de li madrigali di Verdelotto da cantare et sonare nel lauto, intavolati per Messer Adriano to Merulo 156622
Primo and Secondo libro a 4 voci Nuovamente ristampati, et da molti e importanti errori con ogni diligentia corretti.
We should also consider a possible repertoire of sources to collate, previous, contemporary and following
Verdelot, such as Bernardo Pisano, Sebastiano and Costanzo Festa, Francesco de Layolle. Comparing the
handwritten traditio and without disregarding the following editions (for instance 1535/6[?] and 154419), such
collation should enable us to offer an iter of choices as to some technical features. The Willaert’s selection of
Verdelot’s Primo Libro leaves six madrigals of his collection, that one of Merulo amends “various and important”
mistakes, but collects two Libri of Madrigals - i.e the First (1533) and the Second (1534) - therefore causing a
certain disproportion as to quantity.
Ten years after Verdelot’s death (Florence 1527), but twenty years after the first Roman and Florentine
manuscripts (1521-1525) during which Verdelot gains a large circulation, Willaert sets 22 madrigals more
suitable to a lute tablature, while Merulo publishes a complete edition of both the four-voice Libri.
Drawing a parallel, we are able to make some remarks:
1. the uncommon use of dissonances; a certain use of the musical intervals;
2. the performing manner in order to the coeval praxis;
3. the use of tablatures (the 1533 edition ‘adapted’ by Willaert)
4. Verdelot’s style coeval to the Primo Libro represents an evolution of the musical taste in fieri, extending for the
first time the boundaries of the so-called ‘Roman circle’ (B. Pisano, S. and C. Festa)
Piero Gargiulo graduated in piano at the Conservatory of Florence, in Literature at Florence University and in Musical
Palaeography and Philology in Cremona (Pavia University). At present he teaches History and Musical Aesthetics at the
Conservatory of Florence. He is member of several the Scientific Committee of GATM (G.A.T.M, Musical Analysis and
Theory, Bologna), of Frescobaldi and Brunelli’s opera omnia. He is also member of the Advisory Committee of SIdM (Roma)
for the musical editions. He is the Team Leader and coordinator of the project ITMI (Index of the Italian Musical Treatises
(Firenze - Fondazione Franceschini)
Research interests in vocal and instrumental music (XVI-XVII centuries); musical treatises (XVI-XVII centuries); musical
analysis of the XVI century polyphony; XVII and XVIII century Italian opera; XVII century music theory. He is author of
several articles in books and scholarly journals.
Paolo Giorgi
(Facoltà di Musicologia di Cremona, Università di Pavia)
L’Incoronazione di Poppea di Gaetano Cesari
During new researches on the musicological activity of Gaetano Cesari (1870-1934), brand new meaningful
details came to light, as to Monteverdi’s reception in the first half of the 20th century. While studyinh Cesari’s
archive (owned by the State Library of Cremona), an unpublished (and almost unknown) edition of Monteverdi’s
L’incoronazione di Poppea has been discovered: Cesari prepared this score around 1910 for some performances
directed by Giovanni Tebaldini (1864-1952) in Rome. Even the mere philological investigation of the material
aspects of these documents shows a highly scientific methodology, due to Cesari’s knowledge of the 19th century
German musicology and its pragmatist attitude; this was revolutionary for Cesari’s contemporary Italian
academic world. Moreover, an exhaustive analysis shows even some features which allow to define an ‘Italian
way’ of early music restoration: Cesari's method of cutting some scenes of the opera and his solutions for
instrumental and vocal ensemble are quite different from other coeval examples of 17th century opera
performances (i.e., the Paris performances of Incoronazione di Poppea conducted by Vincent D’Indy at the Schola
Cantorum in 1908). Thus, analyzing Cesari's output allows to write an essential chapter of the reception history of
Baroque opera during the 20th century.
Paolo Giorgi dottorando di ricerca in Musicologia presso la Facoltà di Musicologia di Cremona, Università degli Studi di
Marco Gozzi
(Università di Trento)
Proposal for a new edition of the Cortona Laudario
The Laudario Cortona, Biblioteca del Comune e dell'Accademia Etrusca, MS. 91 has been studied by many
scholars; to date there are five complete editions in modern transcription (FERNANDO LIUZZI, La lauda e i
primordi della melodia italiana, 2 voll., [Roma], La Libreria dello Stato, 1935; PELLEGRINO M. ERNETTI - LAURA
ROSSI LEIDI, Il laudario cortonese n. 91, Roma, Edi-Pan, 1980; LUIGI LUCCHI, Il laudario di Cortona, testi editi da
Giorgio Varanini e da Luigi Banfi, Vicenza, LIEF, 1987; CLEMENTE TERNI, Laudario di Cortona: testi musicali e
poetici contenuti nel cod. n. 91 della Biblioteca Comunale di Cortona, Firenze, La Nuova Italia Editrice, 1988; MARTIN
DÜRRER, Altitalienische Laudenmelodien: Das einstimmige Repertoire der Handschriften Cortona und Florenz, 2 voll., Kassel,
Bärenreiter, 1993), as well as other transcriptions, arrangements and editions with accompaniment (for example
the one by GIORGIO CANUTO, 1957: 42 Laudi francescane dal Laudario cortonense, XIII secolo, trascritte da G. Canuto
e armonizzate da N. Praglia, Roma, Praglia, 1957). Yet no modern editor seems to have given the necessary
attention to the extreme inaccuracy of the musical lessons in this manuscript, whose notation has no descriptive
or prescriptive purpose, but merely an ornamental function. The Cortona Laudario is full of errors and therefore
presents many philological problems, rarely detected by editors and not always easy to amend, but oftentimes
clearly correctible. Recordings and concerts devoted to the Cortona laude (almost all based on the unreliable
editions preceding Dürrer) offer numerous flagrant and unlistenable melodic contours, with entire sections
shifted a third, frequent improbable sixth intervals, and singularly dubious interpretations of the relation between
text and music. Drawing on some perceptive comments from THEODORE KARP, Editing the Cortona Laudario,
“The Journal of Musicology”, 11 (1993), pp. 73-105, the proposed contribution seeks to show the need for a
new edition that restore some beauty and truth to this battered repertoire, primarily through a consideration of
the first five laude of the manuscript.
Marco Gozzi is a professor of Musicology at Trento University. His research enterprise of cataloguing and digitalizing the
seven Trento codices of the 15th century is available on-line.
From 2002 to 2006 he was National Coordinator of the inter-university project RAPHAEL (Rhythmic And Proportional
Hidden or Actual ELements in Plainchant 1350-1750), with the support of the Ministero dell'Università e della Ricerca. His main
interests concern: a) the theory and history of notation in the 14th and 15th centuries; b) the Italian Trecento; c) liturgical
books (manuscripts and editions); d) the Trent Codices of the 15th century; e) the Cantus fractus and mensural elements in
plainchant; f) the history of music in South-Tyrol before 1600; g) musical philology and paleography; h) the connections
between cantus planus and polyphony; and i) the application of new technologies to the study and appreciation of books with
Since 1985 Marco Gozzi has been a member of the vocal ensemble ‘Il Virtuoso Ritrovo’, and maintains an active concert
schedule, both in Italy and abroad. In 2000 he founded the ‘Laurence Feininger Ensemble’, specialized in plainchant and
cantus fractus.
James Grier
(University of Western Ontario)
An Editor of Medieval Music Looks Backwards and Forwards:
The Critical Edition of Music Written in the Hand of Adémar de Chabannes (989-1034)
The edition of music written in the hand of Adémar de Chabannes will form part of his collected works in the
series Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis, and will constitute the first music published there. The
edition is now in the hands of the publisher. Over a decade ago, I published an overview of the projected
edition in my book, The Critical Editing of Music (Cambridge University Press, 1996). In this paper, I shall review
those remarks, made when the edition was well under way, to examine what theoretical and methodological
adjustments became necessary as the edition achieved its final form, and to speculate on how those
developments might affect the task of editing plainsong (the milieu practised by Adémar), medieval music more
broadly, and Western art music in general in the future, particularly for myself, but also for other musicologists.
Adémar de Chabannes, an early eleventh-century monk, left behind some 451 folios of music with musical
notation in his hand, including examples of every plainsong genre then in use, and some 100 original
compositions. These documents, exceptional in many ways, constitute the earliest identfiable compositional
autographs by half a millennium. Armed with these autographs, it was not difficult to adopt the “best” text
method. Adémar, however, like many distinguished musicians, was a far from distinguished proofreader, even
for pieces of his own composition. Banal copying errors appeared regularly, including the omission of two
complete strophes of music from a sequence (an untexted piece sung after the Alleluia in the Mass) that he
himself had composed. Aside from demonstrating just how human it is to err, this example also shows how easy
it is for scribes to commit simple copying errors in music they know well, particularly when no literary text is
present to assist the memory. I was therefore obligated to impose critical scrutiny on every reading in the
autographs to identify such copying errors, a situation familiar in the “best” text method, but brought into high
relief here because of the indisputable authority of the witnesses.
Furthermore, Adémar’s autographs provide the earliest surviving evidence of a composer actively using notation
in the compositional process. In several places, he erased a first draft of a melody in order to write over top a
new version. The erased version is legible, and cannot be construed as a copying error. Adémar, therefore,
sketched and revised his original compositions in notation, something earlier composers, such as Notker
Balbulus around the turn of the tenth century, may have done but for which we have no evidence. Adémar, who
was transferring some of the oral/aural practices of previous generations into a musically literate practice of
music, transformed musical notation from a means to record existing melodies into an active participant in the
creative process of composing new ones.
James Grier is Professor of Music History at the University of Western Ontario. He is the author of The Critical Editing of
Music (1996) and The Musical World of a Medieval Monk: Adémar de Chabannes in Eleventh-Century Aquitaine (2006), both with
Cambridge University Press, as well as articles on Textual Criticism and Editing Music, Music and Liturgy in Aquitaine 9001200, and the music of Frank Zappa. His critical edition of the music copied in the hand of Adémar de Chabannes is
currently in press at Brepols. It will appear in the series Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis, as part of the
Collected Works of Adémar, and it will present the first music published in that series.
Benedikt Hager
(Universität Wien)
Die Entstehung von Beethovens „Szene am Bach“: Drei Schaupla tze.
If one aims to distinguish Beethoven's highly idiosyncratic working methods from those of other composers, it
seems reasonable to use the general terms that have been established in order to describe the aspects of his
methodical approach and his creative process (e. g. recording the very first ideas, regular revisions, expansive
writing, permanent change of the sketch types). But even though descriptions of this kind apply to the sketches
of most of his works, in one way or the other, it's only when immersing oneself in the closer study of the
sketches of a certain opus that one realizes that original pieces of art request ever original ways of their creation.
The sketches of the Andante molto moto of Beethoven's op. 68 show that Beethoven not only, as one may
presume, finds an individual modus operandi for every work or movement, but sometimes even for certain parts
within one movement. During my statement I will demonstrate this by means of three distinct contexts from the
generic materials for op. 68 that show such diverse approaches: 1) the creation of the first theme group functions
as example for how straightforwardly the creation of a formal layout can proceed. Beethoven does not focus on
formal questions, but on the motivic minutiae. 2) Working on the second theme group, however, Beethoven,
primarily, starts to develop the motivic facets of the material, whereas the formal context remains blurry for quite
some while. Only in later phases one can clearly make out a shift of focus towards more formal and other
aspects of the musical text, the corrections remaining still basal in the first part, but in contrast to this,
remarkably subtle in the second one. 3) Having jotted down the first sketches of the development
section Beethoven re-examines the second theme group more profoundly. The relationship between the sketches
of the second theme group and the development demonstrates the interdependency and – in part – even
exchangeability of the internal sections of a movement.
