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Herculaneum Conservation Project
SCIENTIFIC COMMITTEE 2010
2009-2010 Progress Reports
&
Future Proposals
For the meeting of the Scientific Committee which will take place on the 15 July 2010 at Ercolano
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Napoli e Pompei : The Packard Humanities Institute : The British School at Rome
c/o Scavi di Ercolano, Via Mare 44, 80056 Ercolano (NA), Italia Fax: +39 081 19560907 www.herculaneum.org [email protected]
Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010
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Index
2009-2010 progress reports
Part A. Herculaneum Conservation Project: the conservation programme ............................................... 4
1.0
Introduction: how far have we got? ...................................................................................................... 4
2.0
Infrastructure ......................................................................................................................................... 4
3.0
4.0
5.0
2.1
Reducing the impact of decay caused by water ....................................................................... 4
2.2
Ancient shoreline ...................................................................................................................... 8
2.3
Protective shelters ..................................................................................................................11
Continuous care: a rolling programme of site maintenance ...............................................................11
3.1
‘Extraordinary’ maintenance: Decumanus Maximus, Casa del Bicentenario, other areas ....11
3.2
Programmed maintenance .....................................................................................................13
Studies, conservation science research and model interventions ......................................................14
4.1
Archaeological and geological research..................................................................................14
4.2
New site plan and other surveys.............................................................................................14
4.3
Scientific research and trials to improve conservation approaches .......................................15
4.4
Pilot projects and model solutions .........................................................................................16
Sustainable site management .............................................................................................................17
5.1
HCP Joint Programming 2010-2012 and the ‘2010-2020 Exit Strategy’ .................................17
5.2
Information management for future planning, implementation and monitoring .................19
5.3
Communicating HCP results: participation and access ...........................................................19
5.4
Herculaneum Centre ...............................................................................................................20
Part B. Edges of site – Basilica Noniana ................................................................................................. 22
1.0
Introduction .........................................................................................................................................22
2.0
Via Mare and the area around the archaeological site .......................................................................22
3.0
The feasibility study for excavating the Basilica Noniana and adjacent areas ....................................27
3.1
Conclusions of the feasibility study ........................................................................................27
3.2
Surveys and documentation ...................................................................................................27
Part C. Museum facilities ...................................................................................................................... 30
1.0
Introduction .........................................................................................................................................30
2.0
Existing museum facilities....................................................................................................................30
2.1
The existing situation which SANP are facing .........................................................................30
2.2
The feasibility study and preliminary proposals for the existing museum buildings .............31
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3.0
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Evaluating issues raised by the creation of a new museum complex .................................................32
3.1
Opening discussions with the authorities involved ................................................................32
3.2
Initial design ideas...................................................................................................................32
Part D. The HCP Team .......................................................................................................................... 36
Appendices to the progress report........................................................................................................ 41
N.B. Texts only available in Italian
Appendix I: Panoramica delle ‘scoperte archeologiche’ nel 2009-2010 ..........................................................42
Appendix II: Panoramica dei lavori conservativi nel 2009-2010 ......................................................................49
Appendix III: Lo sviluppo del programma di ricerca scientifica nel 2009-2010................................................56
Appendix IV: Il contributo del Centro Herculaneum alla sostenibilità HCP .....................................................61
Appendix V: La Programmazione Congiunta HCP per il biennio 2010-2012 ....................................................63
Future proposals
A strategy for the final phases of HCP conservation work at Herculaneum ....................................................67
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2009-2010 progress reports
Part A. Herculaneum Conservation Project: the conservation programme
1.0
Introduction: how far have we got?
During 2008-2009, conservation works and studies brought the site to a more stable and
manageable state, consolidating the 2005-2007 emergency campaign. This entailed work on
infrastructure (water management) and on the establishment of a rolling campaign of site care
(routine maintenance and more substantial repairs all over the site, particularly to roofing). In
addition, research and conservation trials began to establish solutions to some of the more pressing
conservation problems.