These observations lead to the general question of how the visible traces of Beethoven’s creative process can be
interpreted: not only (and justifiably so) as musical texts, but also, on a more general level, as documents of
procedures that in their core are comparable with creative processes, both, in other disciplines and even in
everyday life.
Benedikt Hager graduated in musicology at the University of Vienna in April 2008. Since March 2009. He’s working on his
dissertation on the genesis of the 2nd movement of Beethoven’s 6th symphony, which, in part, has also been the topic of
his diploma thesis.
Frank Heidlberger,
University of North Texas, Denton (USA)
Joachim Veit,
(University of Paderborn and the Musikhochschule Detmold)
Carl Maria von Weber’s Concertos for Clarinet and Orchestra: Sources, Edition, and Performance.
Since their composition and premiere in 1811, Carl Maria von Weber’s Concertos for clarinet and orchestra
(Concertino in Eb-Major, Concerto no. 1 in f-Minor, Concerto no. 2 in Eb-Major) have been continuously
performed to date. This popularity has caused considerable discrepancies between the composer’s original
version and later performance editions of the works. With regard to the history and development of performance
practice, one must consider the problem of authenticity. Is the author’s intention definitive in the case of the 19th
century concerto genre, or is it the nature of this genre to be flexible in terms of individual approaches of
performers? To what extent does a musical text represent an “authentic” version of a work?
The two clarinet Concertos by Weber are products of a close creative cooperation between the composer and
the performer, Heinrich Joseph Baermann, solo clarinettist of the court orchestra in Munich. He premiered
Weber’s concertos and assumed an exclusive performance right for ten years on the two three-movement
concertos. In consequence these works had not been published until 1823. Baermann owned autograph copies
of the works that he used for his own purposes, adding performance related markings of articulation and
dynamics, as well as cadenzas. The first prints represent a slightly more elaborated version of the works, but do
not convey any significant influence by Baermann’s performance style. In sum, the original source material of the
two concertos can be divided into three different stages: a composition autograph, a performance autograph and
a first print edition, authorized by the composer, but different from the version of the performer. This creates a
very confusing philological situation (the Concertino is more straightforward in this regard, since there is only
one autograph, and a first print, fairly accurate, and authorized by the composer, edited in 1813).
The challenge was to define a historically and philologically reliable principal source of the three works, for their
critical edition for the Weber Gesamtausgabe. The purpose of this joint presentation is – first – to demonstrate the
process of source evaluation, and their critical assessment, including issues of performance practice, as pertinent
to this group of works. In the second part, a digital approach to source representation, comparison and
evaluation, which enables both editor and the future user of the edition to approach these works with interactive
means, will be discussed.
Part I: Source History, Editorial Problems and their Consequences for the Performance of Weber’s Clarinet Concertos.
Prof. Heidlberger will first explain the history of the authorized sources, the criteria of their evaluation, and the
ensuing consequences for the critical edition itself. A key issue in this process is to specify the interaction
between composer and original performer (Baermann) throughout the period between composition and printed
editions. This issue reveals a major dilemma between the “authority” of the composer, and the “subjective”
approach by the performer(s). Although one must assume Baermann’s influence on the shape of these works,
particularly on its performance style, the actual sources do not clearly reflect this influence. A critical edition thus
has to ignore later additions to the scores, such as dynamic and expression marks, and additional cadenzas,
although these additions became popular with performers for a long period, most notably through the practical
editions by Heinrich Baermann’s son Carl, published in 1870: Carl Baermann claimed that he represented the
“original” performance version with reference to Weber and his father. In fact however, there is no evidence at
all that Carl’s abundant additions of expression marks, cadences and such refer to the performance situation of
Weber’s own era.
The focus on critically evaluated authorized sources will result in an edition that leaves many questions for
performers and scholars alike, who will have the responsibility to draw their own consequences from the material
presented. The edition as a whole has to present reliable and “objective” information on the sources on all levels:
the musical text itself, comparative source description, critical commentaries and contextual information. This
allows the user to reconstruct “subjective” modes of performance and an “informed” understanding of these
important works.
Part II: The digital edition of Weber’s Clarinet Works: A New Approach to Comparative Textual Criticism and Analysis
Weber’s works for clarinet serve as a pilot project for digital applications in textual criticism for the WeberGesamtausgabe. A computer application, called EDIROM, serves this purpose on both ends of the projects: it
provides the individual editor with a tool for comparative source studies. This system also provides tools for a
multi-layer marking of textual variants in a very detailed manner. For the user of the edition, a DVD presentation
will allow direct access to selected passages of the sources as well as to further documents (diaries, letters,
reviews, images etc.) that allow an interactive “reading” of – or individual “reading paths” through – the critical
commentary. While the edition itself comes in a traditional printed format, including the edited score, critical
commentaries and chapters on the history and reception of the works, the electronic version will provide a more
illustrative insight into the editorial procedures and decisions, particularly the interdependences of the sources.
Rather than reading the abstract entries of a tabular critical commentary, the user will have a direct and
individual, problem-based access to the sources, in order to achieve visual evidence of editorial problems. The
presentation will present case studies of how to approach sources and editorial problems with the assistance of
this digital application, and how this system will be expanded in future and how it is supposed to influence more
general editorial discussions aroused by these new possibilities. The case studies will refer to and further
elaborate the examples given in part I.
Frank Heidlberger is professor of music theory (historical emphasis) at the University of North Texas, College of Music,
since 2001. His major research interests are: history of music theory, 19th-century German and French composers (Weber,
Berlioz, Meyerbeer), 20th century music and theory (Strauss, Hindemith, Krenek), textual criticism, performance practice,
and medial representation of musical performance. He has written and edited books on Weber, Berlioz, and Italian
Renaissance instrumental music, and served as vice president of the International Carl Maria von Weber Society. He is the
editor-in-chief of the journal “Theoria – Historical Aspects of Music Theory.” Besides his scholarly work, Heidlberger
frequently performs as a clarinettist and saxophonist.
Joachim Veit is chief editor of the Carl-Maria-von-Weber-Complete Edition and honorary professor at the Department of
Musicology of the University of Paderborn and the Hochschule for Music at Detmold. Since several years he is engaged in
the development of concepts for digital versions of critical editions of music as well as the development of encoding
standards. Veit manages the mentioned Edirom-project (which develops tools for digital musical editions), is member of the
German TextGrid-project and of initatives like TEI (Text Encoding Initiative) and MEI (Music Encoding Initative). His
main interests are both instrumental music and opera of the 18th and 19th century. He is co-editor of the “Weber-Studien”
and of the “Editionsrichtlinien Musik”. This month, he published together with Peter Stadler the proceedings of the 2007
Paderborn conference “Digital edition between experiment and standardisation” (Beihefte zu editio, vol. 31).
Thomas Hochradner
(Universität Mozarteum, Salzburg)
Image Sharpness vs. Loss of the Frames. Readings of Textual Criticism in Mozart’s Church Music
At the beginning of the 19th century already the first, only sparse editions of Mozart’s Church Music brought
about considerable changes in the musical notation. In some cases the works have even been reduced to vocal
parts along with piano score. Remote of the original text habits of performance practice resulted, started to
circulate and to strengthen. Compared with this the volumes of the Alte Mozart-Ausgabe (AMA) could hardly
stand its ground in the 1870s and 1880s, so that on the basis of a (with regard to textual criticism) corrupt
notation an autonomous Mozart-tradition in Church Music revealed itself and has been maintained a long way
up to the 20th century.
The paper will not offer a further contribution to dot, stroke and phrase mark and will not comment on matters
retrospectively from the point of view of the careful editorial work of the careful editorial work of Neue Mozart
Ausgabe (NMA) meanwhile continued by the digital Mozart-edition (DME). It will be the aim – after a concise
introductory part about the history of the scope of Mozart’s church music in the 19th century – to develop a
picture based on case studies in how far the relation between the process of music-reception and musical
editions can be described as a reciprocal one.
By means of selected smaller works of Church Music (the offertories “Misericordias Domini”, “Venite, populi”,
and the motet “Ave verum Corpus”) will be firstly shown how a process of alienation and reapproaching took
place, before the circumstances will be scrutinized more thoroughly. It will become evident that the three
compositions were ‘transported’ in public in very different ways. One piece of music due to early changes as the
result of circumstances influencing performance practice and music-aesthetical considerations was handed down
almost distorted. Another one remained so unfamiliar that it was printed for the first time in an arrangement as a
festive cantata. A third one quickly made its way in conventional performances, a survival in its original form,
however, was thus prevented.
Thence becomes clear to what degree the outcomes of edition history and the contemporary access of
performance practice have been considered or absorbed by editing Mozart’s works. Besides this will open an
insight on questions of context not considered sufficiently so far, e.g. about the position of the musical works
within liturgy or their constraint to a distinct place of performance, both due to the date of origin as well as
regarding the transforming of performances in course of time.
Thomas Hochradner (* 1963), ao. Univ.-Prof. for historical musicology, is at present employed at the University of Music
Mozarteum in Salzburg teaching classes e.g. in history of music, aspects of writing about music and Austrian traditional
music. He is head of the Institute for Reception and Interpretation of Music. In his lectures and publications he mainly deals
with the history of music of the 17th to the 20th century, especially referring to musical philology. He is editor of several
books such as “Bach – in Salzburg” and “'Silent Night! Holy Night!' between Nostalgia and Reality”, the volume on Church
music within the series “Mozart Manual”, various musical editions, and editor of the forthcoming catalogue of works of the
Austrian Baroque composer Johann Joseph Fux. Furthermore he has published numerous papers and essays in anthologies
and music periodicals and given lectures at conferences or universities in various European countries, Mexico and China.
Christine Jeanneret
(Université de Genève)
The Score as a Representation:
Copying, Printing, and Engraving Music at the turn of the 17th century in Italy
It has long been assumed that the score is a faithful representation of the musical work. Most studies still
apprehend it is as a given data without questioning its fabrication and how it conditions our reading of the work.
A musical work and its representation in the score are shaped by the conditions of their production. Music can
be written down or printed in various ways that play an important role on the score’s appearance and
consequently raises philological issues that concern critical edition or studies in transmission and reception.
This paper will present the various techniques used at the turn of the 17th century and their advantages or
limitations in order to emphasize the role of mediation, codification and representation played by the score.
Manuscript copies allow a lot of freedom but are not intended to be widely diffused. Moreover they are
heterogeneous, ranging from the neat presentation copy to the hastily written sketches’ book, didactical pieces,
or copies intended for personal use. Printing by types is a more rigid technique with several limitations: it is
impossible to indicate beaming, articulation and alignment are either completely lacking or roughly indicated in a
very inaccurate way, and polyphony raises complicated challenges for the printer. But it is relatively cheap and
remains the most common technique. Engraving combines the freedom of handwriting with the possibility of
transmission but is extremely expensive and therefore rarely used in the considered period. Examples from
Frescobaldi’s engraved Toccate compared to his manuscript legacy, Marenzio’s madrigals and their numerous
editions and reeditions, Roman cantatas that were exclusively copied by hand, Francesco Cavalli’s autographs,
and Diruta’s Transilvano printed by types with complex polyphony will illustrate these aspects.
In the case of printed works, both engraved or printed by movable types, various mediators act between the
composer and its work: the patron commissioning the work, the printer itself realizing the printing. To a lesser
degree, it is also the case for some manuscripts that have been commissioned by a patron and realized by
professional copyists, such as the Roman cantatas. My argument is that the work in its written form is therefore
the result of a complex relationship and is an historical object produced by and submitted to economical
imperatives. The score has various functions, according to the way it has been produced and raises the question
of the relationship between the musical work and its written codification.
Christine Jeanneret devotes herself principally to research in the field of critical editions, historical and philological studies
on Renaissance and Baroque Italian music. She obtained several grants, among which a fellowship at the Swiss Institute in
Rome, for her Ph.D.; an Italian grant as a postdoc researcher at the Università of L’Aquila, and a Beinecke fellowship at
Yale University (New Haven, USA). She published L’oeuvre en filigrane: une étude philologique des manuscrits de musique pour clavier à
Rome au XVIIe siècle, Firenze, Olschki, 2009 and several articles on Frescobaldi, the Roman cantatas, Marenzio, Cavalli’s
manuscripts, as well as being a collaborator for several volumes of the Opere Complete of Girolamo Frescobaldi, published
by Suvini-Zerboni in Milan. She has been teaching for ten years at the University of Geneva; at Yale University, she worked
as a postdoc associate researcher in the Department of Music for the Yale Baroque Opera Project, under the direction of
Ellen Rosand. As a recipient of a two-years’ Advanced Researcher Grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation, she
works now in Rome on a new digital dynamic edition of Marenzio’s profane works in collaboration with an international
Karl Kügle
(Universiteit Utrecht)
The origins of the ’Gruuthuse‘ Manuscript (NL-DHK 79 K 10): towards a new view
In early 2007, the so-called ‘Gruuthuse’ manuscript (Den Haag, Koninklijke Bibliotheek, 79 K 10; olim
Koolkerke, private collection of the Caloen family) was acquired by the Royal Library in The Hague. Suddenly,
one of the most significant - and least understood - song repertoires of the later Middle Ages became widely
available to scholars, inviting new research into the many complex issues surrounding that source. With well over
150 monophonic songs written down in stroke notation, together with a substantial body of devotional and
secular, narrative and lyrical poetry, all in Middle Dutch, the ‘Gruuthuse’ repertoire is safely anchored in the city
of Bruges, ca. 1400. Chronologically, it spans the final years of the rule of the de Mâle family, and the early
decades of the Valois dukes of Burgundy as rulers of Flanders. Provenant from a mercantile milieu of craftsmen
and traders who enjoyed the patronage of patricians and other foreign and local élites, the ‘Gruuthuse’ repertoire
offers a singular glimpse into the creative imagination of the Bruges bourgeoisie.
At the bottom margin of fol. 2r, the manuscript displays the coat-of-arms of Louis de Gruuthuse (ca. 14271492), a leading courtier of the third and fourth Valois dukes and one of the most prominent citizens of
fifteenth-century Bruges. This is generally taken as incontrovertible evidence for assigning this crucial source of
Middle Dutch literature and song to the possession of Louis de Gruuthuse; indeed, Gruuthuse was one of the
most notable bibliophiles of his age. A number of exlibris making reference to Gruuthuse and his wife,
Marguerite of Borsele, seem further to support this view. Recently, however, this hypothesis was challenged by
the Bruges archivist, Noёl Geirnaert, in an as yet unpublished paper presented at a conference devoted to the
‘Gruuthuse’ manuscript in Ghent in November 2007.
In this paper, I shall build on Geirnaert’s cautionary remarks but take his observations into a different direction,
grounding myself in a thorough codicological re-examination of the manuscript. I shall present a number of
philological clues scattered throughout the convolute that, if taken together with a careful re-assessment of Louis
de Gruuthuse’s tastes as a book collector, and his political position after the death of the last Valois duke of
Burgundy (1477), suggest an alternative explanation for the presence of the coat-of-arms, and the exlibris
inscriptions. As a result, new light will be shed on the question of ownership, purpose of compilation, and
subsequent function and whereabouts of the ‘Gruuthuse’ manuscript throughout the 15th century and beyond.
Karl Kügle is Professor of Musicology at Utrecht University, where he holds the Chair in the History of Music prior to
1800. After studying at Ludwig Maximilian University Munich and New York University, he taught at the University of
Maryland at College Park, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, and the University of
Hong Kong before coming to Utrecht in 2004. He was visiting professor at the University of Chicago (2002) and at the
University of Melbourne (2003).
Kügle’s research interests are focused on European music of the later Middle Ages (ca. 1300-1450), and the epistemology of
Western music from ca. 1800 to the present. Recent or ongoing research projects, besides work on the ‘Gruuthuse’
manuscript, include a closer look at the Brussels rotulus (B-Br 19606) and its repertory, and a review-essay on R. Taruskin’s
/Oxford History of Western Music/ (published in /TVNM/ 58:2008).
Trent Leipert
(University of Chicago)
Lachenmann’s Consolations and the “Speechless Echoes” of Nono and Stockhausen
Due to his large output of writings and the initial difficulty of his idiom, the texts and commentaries of Helmut
Lachenmann have played an important role in the reception of his work. With his technique of “musique concrète
instrumentale” and his uncompromising aesthetic stance, Lachenmann has become in recent years one of the most
influential living composers. The emergence of his mature and unique compositional style is often traced to two
early vocal works (a rare medium in his oeuvre): Consolation I (1967), which set a passage from Ernst Toller’s
1919 play, Masse Mensch, and Consolation II (1968), which set the Medieval German Wessobrun Prayer.
But while the writings and commentaries of many contemporary composers may offer invaluable
interpretative and analytic insight, they may also leave lingering questions as to what is being omitted from such
statements. These two pieces were apparently intended to communicate a sincere message of spiritual and social
consolation. However, in the commentary for the second piece of the series, and the subsequent Les Consolations
(a work whose themes of alienation and speechlessness foreshadow his later magnum opus, the “Musik mit
Bildern,” Das Mädchen mit den Schwefelhölzern), Lachenmann appears suddenly less convinced of the message of
existential comfort—perhaps even of its ability to be conveyed at all. What were the possible reasons and
significance of this chance of position?
This paper explores the web of relationships that emerges from the writings and works of two older
composers and the sketches, scores, and statements of another. Notes and sketches included in the Lachenmann
collection at the Paul Sacher Stiftung point largely unnoticed or unremarked links between Lachenmann’s
Consolation I and II and important vocal works by his teachers, Stockhausen and Nono. The intertextual
connections with Nono and Stockhausen, beyond offering sources for certain compositional procedures in the
Consolation pieces, amplify in light of subsequent historical events important shifts in the conception of the
composer’s “voice” between the late 1950s and the early 1970s. The political and spiritual messages once offered
by Nono and Stockhausen in the 1950s remain, but refracted as literal and figurative “speechless echoes” which
point to another social and aesthetic reality.
Trent Leipert studied Art History and Musicology at McGill University and the University of British Columbia and is
currently completing a PhD in Music History and Theory at the University of Chicago. His research focuses on issues of
subjectivity and affect, technology (multimedia, film, and radio), and the body, and the intersection of these topics in literary
and philosophical thought with several strands of twentieth-century and contemporary music, especially the historical avantgarde, late modernism, and popular music.
Sandra Martani
(Biblioteca Palatina di Parma - Università degli Studi di Pavia)
A new source for the Byzantine Heirmologion:
Manuscript gr. 331 in the Library of the Greek Patriarchate
in Alexandria
The Heirmologion is a very important musical liturgical book, collecting the Heirmoi, i.e. the first stanza (sung
with a distinctive melody) of the Kanon, one of the most important poetic structures, which has its established
place in the Orthros, the Byzantine morning service, the equivalent of the Matins and Lauds.
Judging by the structure of the Heirmologion and the function of a Heirmos, it would seem that this musical
collection was suited to archiving the repertory and for didactic purposes; it is perhaps for this reason that we
preserve very few medieval copies of the Heirmologion: in his fundamental work on this musical collection,
Velimirovic lists only thirty manuscripts from the 10th to the 15th century.
In the second half of the 12th century, the Byzantine notation become diastematic, and the so-called middle
Byzantine (or round) notation spread over the Byzantine empire. At the same time the Heirmologion was revised
and a new “abridged” version became known.
Up to now there have been only three sources in Middle Byzantine notation for the Heirmologion (in Order of
Kanons), between the 12th and the 13th century: the manuscripts Athos, Iviron 470, Athos, Vatopedi 1531 and
Grottaferrata, EII.
For this reason, manuscript gr. 331 in the Library of the Greek Patriarchate in Alexandria is a very important
source, although it is only a fragment (27 ff.), containing the last part of the first plagal mode and the beginning
of the second plagal mode.
The manuscript was first examined by Lorenzo Tardo in 1952, and briefly and approximately described in his
catalogue of the musical manuscripts of the Patriarchal Library (L'antica musica bizantina e la sua semiografia. I
manoscritti melurgici bizantini nella biblioteca di Alessandria, Alexandrie, Imprimerie du commerce, 1954); however, this
work remains unknown to the scholars of the medieval heirmological repertory.
My study has now been made possible thanks to the kindness of Prof. Mika Hakkareinen, who has placed the
photos of the manuscript at my disposal. These photos were taken within the context of the Project of
digitalisation of the Greek manuscripts of the Alexandria Patriarchal Library by the Institutum Classicum, of
Helsinki University.
In this paper I will analyze the manuscript (notation, hymnographic repertory, melodic language) in connection
with the other sources, in order to trace a more detailed development of the book of the Heirmologion and its
Sandra Martani is a librarian of the Music Department at the Biblioteca Palatina in Parma. She received her doctorate from
the Scuola di Paleografia e Filologia Musicale in Cremona (Pavia University), discussing a dissertation on Byzantine music,
and later carried out a post-doctoral work on the dated Greek evangelaries with ekphonetic notation. In addition to
publishing many articles on this topic, she taught at the Universities of Parma and Ravenna. Since 2004, she teaches
Byzantine Musical Palaeography at the Faculty of Musicology in Cremona (Pavia University). She is authoe of several articles in
books and scholarly journals.
Cristina Menzel Sansó
(Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas Barcelona)
The critical edition of “Tonos” from the XVII century:
problems and methodology.
It is a few years now that there is high interest for musical editions of the repertory of tonos. Most of them are
preserved in ecclesiastic archives or in private collections in Spain or in Latin America. Nowadays the register of
the remaining sources is still a work in progress and with regular periodicity new unidentified sources appear.
This situation is not new in general musical research in Spain, this fact seems to establish the methodological
criteria applied in the various critical editions of Spanish music in the last years. These critical editions are
focused on editing musical sources instead of musical works. It is true that most of the tonos of the XVII century
are preserved in a single copy. However, it is also true that the new releases of the last years allow us to have a
census of this kind of musical sources and make possible the sources criticism.