Activities in 2009-2010 have continued these themes with planning and works on site aimed at:
simplifying site management (Section 2.0); identifying effective approaches to programmed
maintenance (Section 3.0); improving approaches, setting examples and delivering a wealth of
knowledge for improvements in conservation practice in terms of the quality, durability and
simplicity (Section 4.0); and, last but not least, ensuring the positive impact of HCP endures and is
as broad as possible (Section 5.0).
With HCP work on site infrastructure approaching its conclusion and with the rolling campaign of
site care and more ambitious conservation initiatives to be shortly taken over by SANP, the focus of
the HCP team has already begun to shift. This shift is from intensive operations to planning for a
future to be taken forward by SANP and other partners (an intermediate stage where HCP and
SANP work together is referred to throughout this document as HCP Joint Programming). Within
this, the development of knowledge – translated into documentation, tools and guidelines,
regarding the site and its conservation and management – and its communication are proving vital.
As section 5.1 confirms (see also Future Proposals, page 66), for HCP’s impact to be widespread and
enduring, this new chapter of the project needs a similar timeframe as that of the project to date:
another decade with enhancement and participatory activities being taken forward thereafter by
the Herculaneum Centre.
N.B. Please note that the appendices offer readers more detailed information on some areas of the
project. This allows the main document to be read as an account of the year’s progress towards
identified objectives, while those who want to know more about specialist areas can select the
appropriate appendix.
2.0
Infrastructure
2.1
Reducing the impact of decay caused by water
The last year has delivered the very last planning stages for the reinstatement of a site-wide water
collection and disposal system in order to address one of the most serious causes of decay at
Herculaneum. This has been carried out both in terms of the primary (below-street network) and
secondary (house-to-street connections) drainage network and also the completion of most
outstanding critical connections under HCP/BSR contracts (see Appendix II), including those
collecting substantial areas of Insula III (along the north edge of the Casa dell’Albergo) and Insula VI
(along the back corridor of the Central Baths). In addition, investigations to assess the existence and
potential reuse of an original drain under the Cardo IV confirmed expectations (no hope!) and mean
the properties adjacent to the Cardo IV will either be managed via secondary network connections
to the reinstated sewers under Cardo III or Cardo V or by surface collection on the Cardo IV itself.
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Hereafter, most works will be carried out primarily in SANP contracts with HCP/BSR specialist
planning and support as part of the two years of HCP Joint Programming (see Section 1.0). Indeed,
the HCP team has been working on proposals for two specific major contracts to address the
outstanding works on the primary network: a broader programme of works for the ancient
shoreline (see 2.3) will establishing the connection between Cardo V and III sewers to the main
outlet seawards and addressing problems of the east escarpment and water collection from the
Insula Orientalis II. In addition, plans have been developed to reinstate and complete the secondary
network (house by house) and the maintenance of the entire city drainage network which will be
implemented within the maintenance scheme to be launched under HCP Joint Programming in
2011.
With the site more stable and the emphasis finally off ‘emergency’ measures, increased emphasis is
being placed on understanding and managing water movement within the archaeological
structures and decorative features in the form of studies and conservation trials. In the last year,
this has taken place both at a site-wide level – e. g. mapping humidity in the wall fabric supporting
decorative features (Fig. 4), mapping surface areas where water collects and experiments to test
floor surfaces to overcome the problem, especially in areas open to visitors (see Figs 1-3) – and in
areas of particular significance or with particular problems - e.g. proposals to reduce humidity
problems in the nymphaeum of the Casa di Nettuno e Anfitrite (Fig. 5)and adjacent areas, and the
launch of thermohygrometric monitoring in the Suburban Baths, both of the microclimate and of
seasonal variations in the water table levels.
Figs 1-3: trials to test new floor layers
to be used in the unsheltered areas of
site that are currently without paving.