During my last researches for my PhD degree on the musical sources of Mallorca. I have done a critical edition
of a collection of tonos preserved in the Capitulary Archive. These tonos were composed by Juan Hidalgo and
Juan del Vado, both composers in the Royal Court of Madrid during the reign of Philip IV and Charles II. This
collection of six pieces was found some years ago in the final leaves of a book containing some accounts of the
Cathedral. Some methodological questions appear during the philological works that required a particular
approach to this kind of musical sources. There is an essential relation between text and music, there are also
particular uses of the notation and mensuration, and the use of black notes are in most cases random. The
rhetorical uses of text and music and its final destination (tono a lo humano for secular uses or tono a lo divino for
sacred contexts) are aspects that are important to understand the reception of this music in the Spanish society
of the XVII century.
The work that I will introduce is the critical edition of the tono "Las Campanas". It was composed by Juan del
Vado for the funeral rites for Philip IV in 1665. This piece is preserved in four musical sources and the newest is
the one of Mallorca. We can find other sources in the Cathedral of Segovia and in the National Library of
Madrid (Ms. 13622 known as Ms. Gayangos Barbieri). Even though, all the sources identify Juan del Vado as
composer, in some publications there are doubts about the attribution of this piece to him. The main reason is
the fact that there are other compositions of the same period inspired on this one. I intend to focus the
problems that appear in these particular compositions. These problems have been obviated in recent critical
editions of the music of the XVII century in Spain.
Cristina Menzel Sansó. Graduated in Musicology at the Università degli Studi di Pavia in 2004. In 2006 she obtained a 4year scholarship (I3P Ministerio de Ciencia y Tecnología), in order to work in the researches to reach the PhD degree.
Nowadays, she is working at the Department of Musicology of the Spanish Research Council under the supervision of Dr.
Antonio Ezquerro Esteban. During the last years she has participated in several research groups: "Biblioteca Nacional de
Catalunya. Estudio de las fuentes y recuperación patrimonial. 2: El repertorio en lenguas romances" (Ref. HUM2005-08394C02-02) from 2006 to 2008, "Orígenes y articulación de la musicología hispánica en Europa. Felip Pedrell" (Ref. HAR200806058/ARTE) since 2008 and "Música i Patrimoni a la Corona d'Aragó (ss.XVI-XIX)". (Ref. "2009 SGR 863") since 2009.
Benjamin Perl
(The Open Univercity of Israel)
Mozart as a letter-writer: the dash as stylistic feature and its affinity to musical phenomena
Mozart was, apart from his enormous musical output, the most prodigal letter-writer among 18th century
composers. Moreover, his correspondence of over 20 years, is one of the richest preserved from
this period in any domain. This corpus has been the main source of information about Mozart's life, his views
and compositional procedures, and thus is a main tool in Mozart research from its
beginnings to this day. My paper intends to draw attention to an aspect of these letters which has been treated
only marginally – their literary style and the connections that may be shown between this style and Mozart's
Of course we have to bear in mind that Mozart's, unlike other correspondences by writers and intellectuals of the
Enlightenment, was written for the purpose of private communication only, without intending a subsequent
publication, and thus cannot be considered a literary work of art. The letters are often written negligently from
the point of view of grammar and orthography, and yet they are a manifestation of Mozart's spirit and
personality, as is his music.
A special phenomenon to be observed in Mozart's letter writing, especially from his maturity onward, is the
extensive use of dashes, as an almost universal punctuation mark. It is my principal purpose in this paper to
follow the genesis of this peculiar habit, and then to analyze its significance for Mozart and its implications for
understanding his personality. These dashes are a unique hallmark of Mozart's writing, and the obsevation and
understanding of this practice may shed some light on deeper and hidden layers of his psyche.
Analysis of a few letters from different periods (letters to Nannerl from his childhood, the "Bäsle" letters, letters
from his voyage to Paris in 1778, and letters from his maturity in Vienna) will show the evolution of his style as a
letter-writer, especially as regards the use of dashes, and the correspondence between some traits of this style and
his musical output.
Benjamin Perl received his PhD in 1989 for a doctoral thesis entitled 'The Orchestra in the Operas of Berlioz and His
Contemporaries'. Perl was from 1997-2008 (intermittently) Chair of the Department of Literature and Arts at the Open
University of Israel in Ra'anana. In recent years his research focus has been on Mozart’s music and early Clacissism. Recent
publications include 'Mozart in Turkey', Cambridge Opera Journal (2000); 'The Doubtful Authenticity of Mozart’s Horn
Concerto K 412', The Historic Brass Society Journal (2004); 'A Special Type of Retransition to the Recapitulation in Mozart’s
Works', Mozart-Studien 15 (2005); 'Mozartian Touches in Michael Haydn’s Dramatic Works', Min-Ad (2006), Mozartian
Undercurrents in Berlioz: Appreciation, Resistance and Unconscious Appropriation, in: Berlioz and Debussy: Sources, Contexts
and Legacies, Essays in Honour of François Lesure, Barbara L. Kelly and Kerry Murphy (eds.), Ashgate, Aldershot 2007.
Bertrand Porot
(Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne)
The critical edition of Lully’s Amadis : a few
methodological insights
Establishing a critical version of a Lully opera implies the use of a specific methodology which is mostly similar
to that of early music. It also relies on a principle which shouldn’t be neglected : offering interpretors and
conductors with a tool which may provide them with guidance and throw possible lights as far as performances
or concerts are concerned.
In the baroque French opera world, sources don’t always date from time of creation ; if so they were
not necessarily supervised by the composer : such is the case for Lully’s first operas and this until 1679. From
that date Lully makes a point of systematically publishing his operas on full score at Ballard’s. They are thus
published on the very year of creation. Some copies bear his signature and so their authority as a principal source
cannot be denied. However even the copies Lully approved of leave us with some uncertainties to be clarified
and problems to be solved.
Orchestration sometimes lacks precision or is not fully defined. It then makes it necessary to confront several
types of sources, to establish comparisons between the different composer’s works and finally to submit to a
close study the separate parts when they exist. In that respect secondary sources should be established examined
and questioned.
We would like to concentrate in this exposé on a few examples of this type of research. Two cases will be
examined : Passacaille’s trios of V, 8 and the accompaniment for the prisoners’choir at III, 1. The main source
will be compared with the separate violin scores which still exist but which are more recent. Should they be taken
into account as a reflection of a tradition in the interpretation of the Parisian Opera or should they be discarded
for the sake of respecting chronology ?
Bertrand Porot devotes himself to researches after musicological as harpsichord studies. He has been professor at the Paris
Academy and at the IUFM of Créteil and now he is Master of conferences about history of baroque music at the University
of Reims and is linked to the Centre of researches of Cultural Historical Studies of this university. His researches deal with
the instrumental music, the French Opera and also with music life in XVII and XVIII centuries. He takes part in several
debates in France and overseas and he published articles in several magazines. He takes part also in Biblio 17 collection and
in musicological dictionary Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart. He usually collaborates in collections of facsimiles at
Fuzeau (for Rameau’s unabridged theoretic work) and in Lully’s editions (critical edition of Amadis). He’s co-director, with
Raphaëlle Legrand, of GRIMAS, a research group about scene arts of Équipe Patrimoine et Langages Musicaux (Paris-IV
Sorbonne University). He usually gives lectures on baroque music, especially at the harpsichord association in France, high
studies school of social sciences, Paris-IV Sorbonne University, festival Jean de La Fontaine at Château-Thierry, Ambronnay
Peter S. Poulos
(Univercity of Cincinnati)
Piety, Remembrance, and 'The Good Shepherd': Simone Molinaro's Motectorum quinis, liber primus
With an elaborate Latin dedicatory letter Simone Molinaro offered his Motectorum quinis, et missae denis vocibus, liber
primus in 1597 to the celebrated statesman, humanist scholar, and Doge of Genoa, Matteo Senarega. This paper
seeks to establish that this ceremonious gift was intended to pay homage to Senarega's patrician status, learning,
and extravagant patronage of the chapel of Saint Sebastian in the cathedral of San Lorenzo. Expressed in music
of great eloquence and solemnity are an array of unusually melancholy Biblical lament texts, penitential psalms,
liturgical verses, and unidentified Latin lyrics. Texts are often underscored with emblematic musical structures of
descending tetrachords, fauxbourdon, distinctive cadential forms, and other aural and visual symbols. These
figures cycle through several works to create musical and intertextual connections and heighten the exegetical
capacity of the symbols to convey the themes of humility, pain, and penitence expressed by the words. In
addition, Molinaro quoted or alluded to several masterworks from the repertory of iconic composers of
sixteenth-century sacred and secular music that appear, on the surface, merely as intriguing examples of
Renaissance imitatio in music. The incorporation of these varied textual and musical citations and allusions,
however, also serve more esoteric rhetorical and honorary functions. The semantic relationship of the existing
texts to those implied intensifies the meaning and provides commentary on the sung texts. Other borrowings
appear to have been situated to commemorate Senarega and to recall the artwork, dedications, ceremonial rites,
and musical performances that he commissioned for the chapel. These assertions will be supported through an
analysis and interpretation of the musical and textual sources and will be discussed in the context of relevant
biographical and historical data.
Peter Poulos completed his dissertation in 2004 on the life and sacred music of the Genoese composer Simone Molinaro.
Dr. Poulos has since presented his research in the United States and in Italy, and his contribution to the 23rd volume of the
Supplementa Humanistica Lovaniensia was published in 2008. He is currently preparing editions of Molinaro's sacred and
secular music and is researching the musical patronage of the Genoese exiles from Chios who settled in Rome.
Anna Pulkkis
(University of Helsinki)
Publisher’s Editors’ Fingerprints in Sibelius’s Piano Works
Printed editions of Sibelius’s piano works typically include questionable and erroneous details. Changes in the
note text – either intentional emendations or errors and misreadings – may occur at various stages of the
publication process: during the preparing of fair copies, during the engraving, or during proofreading. In addition
to the composer, proofs were read by publisher’s editors, who also edited and revised the works.
The involvement of publisher’s editors was an outcome of the international copyright laws in the early 1900s.
Finland became a member of the Berne convention as late as 1928. Before that, in order to get U.S. copyright,
Sibelius’s publishers (such as Edition Wilhelm Hansen and Carl Fischer) had to have the works “edited and
revised” by a U.S. citizen. In its lightest form, editing meant adding “harmless” details in the note text to make
the intervention visible. Thus, editors often added pedal indications and fingerings, partly for a pedagogical
purpose. Sometimes, however, the editors modified the note text more profoundly, adding dynamics, articulation
markings, tempo indications, and performance instructions.
Most publishers’ editors worked under a pseudonym, and not much is known of them. An interesting exception
is pianist Alexander Siloti, who edited and revised Sibelius’s Scène romantique (Op. 101 No. 5). Based on the
correspondence between Sibelius and Carl Fischer, Siloti wanted to add Scène romantique to his concert repertoire,
if only Sibelius would accept “certain little changes” to the score. Today, the manuscript of Scène romantique is
lost, and the Fischer edition with Siloti’s revisions is the only surviving complete source. Thus, the authenticity of
many musical details – all of them not that “little” – remains open to doubt.
Publisher’s editors’ intervention corrupts the note text, moving it away from the composer’s original intentions
(notwithstanding the fact that Sibelius accepted, at least tacitly, the changes when proofreading). The critical
editor is left with the task of identifying the interventions. Comparison of printed editions with original
manuscripts does reveal the changes. However, in lack of survived proofs, the question still remains whether the
changes originate from the editor or from the composer. If the original manuscripts are lost (as in the case of
Scène romantique), the identification has to be based on knowledge on the composer’s, and the editors’, personal
style, as well as the notational conventions of different publishers.