This will improve water drainage and
avoid pooling near buildings and
decorative features. (Trials carried out
by S. Volta and planned by G. Rizzi and
I. Massari)
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Fig. 4: thermohygrometric survey of structures with particular attention to walls with decorated surfaces - in
this example, part of Insula IV (Studio Massari)
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Fig. 5: proposals to reduce humidity in the nymphaeum of the House of Neptune and Amphitrite (Studio
Massari)
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2.2 Ancient shoreline
The last year has witnessed an important development for the long-term resolution of the
challenging problems of the ancient shoreline, which collects water from the whole site as it is the
lowest point at Herculaneum, as well as being home to a natural spring. Indeed, the most ambitious
initiative that has been agreed by the project partners within HCP Joint Programming (see Appendix
V) is a major works campaign to resolve water management issues and numerous enhancement
initiatives to establish public access to this area, allowing visitors to view the proposed skeleton
display within the arches and reach the Villa of the Papyri from the ancient seafront in the longterm. The HCP team of specialists have been working up these proposals for SANP to contract out
in late 2010 (Fig. 8) at the same time as completing excavation where the collapsed roof of the
House of the Relief of Telephus was found in early 2009 (see 2008-2009 HCP Annual Reports and
Section 4.3 for conservation plans for the roof) and finishing off other critical measures (see
Appendix II) pending the major campaign of works. Ongoing works have thrown up the usual array
of archaeological and geological richness that we have come to expect on the seafront, including
more evidence of structural reinforcements along the base of the Casa del Rilievo di Telefo in
response to the bradyseism phenomena (Figs 6-7). New archaeological discoveries are explored
more exhaustively in Appendix I.
Figs 6-7: left – excavation under way of the Roman reinforcement constructed against the bottom of
the southern wing of the House of the Telephus Relief to protect it from the encroaching sea; right –
the structural reinforcement after excavation, with signs of marine erosion (archeaologists Sosandra
with works contractor Forte)
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Fig. 8: new stairway to the Terrace of Nonius Balbus, extract from the proposals for enhancing the
ancient shoreline (Studio Pesaresi)
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Fig. 9: the HCP roofing campaign, the next phases of works on shelters will be contracted out by SANP with
HCP planning support (Studio Pesaresi)
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2.3
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Protective shelters
The campaign to protect Herculaneum’s archaeological structures and decorative features from
rain, wind and sun has pushed forward over the last year with the completion of the first site-wide
campaign of works to repair and substitute 27 existing shelters. This work was carried out under
two HCP/BSR works contracts (see 2008-2009 HCP Annual Reports) and with the planning of two
new phases of the same campaign to be contracted out by SANP within HCP Joint Programming
shortly (see Appendix V).
The recently completed campaign has allowed technical and organizational approaches and
financial aspects, to be refined, something which is crucial for effective transfer to SANP.
This recent planning for future campaigns foresees the inclusion of some new shelters (i.e. areas
that Maiuri had not roofed) where there are features of particular significance and fragility,
applying the lessons learnt within the campaign to date and within the experiments carried out in
Insula Orientalis I in 2006. 2009-2010 planning of the future campaigns has also benefitted from the
trials made under the 2008-2009 roofing campaign in terms of site access (use of crane and small
motorized vehicles for relocation of materials within the site) and concentrating works
geographically. As illustrated in the site plan below extracted from the HCP GIS database (Fig. 9),
this phased campaign that has been planned in the last year will ensure that roofing in nearly all
areas of the site at risk will have been addressed in the next two years.
3.0
Continuous care: a rolling programme of site maintenance
3.1
‘Extraordinary’ maintenance: Decumanus Maximus, Casa del Bicentenario and other
areas
The 2009-2010 conservation programme sought to translate the project team’s consolidated
experience in planning and managing emergency works (2005-2008) into a structured approach to
periodic campaigns of substantial repairs, known as ‘extraordinary maintenance’ in Italian. The
nature of the interventions are similar in terms of needing to act swiftly before decay worsens but
when the need for substantial repairs occurs under programmed maintenance (and not a campaign
of emergency works) they constitute the last step before complete conservation measures and
their planning and works management has to reduce the factor of unforeseen works as far as
possible: this is vital for good cost and quality control when such works are carried out within the
public works system.