The aim of my paper is to illuminate the role of publisher’s editors in the publishing processes of Sibelius’s later
piano works (Opp. 85, 94, 96, 101, and 103; 1916–1925), to illustrate the changes publisher’s editors made to the
scores, and to ponder the consequences of these interventions from the viewpoint of critical editing.
Anna Pulkkis works at the National Library of Finland, as an editor at Jean Sibelius Works, the complete critical edition of
Sibelius’s works. She is currently preparing JSW Vol. V/3, containing Sibelius’s late piano works.
Leandra Scappaticci
(Libreria Editrice Vaticana)
Towards a history of musical notation at Bobbio (IX-XIII century): remarks on method, problems,
preliminary results.
Founded by the Irish Columbanus about 613, the monastery of Bobbio was the spinning centre of European
medieval culture and an important place for monastic life, which marked tWestern Middle Ages. Located on the
shoulders of the Emilian Appennino, at the beginning of the Piacenza valley traced by the river Trebbia, it was
an ideal place for spiritual life and, at the same time, a strategic crossing-point for many important routes.
The Alps route, along the ancient way that Columbanus covered from Luxeuil together with is Irish companion
Gallus, had been used for ages and was crucial for liturgical, cultural and economical matters, because of the
relationship between Bobbio and St. Gallen. Such a link is clearly found in musical manuscripts with a neumatic
notation of the German-St. Gallen type with a repertoire deeply influenced by the German centre.
The first musical sources clearly from Bobbio – discovered only during my research – date back to the 10th
century, but the liturgical chant had been in use more reasonably in Bobbio since the 8th century. In
Colombanus’ first Rule and later in S. Benedict’s Rule, followed in Bobbio from the end of the 8th to the
beginning of the 13th century, the duties of monks well trained in singing are clearly described: «Cantare autem et
legere non praesumat, nisi qui potest ipsud officium implere, ut aedificentur audientes. Quod cum humilitate et
gravitate et tremore fiat et cui iusserit abbas» (Regula Benedicti, 47, 3-4). Moreover, in a document from Bobbio
written by Abbot Wala (833-835), the cantor has the official duty «Cantor ipse ordinet quicquid ad cantum
pertinet»: he conducts the other monks who found their ideal place in the church, a sort of schola cantorum,
according to well known models in the liturgical disposition of the High Middle Ages.
The Germanic influence on musical writing in Bobbio goes on during the 10th century and dims at the end of the
German dynasty of emperors, Otto I, Otto II and Otto III (962-1002). From the second half of the 11th century,
within the mainstream of Gregorian Reform, important changes took place in Bobbio as to musical and textual
notation. During the last decades of the 11th century and the beginning of the 12th century, a new musical
notation was adopted: i.e. the diastematic one typical of the Emilian area, while the writing experience in
Caroline minuscule was over. The long period of Gothic writings and the ‘new book’ era had started.
Leandra Scappaticci has got a PhD in Greek and Latin Paleography from University of Rome “Sapienza”, Department of
Studies on Medieval Societies and Cultures. She graduated in Musicology at University of Pavia in Cremona, where she
received a two-year research grant. Moreover, she obtained a degree at the Vatican School of Library Science (2009). Her
studies are aimed towards liturgical and musical manuscript tradition: she wrote scientific papers and a monographic book
on Codici e liturgia a Bobbio. Testi, musica e scrittura (secoli Xex.-XII) - Città del Vaticano, Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2008 Monumenta Studia Instrumenta Liturgica, 49.
She collaborates with Vatican Library on Manuscript Vatican Bibliography and with the Institut de Recherche et
d’Histoire des Textes, Section de Musicologie médiévale, Centre Nationale de Recherche Scientifique of Paris. She is also
member of Scientific Committee of Vatican Librarian Publisher and of Italian Association of Paleographers and
Diplomatists. She currently holds the chair of Latin Paleography and Musical Paleography at Pontificio Istituto Ambrosiano
of Sacred Music in Milan.
Christine Siegert
(Joseph Haydn Istitut, Berlin)
Textual movement and edition –
The case of the aria “Non per parlar d’amore”
It was common practice in the 18th century to adapt the operas to the possibilities and to the institutional uses
of the theatres in which they were performed. Therefore, Joseph Haydn too, maestro di capella of the Prince
Esterházy, adapted the Italian operas (mainly by Italian composers like Pasquale Anfossi, Domenico Cimarosa,
Giovanni Paisiello, Niccolò Piccinni, Giuseppe Sarti and others) performed at the court theatre. Haydn did not
only prepare the scores for the performances or shorten and transpose the arias to adapt them to the voice
register of the singers, but he also eliminated some arias as well as entire scenes and wrote insertion or substitute
arias. In the aria of Laurina “Non per parlar d’amore” (Hob. deest), Haydn substituted two passages that
required a very wide range of the voice.
Frequently, the musical material was yet arranged before arriving at Eszterháza. This is the case of Niccolo
Piccinni’s L’astratto, just modified in Vienna, where no less than seven arias were inserted, among them the aria in
question “Del Sig: Antonio Salieri”. Therefore, we deal at least with three phases of textual movement: Piccini’s
original opera, the modifications made in Vienna and the modifications made by Haydn at Eszterháza –
modifications of the Viennese modifications as well as of the original text.
In the edition of the aria arrangements in the complete works of Joseph Haydn, the arias are always presented
in two versions: The version that the composer found in the score as it arrived at Eszterháza and Haydn’s
version. The context of the entire opera is only given in the critical commentary. This decision, which is
primarily owed to the restricted number of projected volumes, excludes the entire history of the opera before its
arrival at Eszterháza. In my paper, I will present the aria’s edition in Joseph Haydn Werke and discuss alternative –
printed as well as digital – solutions.
Christine Siegert has studied music and French as well as musicology, French literature and philosophy in Hannover and
Amiens (France). After her PhD on Luigi Cherubini’s Italian operas (2003), she has collaborated to a research project on
Joseph Haydn’s aria arrangements (University of Würzburg / Joseph Haydn Institute Cologne), since 2006, she was member
of the staff of the Joseph Haydn Institute. Beginning with March 2009, she is working in the new project OPERA –
Spektrum des europäischen Musiktheaters in Einzeleditionen at the University of Bayreuth. She has been teaching musicology at the
Universities of Music in Hannover and Cologne as well as at the University of Würzburg.
Her research interests focus on the history of opera and opera edition, the history of Italian culture in the 18th century,
Joseph Haydn, Luigi Cherubini and gender studies. Publications include essays in periodicals like Analecta musicologica, HaydnStudien, Studia musicologica and editio – International Yearbook of Scholarly Editing. Recently has been published Cherubini in Florenz.
Zur Funktion der Oper in der toskanischen Gesellschaft (Laaber 2008). Christine Siegert is a co-editor of Haydns L’isola disabitata in
Joseph Haydn Werke (Munich 2009) and she is preparing two volumes of aria arrangements for Haydn’s complete works.
Jukka Tiilikainen
(University of Helsinki)
A Definitive Sketch for Indeterminate Drafts –
The Composition of Jean Sibelius’s Die stille Stadt
Thematic sketches for small works, in this case, for Jean Sibelius’s solo song, may seem similar to those for large
scale works, yet there is one notable difference. “The opening of the song, was, in effect, testing a formulation
that would decisively determine the form of the entire piece,” as Lewis Lockwood writes in “Beethoven’s
Sketches for Sehnsucht” (1973) and continues: “– – this is substantially different from those in which he reworks a
single subject that can form only a fractional segment of a diversified musical continuum.” Likewise, Sibelius’s
first known sketch for Die stille Stadt – although not longer than 12 bars – seems to introduce a formulation that
determines the form of the song. But how does the determination show up in the drafts, and conversely, what
has been left to test in the drafts?
Jean Sibelius composed in a Beethovenian manner, producing a multiplicity of thematic memos, sketches, drafts
and fair copies for different purposes. Great amount of these have survived. Each work brings up its unique
questions about the role of manuscripts in the creative work. The four extant manuscripts (all located in The
National Library of Finland) for Die stille Stadt show features typical to Sibelius’s song manuscripts and
compositional process. The preliminary sketch gives a melodic idea for a song. In the published work this
appears as a strophic theme, which is repeated in each stanza but with increasing variation in the 2nd and 3rd
stanzas. The sketch ends in a gesture that in the published song brings the vocal part to a close in the 3rd stanza.
Thus, this short melodic sketch incorporates a plan for the song’s form. The concept “rotational form” –
introduced by prof. James Hepokoski to Sibelius research – is used to clarify the background of Die stille Stadt’s
The manuscripts that follow the sketch – a continuity draft, a complete draft (originally intended as a fair copy)
and a fragment – together reveal Sibelius’s work on the piano part, details of the vocal melody and the third
stanza. One can see how the piano part evolved in four stages, the last of which remained as an experiment,
realised years later with another song. They also reveal Sibelius’s work on the dramaturgy of the third stanza.
First he added variation in the melodic structure; then he doubled the durations of the vocal melody from the
middle of stanza on. The latter idea broke the consistency of the original, and thus, he later rejected it in favour
of a local expression, rallentando – a tempo -gesture.
Thus, while the preliminary sketch gave Die stille Stadt a potential structural plan, the style and the atmosphere of
the song were created in the next manuscripts, but with reflection to the qualities of the original idea.
Jukka Tiilikainen. Present research: The Creative Process in Jean Sibelius's Songs – A Study of Musical Manuscripts
Critical editions: Jean Sibelius Works VIII/2–4, Works for Solo Voice, Wiesbaden, Leipzig, Paris: Breitkopf & Härtel.
Marina Toffetti
(Università di Padova)
Intertextuality in the repertoire of Milanese
instrumental canzona
In my paper I will present the results of an inquiry on Milanese instrumental canzonas. That of instrumental
canzona was a very relevant musical genre in Milan between late ‘500 and early ‘600: in fact, in the last three
decades of the Sixteenth Century and in the first three of the Seventeenth Century almost 300 canzonas were
published either in Milan or in Venice by Milanese composers. More precisely, at least 18 collections of canzonas
of different composers were published either in Venice (by Milanese composers) or in Milan (although three of
them went lost), and al least 58 canzonas were published in anthologies, or were added to individual editions of
vocal sacred or secular compositions such as masses, motets and madrigals.
The present inquiry is based on the analysis of all surviving instrumental canzonas composed or published in
Milan from 1572 and 1631 (the dates of publication of the first and the last Milanese canzonas).
While analysing instrumental canzonas, three different aspects have been taken into consideration: the text, all
kinds of para-textual elements, and the historical, institutional and social context in which canzonas were
composed, published and performed.
As far as text is concerned, melodic motives appearing in the first section of all canzonas have been
systematically compared. Criteria for transcription and comparison will be discussed in details. The
comparison enabled to find several cases of melodic coincidence. An attempt has been made in order to
clarify the extent, nature, meaning and function of these coincidences (full or partial quotation of the
former model, precise or non-precise reprise, emulatio).
Para-textual elements such as titles of entire collections or of single compositions, letters of dedication,
Avvertimenti, minor or implicit dedications have also been systematically taken into consideration. In
particular, the identification of implicit dedicatees of single compositions has given satisfactory results.
The main criteria for the identification will also be briefly discussed.
Elements emerged from the close analysis of titles and dedications included in these collections proved to
be useful also for the comprehension of historical, institutional and social context of composition and
performance, both throwing a new light on music patronage in early modern Milanese society, and
allowing to put in reciprocal relation persons and musicians who were previously not supposed to be in
After taking into consideration different intertextual aspects concerning music, non-musical elements and
context as separate entities, an attempt has been made to verify if these same aspects could be considered in
some way interconnected
Marina Toffetti. Main recent interests:
- music, liturgy, music institutions and patronage in early modern Milanese society;
- late Renaissance and Baroque sacred and instrumental music;
- documentary and biographical research on the main Milanese composers of the Sixteenth, Seventeenth and
Eighteenth Centuries;
- problems of music analysis, music theory, music editing and music philology related to late Renaissance and
Baroque repertoire.
Mario Stefano Tonda
(Conservatorio di Torino)
No Ur-text without Ur-instrument
Is the late 18th century “fortepiano Renaissance”, consciously occurred in the 1970s, connected to the true
necessity to use Urtext editions in the piano milieu? Thepaper aims at answering to this question and is based on
the statements of Tom Beghin, director of the Mc Gill University’s Historical Keyboard Department in Montreal: “No
Ur-text without Ur-instrument”. Dr. Beghin is clearly convinced that the improvement of performance practice
deriving by the so called Urtext editions can be appreciated only by playing on an original instrument (or a
replica). I do agree with Dr. Beghin’s point of view, although I am firmly convinced that the “fortepiano
rediscovery” is deep-rooted both in the necessity of an historical informed performance and in the personal
opinions of each performer. Therefore only taking this into account, we will be able to discover the authenticity
of a performance on original instruments.
Urtext editions eliminate from the late 18th century scores all the invasive and ambiguous phrase indications
(typical of the practical editions), contributing to restore the original syntactical meaning of the legatura, as it was
intended in the second half of the 18th century. Moreover, compared to the modern piano, I state that an
instrument with a “viennese action” (the so called prellmechanic used during the second half of the 18th century)
allows a clearer realization of the “microdynamics” shown in the score by short slurs. Urtext editions restored
the diminuendo feature of the slur and reached its complete meaning by using the fortepiano. I would like to
underline some particularly interesting solutions used in late 19th century editions of Mozart’s piano sonatas: in
many of them the legatura symbol is used to suggest the phraseological flow of the composition and not to scan
the syntactic articulation (this happened while Steinway was improving and showing to the world its wonderful
and innovative “machine”…).
A matter of debate concerning Urtext piano editions is whether or not they should suggest fingerings. The
choice of fingering represents the first step of interpretation and the restoration of the original slurs produce a
clear text as to syntax: therefore, I think Urtext editions should not include fingerings. Examples are shown of
fingerings added by the editor, that constrain performers’ choice, and also seem to contradict the syntactical
Mario Stefano Tonda graduated in Musicology at the University of Pavia and in Piano and Historical Keyboards at the
Conservatory of Turin. He started to play fortepiano with Emilia Fadini in Milan, then he continued his studies with
Giorgio Tabacco in Turin and with Malcolm Bilson, attending his masterclasses throughout Europe (Belgium and
Netherlands) and Usa (Cornell Univesity, Ithaca-N.Y.). He devotes himself to the fortepiano, both as a performer and a
scholar. At present, he is a researcher at the Conservatory of Turin and is working on the catalogue of the instruments’
Claudio Vellutini
(University of Chicago)
The Viennese Vocal Scores of Donizetti’s Italian Operas
Philological studies on nineteenth-century Italian opera have frequently taken into consideration composers’
activity outside of Italy. Manuscript and printed sources have provided scholars with relevant information on
how Italian operas were adapted to new cultural contexts either by performers or by the composers themselves.
Nevertheless, the investigation of the production and transmission of Italian opera in Restoration Vienna has
been somehow neglected. Gaetano Donizetti’s activity in Vienna, for instance, has received little attention,
although he was personally involved in the operatic life of the city from 1842 to 1845. During this period, he
created two operas for the Kärntnertortheater, Linda di Chamounix and Maria di Rohan, and revived two other
works that he had written for Paris, Don Pasquale and his French grand-opéra Dom Sébastien. Donizetti’s operas,
though, had circulated in Vienna long before the composer worked there. The first staging of one of his operas
dates back to 1827, and, from 1835 on, his works were regularly performed at the Kärntnertortheater.
In this paper, I shall focus on a particular category of musical sources of Donizetti’s Italian operas: the complete
vocal scores printed by Viennese publishers. Although few in number, these sources are not only telling of the
composer’s modifications to his scores, but provide us with a particular standpoint to analyse their reception
and, more in general, Donizetti’s role in the Viennese musical life.
In Vienna, the Italian opera publishing market was divided between two companaies, Pietro Mechetti’s and
Anton Diabelli’s. Both built the fortune of their company paying attention to the vicissitudes of the local musical
life. In so doing, they could not ignore the daily activity of the Kärntnertortheater, where Italian operas were an
integral part of the repertoire. Mechetti and Diabelli published the vocal scores of the operas Donizetti
composed or revised in Vienna, as well as of two other Italian operas whose performances the composer did not
supervise personally (Belisario and L’elisir d’amore). The versions found in these scores reveal that the publishers’
choices are the result of their effort to negotiate between different – and sometimes apparently contrasting –
goals, such as on the one hand the compliance towards the audience’s admiration for some singers, and on the
other the promotion of the ‘Viennese’ character of Donizetti’s works, a necessity that became even more urgent
after the Italian Donizetti was appointed Court Composer by the Emperor.
Claudio Vellutini studied Musicology at the University of Pavia-Cremona, where he earned his BA and MA, and at the
University of Vienna (Austria), where he was an Erasmus exchange-student. He earned a Diploma in Violin at the Istituto
Musicale “Claudio Monteverdi”, Cremona. Currently he is a Ph.D. student in the Music Department of the University of
Chicago. He focuses mainly on Italian opera performance practice, textual criticism, diffusion and reception, with particular
attention to the Viennese cultural context and to the interaction between opera and the Habsburg political system in the
Restoration period.
Timo Virtanen
(Jean Sibelius Works Helsinki)
Jean Sibelius, Symphony No. 1: Sources and Critical Edition
The source situation of Jean Sibelius’s First Symphony (published as a critical edition in 2008) is not especially
complicated, but the editional work on the Symphony offered many kinds of challenges. Three primary sources
for the musical text were available, namely, the autograph score, the first edition of the score, and the first
edition of the orchestral parts. The most problematic feature in this source situation is that there is no exact
congruence between any (pair) of the sources.
The First Symphony was premièred in 1899, and Sibelius revised the work in 1900. He probably made further
revisions to the work before the publication of the first edition (1902). The autograph score provides evidence
for both of the revisions (in fact, there may have been more of them), i.e., it contains several chronological layers
from 1899 to 1902 – for instance, various paper types, markings made by at least two copyists, as well as
conductors’ (including Sibelius’s) annotations. The autograph score does not entirely correspond with the final
printed version of the Symphony, and the published parts, which were made after earlier set(s) of parts (today
lost), refer varyingly to the different versions of the work. In the chain of the sources, between the autograph
score and the first edition there has been an engraving copy which today is lost.
Sibelius’s participation in the publication process of the Symphony was probably not very active. As usual, he
was not a willing or scrupulous proofreader of his work. When proofreading the work, he primarily seems to
have taken care of those features which he obviously considered crucial – a general correctness of the score, and
of tempo and other performance instructions, pitches, etc. –, but paid less attention to other notational features
(for instance, exact and consistent placement of dynamics and articulation marks). However, the printed score
contains numerous questionable details even in the “central” features. Even though the first edition of the score
represents the final text of the work and was ranked as the main source in the critical edition, it could not be
evaluated as reliable and decisive source in every respect.
A mixture of sources is often regarded as something to be avoided in a critical edition. In the case of Sibelius’s
First Symphony, a plausible text-critical edition could not be reached without a certain degree of amalgamation
of the sources. However, the mixture is not arbitrary; it is based on thorough analysis of the sources and broad
insight in Sibelius’s way of working, as well as his notational practice and style.
The First Symphony is the only work among Sibelius’s symphonies to have metronome markings printed in the
first edition of the score. In addition to the musical text sources and certain references in literature, the sound
recording of the work conducted in 1930 by Sibelius’s friend Robert Kajanus opens interesting aspects of the
metronome markings and has therefore been included in the sources of the critical edition.
Timo Virtanen completed his doctoral studies at the Sibelius Academy (Helsinki, Finland) with a dissertation on Jean
Sibelius’s Third Symphony (manuscript study and analysis) in 2005. He joined the editorial staff of the complete critical
edition Jean Sibelius Works (JSW) in 1997, and since 2006 he has worked as the editor-in-chief in the project. His edition of
Sibelius’s First Symphony (JSW I/2) was published in 2008, and his edition of the Third Symphony (JSW I/4) will be
published in the winter 2009–2010.
Tuija Wicklund
(Jean Sibelius Works Helsinki)
Problematic sources for Jean Sibelius’s tone poem En saga
The Finnish composer Jean Sibelius’s (1865–1957) tone poem En saga (1892) is an outstanding work in his
oeuvre in at least two ways: it was the first tone poem in the long row of others to come and it was the first
orchestral work by Sibelius to attain a steady position in the concert repertoire. Although the work was warmly
welcomed, Sibelius revised the work completely after ten years (1902) before presenting it abroad. The critical
collected edition Jean Sibelius Works publishes both versions of the tone poem En saga – the early version was
published for the first time in 2009.
As I will discuss in my paper, the editing of this work was especially challenging due to the shortage of sources
and the lack of autograph sources. Namely, for the early version only an unknown copyist’s copy of the full score
and a set of parts survive and for the revised version only printed full score and a set of parts survive. How
reliable, then, are these sources and what can the editor of a text-critical edition do in questionable situations?
And can these two versions of the tone poem be used as reference sources for each other, despite differing from
each other musically and also being separated by ten years of time?
The sources of the early version, made by an unknown copyist, contain many serious problems. It even seems as
though the copyist was not an experienced musician, because it seems he did not fully understand the notation.
He, for example, placed accidentals before wrong pitches, his whole notes may fill up a space for two pitches, he
has misplaced markings and omitted some notation. On the other hand, it seems as though he copied this score
from the autograph score and some inaccuracies therefore derive from Sibelius. As an example, it is typical for
Sibelius’s own handwriting that the endings of slurs are not carefully drawn, but slurs often end between pitches
and also inconsistently on similar motives. In the critical edition about 600 changes took place: dynamic marks,
articulation, and slurs were added, but also pitches were corrected and notation completed.
The printed materials for the revised version are much clearer, but not alltogether consistent. Someone along the
way of the publishing process – publisher’s editor, or the engraver – has unified and standardized markings, such
as slurs and crescendo or diminuendo wedges. But as always in printed scores, errors – incorrect pitches, missing or
misplaced markings – occur here too.
Tuija Wicklund. works as an editor in the Jean SibeliusWorks, a complete critical edition. She has edited two volumes of
tone poems including Wood Nymph, Spring Song, and En saga, two last mentioned in two versions. Currently she is preparing
an edition of the Lemminkäinen Suite, which also includes both early and revised versions.
Yuanzheng Yang
(University of Hong Kong)
Textural Strategy as Meaning: Ogyū Sorai’s Yūranfushō
The treatise Yūranfushō, compiled by the Japanese scholar Ogyū Sorai (1666-1728) in the early eighteenth century,
is a conflation of the texts and music preserved in the two oldest sources of qin music: manuscripts Hikone,
Hikone-jō, Hakubutsukan V633 and Tōkyō, Tōkyō Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan, TB1393. By way of textual
criticism and historical analysis, this presentation seeks to examine the motives that informed its preparation and
the reasons for its continuing influence across the eighteenth century. Comprising merely four sections,
Yūranfushō has been looked upon as a short introductory essay prepared for Japanese literati with interests in
exploring qin music. Moreover, it is apparent the Sorai reorganized the various treatises from the Hikone source
with the aim of elucidating the music of the Tōkyō manuscript; however, by rearranging the texts concerned
without acknowledging the authors of the originals, his compilation gives the impression that the Hikone
manuscript is only an explanation of the notation that the Tōkyō manuscript employed. As a result, Sorai’s
compilation carefully conceals the identity of these texts as Chinese works composed between the Northern Wei
(386-534) and early Tang (618-906) dynasties, all periods that are too late to support Sorai’s premise that the
Japanese had inherited the music of a China no later than the Han period (206 BC-220 CE). It is the same
intention that directed him to set the lyric Yilan, a poem that is ascribed to Confucius (551 BC-479 CE), to the
melody Yūran preserved in the Tōkyō manuscript. In Sorai’s eyes, the verses of the pre-Qin “Sage Master”
represented the cultural orthodoxy. Sorai’s editing, which manipulates the facts behind a mask of naïveté, is an
emotional and ideological force to be reckoned with. His studies of music were not intended solely for academic
purposes. Rather, they can be viewed as a manifestation of de-Sinification, for Sorai treated qin music as
preserved in the two manuscripts as a cultural “trophy” and thus claimed for Japan the role of privileged
repository of Chinese orthodoxy.
Yuanzheng Yang's research extends from the seventh century to the present day, and focuses on issues of national and
cultural identity in both Chinese and Japanese music. In collaboration with DIAMM (Oxford and London Universities), he
has conducted a digitalization project of the Heian (794-1192) sources kept in the Hikone Castle Museum in Japan. Invited
by the Smithsonian Institution, Yang is currently completing an archaeological report on a Chinese musical instrument
housed at the National Museum of Asian Art in Washington D.C. Yang is an editor of the series Music from the Tang Court
(Oxford and Cambridge University Presses) as well as the English editor of Chinese Annals of Music.
Sakari Ylivuori
(Jean Sibelius Works Helsinki)
The Role of the Reference Sources in the Critical Edition of
Sibelius’s Choral Arrangements
The last two decades of the 19th century saw the rise of national awakening in Finland, which in musical circles
took the form of series of choral festivals called Laulujuhlat. Although the purpose of the festivals was primarily
national/political and not musical, the festivals, nevertheless, made choral singing immensely popular in Finland;
choirs were established even in the smallest of villages all around the country. This also created a demand for
“national” choir music, which many composers rose to meet – among them Jean Sibelius.
Between the years 1893 and 1904 Sibelius wrote several Karelian inspired or otherwise patriotic choral songs for
the use of male choirs. Sibelius arranged six of these male choir songs later for mixed choir. These arrangements
are: Sortunut ääni (opus 18/1), Venematka (opus 18/3), Saarella palaa (opus 18/4), Sydämeni laulu (opus 18/6),
Isänmaalle (JS 98), and Rakastava (JS 160c). Although each of them holds a unique source chain, they all share a
common feature from the editor’s point of view: each of the arrangements listed above has, in a way or the
other, a problematic relation to its original male choir version.
In my paper I will discuss the problems arising, when preparing the critical edition of these six arrangements. I
will focus especially on the role of the original versions used as reference sources in the editing of the
arrangements. The comparison between the source chains of different versions of the same song reveals many
highly complex questions, since the source chains of the different versions seem to overlap in many different
ways. For example Sibelius used sometimes a kind of short-hand-notation, when arranging, which means that in
some cases (e.g. Sydämeni laulu and Isänmaalle) the autograph fair copy of the arrangement does not include all the
necessary material. The case is contrary in Sortunut ääni, where it may be argued that the reading in the sources
for the arrangement should be taken into account also in the editing of the original version. In case of Isänmaalle
it is not clear, which of the versions actually should be called the original and which the arrangement.
In my paper I will shed light on the different ways the source chains overlap and discuss its consequences for the
critical edition.
Sakari Ylivuori works as an editor of Jean Sibelius Works in National Library of Finland.
He is preparing at the moment the volume VII/1 including Sibelius's choral works a cappella. He is also writing a
dissertation on the sources of Sibelius's works for mixed choir.
I Seminari di Filologia musicale
- La filologia musicale a confronto: un seminario interdisciplinare (Cremona, Dipartimento di Scienze Musicologiche e
Paleografico-Filologiche, 20-21 /4/ 1998).
- Seminario di Filologia Musicale (Cremona, DSMPF, 26-28 /10/ 1999)
- Secondo Seminario di Filologia Musicale (Cremona, DSMPF, 5 /4/ 2001)
- Terzo Seminario di Filologia Musicale (Cremona, DSMPF,11-12 /4/ 2002)
- Quarto Seminario di Filologia Musicale (Cremona, DSMPF, 19- 21 /5/ 2004)
- Quinto Seminario di Filologia Musicale Mozart 2006, (Convegno internazionale di Filologia mozartiana, Cremona, DSMPF
, 24-26 /5/ 2006)
- Sesto Seminario di Filologia Musicale. La filologia musicale oggi: il retaggio storico e le nuove prospettive (6th Conference in
Musical Philology : Musical Philology today: historical heritage and new perspectives, Cremona, DSMPF, 25 - 27 /11/ 2009)
Collana promossa dalla SPFM (Poi Facoltà Di Musicologia DSMPF), dalla Fondazione Walter Stauffer
e dalla Sezione Musica Matilde Fiorani Aragone della Fondazione Ezio Franceschini
ANNA CORNAGLIOTTI, MARIA CARACI VELA (a cura di), Un inedito trattato musicale del Medioevo: Vercelli, Biblioteca
Agnesiana, Cod. 11, Tavarnuzze-Impruneta (FI), SISMEL - Edizioni del Galluzzo, 1998. ( La tradizione musicale.
Studi e testi , 2. SPFM, 1).
ANTONIO DELFINO, MARIA TERESA ROSA BAREZZANI (a cura di), Col dolce suon che da te piove: studi su Francesco
Landini e la musica del suo tempo in memoria di Nino Pirrotta, Tavarnuzze-Impruneta (FI), SISMEL - Edizioni del
Galluzzo, 1999. ( La tradizione musicale. Studi e testi , 4. SPFM, 2).
DONATELLA RIGHINI (a cura di), Psallitur per voces istas. Scritti in onore di Clemente Terni in occasione del suo ottantesimo
compleanno, Tavarnuzze-Impruneta (FI), SISMEL - Edizioni del Galluzzo, 1999. ( La tradizione musicale. Studi e
testi , 5. FEF – SMMFA, 3).
GUIOT DE DIJON, Canzoni, edizione critica a cura di Maria Sofia Lannutti, Tavarnuzze-Impruneta (FI), SISMEL
- Edizioni del Galluzzo, 1999. ( La tradizione musicale. Studi e testi , 3).
MARIA SOFIA LANNUTTI, MASSIMILIANO LOCANTO (a cura di), Tracce di una tradizione sommersa: i primi testi lirici
italiani tra poesia e musica. Atti del Seminario di studi, Cremona, 19 e 20 febbraio 2004, Tavarnuzze-Impruneta (FI),
SISMEL - Edizioni del Galluzzo, 2005. ( La tradizione musicale. Studi e testi , 9).
“Diverse voci…” Collana del DSMPF edita da ETS
TIZIANA SUCATO (a cura di), Il codice rossiano 215. Madrigali, ballate, una caccia, un rotondello , Pisa, ETS, 2003.
(«Diverse voci...», 1).
GIOVANNI PIERLUIGI PALESTRINA, Motecta festorum totius anni cum communi sanctorum quaternis vocibus, a c. di
Daniele Valentino Filippi, Pisa, ETS, 2003. («Diverse voci...», 2).
FRANCESCO FILIPPO MINETTI (a cura di), Il «Canzoniere» inedito del Domenichi ‘mantovanizzatosi’. British Library, Add.
16557, Pisa, ETS, 2003. («Diverse voci...», 3).
GIANMARIO BORIO (a cura di), La scrittura come rappresentazione del pensiero musicale, Pisa, ETS, 2004. («Diverse
voci...», 4).
NICOLA ANTONIO PORPORA, Sei duetti latini sulla Passione di Nostro Signore Gesù Cristo. Mottetti per Angiola Moro, a c.
di Stefano Aresi, Pisa, ETS, 2004. («Diverse voci...», 5).
CARLA VIVARELLI (a cura di), Le composizioni francesi di Filippotto e Antonello da Caserta tràdite nel Codice Estense
a.M.5.24, Pisa, ETS, 2005. («Diverse voci...», 6).
ANDREA MASSIMO GRASSI, ‘Fräulein Klarinette’. La genesi e il testo delle opere per clarinetto di Johannes Brahms, pref. di
Michael Struck, Pisa, ETS, 2006. («Diverse voci...», 7).
FRANCESCO MARCO ATTANASI, La musica nel tarantismo. Le fonti storiche, revisione a c. di Maurizio Agamennone,
Giacomo Baroffio, Gino Leonardo Di Mitri, Serena Facci, Pisa, ETS, 2007. («Diverse voci...», 8).
MARIA TERESA ROSA BAREZZANI, ANTONIO DELFINO ( a cura di), Miscellanea marenziana, prefazione di
Antonio Delfino, Pisa, ETS, 2007. («Diverse voci...», 9).
FRANCESCO FILIPPO MINETTI (a cura di), Le «Rime» di Messer Nicolò Amanio del Σ III 59 (ora MA 449) dell’«Angelo
Mai» di Bergamo , Pisa, ETS, 2006.
MARIA CARACI VELA, DANIELE SABBINO, STEFANO ARESI (a cura di), Le notazioni della polifonia vocale dei secoli
IX-XVII. Antologia – parte prima. Secoli IX-XIV , Pisa, ETS, 2007. (Progetto sulle notazioni della polifonia vocale
dei secoli IX-XVII, comitato scientifico: Maria Caraci Vela, Antonio Delfino, Maria Teresa Rosa Barazzani,
Daniele Sabaino).
Serie I. Musica Sacra
INGEGNERI, MARC’ANTONIO, Liber primus missarum cum quinque et octo vocibus, a c. di Rodobaldo Tibaldi, Lucca,
LIM, 1994. (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia, Serie I,I).
Sacrarum cantionum cum quinque vocibus liber primus, a c. di Daniele Sabaino (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia,
Serie I,II). (di prossima pubblicazione).
Sacrarum cantionum cum quatuor vocibus liber primus, a c. di Daniele Sabaino (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia,
Serie I,III). (di prossima pubblicazione).
Liber secundus missarum, a c. di Rodobaldo Tibaldi (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia, Serie I,IV). (in
INGEGNERI, MARC’ANTONIO, Sacrae cantiones senis vocibus decantandae, a c. di Daniele Sabaino, Lucca, LIM,1994.
(Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia, Serie I, V).
Liber sacrarum cantionum vocibus, a c. di Gabriele Bonomo (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia,
Serie I,VI). (di prossima pubblicazione).
Responsoria Hebdomadae Sanctae. Lamentationes Hieremiae, et alia,a c. di Antonio Delfino (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri.
Opera omnia, Serie I,V). (in preparazione).
INGEGNERI, MARC’ANTONIO, Liber secundus hymnorum, a c. di Marina Toffetti, Lucca, LIM, 2002. (Marc’Antonio
Ingegneri. Opera omnia, Serie I, VIII).
Serie II. Musica profana
INGEGNERI, MARC’ANTONIO, Il primo libro de’ madrigali a quattro voci / Marc’Antonio Ingegneri, a c. di Lucia
Marchi, Lucca, LIM, 2009. (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia, Serie II, I).
INGEGNERI, MARC’ANTONIO, Il secondo libro de madrigali a quattro voci, a c. di Maria Teresa Rosa-Barezzani e Mila
De Santis, Lucca, LIM, 1999. (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia, Serie II, II).
INGEGNERI, MARC’ANTONIO, Il terzo libro dei madrigali a cinque voci, a cura di Marco Mangani, Lucca, LIM, 1994.
(Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia, Serie II, III).
Il quarto libro de’ madrigali a cinque voci, a c. di Mila De Santis (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia, Serie II, IV).
(in preparazione).
INGEGNERI, MARC’ANTONIO, Il quinto libro de’ madrigali a cinque voci, a c. di Gloria Joriini e Marco Mangani,
Lucca, LIM, 2006. (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia, Serie II, V).
Il primo libro de’ madrigali a sei voci, a c. di Gloria Joriini e Maria Caraci Vela (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri. Opera omnia,
Serie II, VI). (in preparazione).
Il secondo libro de’ madrigali a cinque voci. Madrigali sparsi in antologie, brani sparsi in intavolature (Marc’Antonio Ingegneri.
Opera omnia, Serie II, VII). (in preparazione).
UCCELLINI, MARCO, Sonate over canzoni. Da farsi a violino solo e basso continuo. Opera quinta , a c. di Piotr Wilk, Lucca,
LIM, 2002. (Marco Uccellini. Opera omnia, IV).
STUDI E TESTI MUSICALI (Prima e Nuova Serie)
MARCO GOZZI, Il manoscritto Trento Museo Provinciale d’Arte, cod. 1377 (Tr 90) con un’analisi del repertorio non derivato da
Tr 93, 2 Voll., Cremona, Turris, 1992. (Studi e Testi musicali. Prima Serie, 1).
GIACOMO FORNARI (a cura di), Mozart. Gli orientamenti della critica moderna. Atti del convegno internazionale, Cremona
24-6 novembre 1991, Lucca, LIM, 1994. (Studi e testi musicali. Nuova serie, 1).
ANGELA ROMAGNOLI, «Fra catene, fra stili, e fra veleni…» ossia Della scena di prigione nell’opera italiana (1690-1724),
Lucca, LIM, 1995. (Studi e testi musicali. Nuova serie, 2).
RENATO BORGHI, PIETRO ZAPPALÀ (a cura di), L’edizione critica tra testo musicale e testo letterario. Atti del convegno
internazionale, Cremona 4-8 ottobre 1992, Lucca, LIM, 1995. (Studi e testi musicali. Nuova serie, 3).
MARIA CARACI VELA (a cura di), La critica del testo musicale. Metodi e problemi della filologia musicale, Lucca, LIM, 1995.
(Studi e testi musicali. Nuova serie, 4) [trad. in ceco: Kritika hudebního textu, k vydání připravila Maria Caraci Vela,
čseké k vydání připravili Alena Jakubcová, Angela Romagnoli, a Jiří K. Kroupa, Koniasch Latin Press, Praha
2001 (Clavis Monumentorum Musicorum Regni Bohemiae, Series S, Subsidia, 1)].
ANTONIO DELFINO (a cura di), Varietà d’harmonia et d’affetto. Scritti in onore di Giovanni Marzi per il LXX compleanno,
Lucca, LIM, 1995. (Studi e testi musicali. Nuova serie, 5).
ALBERTO DODA (a cura di), Studi di musica bizantina in onore di Giovanni Marzi, Lucca, LIM, 1995. (Studi e testi
musicali. Nuova serie, 6).
scrutando. Contributi alla storia della teoria musicale, Lucca, LIM, 1994. (Studi e testi musicali. Nuova serie, 7).
ANTONIO DELFINO, MARIA TERESA ROSA BAREZZANI (a cura di), Marc’Antonio Ingegneri e la musica a Cremona nel
secondo Cinquecento. Atti della giornata di studi (Cremona, 27 novembre 1992), Lucca, LIM, 1995. (Studi e testi musicali.
Nuova serie, 8).
Curate e/o dirette da docenti della SPFM, e poi dal DSMPF
MARINA TOFFETTI (a cura di), Edizioni moderne di musica antica. Sei letture critiche, prefazione di Maria Caraci Vela,
Lucca, LIM, 1997. (Una cosa rara - Didattica della filologia musicale, 1).
STEFANO CAMPAGNOLO (a cura di), Problemi e metodi della filologia musicale. Tre tavole rotonde, Lucca, LIM, Lucca,
2000. (Una cosa rara - Didattica della filologia musicale, 2).
GIOVANNI GIACOMO GASTOLDI, Canzonette a tre: libro primo, libro secondo, a c. di Isabella Grisanti Grassi, Lucca,
LIM, 2002. (Didattica della filologia musicale. «I testi», 3).
GIANMARIO BORIO, GABRIO TAGLIETTI (a cura di), Itinerari della musica americana, Lucca, LIM, 1996. (Una cosa
rara - Nuovi percorsi musicali, 1).
GIANMARIO BORIO, MAURO CASADEI TURRONI MONTI (a cura di), Ferruccio Busoni e la sua scuola. Atti del
Convegno “Ferruccio Busoni e la sua scuola” (Jarnach, Vogel, Weill), Forlì 30-31 gennaio 1998, Lucca, LIM, 1999. ( Una
cosa rara - Nuovi percorsi musicali, 3).
GIANMARIO BORIO, MAURO CASADEI TURRONI MONTI (a cura di), Eric Satie e la Parigi del suo tempo, Lucca,
LIM, 2001. (Una cosa rara - Nuovi percorsi musicali, 4).
MARIA TERESA ROSA BAREZZANI, GIAMPAOLO ROPA (a cura di), Codex angelicus 123. Studi sul graduale-tropario
bolognese del XI secolo e sui manoscritti collegati, Lucca, LIM, 1996. (Una cosa rara - Saggi e ricerche, 7).
MARIA CARACI VELA, MARINA TOFFETTI (a cura di), Marco Uccellini. Atti del convegno «Marco Uccellini da
Forlimpopoli e la sua musica» Forlimpopoli, 26-7 ottobre 1996, Lucca, LIM, 1999. (Strumenti della ricerca musicale:
collana della Società italiana di musicologia, 5).
RODOBALDO TIBALDI (a cura di), La ricezione di Palestrina in Europa fino all’Ottocento, Lucca, LIM, 1999.
(Strumenti della ricerca musicale: collana della Società italiana di musicologia, 6).
MARIA CARACI VELA, RODOBALDO TIBALDI (a cura di), Intorno a Monteverdi, Lucca, LIM, 1999. (Con Notazioni,
STEFANO LA VIA, Il lamento di Venere abbandonata. Tiziano e Cipriano de Rore, Lucca, LIM, 1994. (Musicalia, 6).
MICHELA GARDA, Musica sublime. Metamorfosi di un’idea nel Settecento musicale, Lucca, LIM, 1995. (Le sfere, 25).
MARIA CARACI VELA, La filologia musicale: istituzioni, storia, strumenti critici, vol. 1: Fondamenti storici e metodologici della
filologia musicale, Lucca, LIM, 2005.
MARIA CARACI VELA, La filologia musicale: istituzioni, storia, strumenti critici, vol. 2: Approfondimenti, Lucca, LIM, 2009.
ARTEMIO FOCHER, Ludwig van Beethoven: 26-29 marzo 1827, Lucca, LIM, 2001.
GIOVAN BATTISTA LEONETTI, Il primo libro de madrigali a cinque voci e Missarum octonis vocibus liber primus, a c. di
Flavio Arpini, Crema, Amici del Museo di Crema, 1998. (Biblioteca Musicale Cremasca, 1).
OLIVIERO BALLIS, Canzonette amorose spirituali a tre voci, a c. di Rodobaldo Tibaldi, Crema, Amici del Museo di
Crema, 2001. (Biblioteca Musicale Cremasca, 2).
GIOVAN BATTISTA CALETTI, Madrigali a cinque voci, libro primo, 1604, a c. di Flavio Arpini, Crema, Amici del
Museo di Crema, 2001. (Biblioteca Musicale Cremasca, 3).
CARLO DELFRATI (a cura di), Musica e formazione iniziale. Per una nuova figura professionale in ambito musicale, Milano,
Angeli, 2006. (Practica musicae, 1).
SERENA FACCI , NICOLA SCALDAFERRI (a cura di), Torre de’ Picenardi. Un laboratorio di etnomusicologia (2003-2004) ,
2 DVD Book, Udine, Nota Geos, 2007.
ARTEMIO FOCHER, Corso di lettura in lingua tedesca. Per studenti di facoltà musicologiche, allievi di conservatorio ed
appassionati di musica, 2 voll., Cremona, Turris, 1997.
RICCOBALDO DA FERRARA, Pomerium Ravennatis ecclesie,ed. Gabriele Zanella, 1 disco ottico (CD-ROM), Cremona,
Scuola di Paleografia e filologia musicale, 2001.
FABRIZIO DELLA SETA, Beethoven: Sinfonia Eroica. Una guida, Roma, Carocci, 2004. (Studi superiori, 464. Il
pensiero musicale).
STEFANO LA VIA, Poesia per musica e musica per poesia. Dai trovatori a Paolo Conte, Carocci, Roma, 2006. (Studi
superiori, 530. Il pensiero musicale).
GIORGIO PAGANNONE, W. A. Mozart: concerto per pianoforte e orchestra K 491 in do minore, Roma, Carocci, 2006.
(Studi superiori, 512).
MICHELA GARDA, L’estetica musicale del Novecento. Tendenza e problemi, Carocci, Roma, 2007. (Studi superiori, 534. Il
pensiero musicale).
PAOLO RUSSO, Berlioz: Sinfonia fantastica. Una guida, Carocci, Roma, 2008. (Studi superiori, 545. Il pensiero
CECILIA PANTI, Filosofia della musica. Tarda Antichità e Medioevo, Carocci, Roma, 2008. (Studi superiori, 553. Il
pensiero musicale).
GIANMARIO BORIO, CARLO GENTILI (a cura di), Storia dei concetti musicali. 1: Armonia e tempo, Roma, Carocci,
GIANMARIO BORIO, CARLO GENTILI (a cura di), Storia dei concetti musicali. 2: Espressione, forma e opera, Roma,
Carocci, 2007.
FABRIZIO DELLA SETA, "... non senza pazzia". Prospettive sul teatro musicale, Roma, Carocci, 2008.
(Saggi, 47).
Breve lessico musicale, a cura di Fabrizio Della Seta e del Dottorato di ricerca in musicologia dell’Università di Pavia,
Roma, Carocci, 2009. (Quality paperbacks, 287).

The Faculty of Musicology - Facoltà di Musicologia