The partially excavated urban blocks on the north side of the Decumanus Maximus were chosen
for the trial campaign as they brought together
a mix of problems both for structures and
decorative
features
which
demanded
interventions a step beyond routine
maintenance but that did not constitute a
complete conservation intervention (see
Appendix II and Fig. 10). Thanks to this
campaign it has been possible to experiment
approaches to a much more comprehensive
and systematic method of intervention that
comes close to final conservation measures,
type of works not previously undertaken by
HCP that require detailed planning but also
excellent coordination, organization and
timetabling. The campaign was also an Fig. 10: work in progress at Domus N-3 on the
opportunity to test the pros and cons of two Decumanus Maximus (Studio Pesaresi with
contractors (for general works and decorative works contractor Forte)
features) and their respective directors of
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works (architect and conservator-restorer), working in parallel 1. With the closure of works in July
2010 it will be possible to reopen the entire Decumanus Maximus to the public for the first time in
over a decade.
These parallel 2010-2011 works contracts (coming to a close in July 2010) also addressed pressing
needs in other areas of the site (see Appendix II and Figs 11-12) and provided assistance to other
HCP and SANP initiatives. In addition, the general works contract included an important first
campaign of works to make the atrium of the Casa del Bicentenario safe, accessible and protected
through the dismantling of the secondary roof structure and the erection of a new temporary roof
(see Appendix II and Figs 13-14). This work is crucial to allowing the phased implementation (with
HCP support) of the SANP conservation proposals for the house (see Appendix III). It is hoped the
phased and ‘lean’ approach will prove applicable to the other important houses of Herculaneum for
which SANP proposals exist and can be reworked.
Figs 11-12: repairs and maintenance work on decorative features in the Casa a Graticcio (left) and
on the facade of the Casa del Mobilio Carbonizzato (right) (works contractor Consorzio L’Officina)
Figs 13-14: reinforced concrete beams forming the impluviate roof of the Casa del Bicentenario,
before (left) and during (right) works. Note the temporary shelter that is protecting the houses
during works (works contractor Forte)
Unlike the old approach with priority given to structural works which strongly penalized the already fragile decorative surfaces
(that of having a single director of works and single company managing the entire tender but subcontracting at times to specialist
companies), this contract was separated into two works categories in accordance with the 2002 “Merloni ter” laws (D.lgs 30/04 and
D.lgs 163/06).
1
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3.2 Programmed maintenance
As the end of HCP’s site operations comes closer, it is increasingly important to focus on ways of
maintaining the site in the long-term with approaches that SANP can and will apply. Another
priority of the 2009-2010 conservation programme was that of using the flexibility of the HCP/BSR
contracting route to test approaches to more routine and recurrent forms of maintenance
intervention for both structures and decorative features in order to plan the annual SANP
maintenance programme effectively, a rolling programme of works that is to be launched in 2011
according to agreements made within HCP Joint Programming. This is of particular importance for
ensuring that the conservation of the site is guaranteed in the long-term and the mistakes of the
past are not repeated. As a result, some routine maintenance works were tested within ongoing
works contracts and proposals for two modest test campaigns have been developed and their
implementation is envisaged for late 2010.
Indeed, the limited routine maintenance carried out in 2009-2010 proved essential to evaluating
the effective annual needs of the site. It became evident that, thanks to the major investment
made in recent years in stabilizing archaeological structures and reinstating site infrastructure, a
series of straightforward and relatively unskilled tasks could already be identified and divided
between:
-
A services rather than a works contract, thereby reducing the complexity of contracting and
management procedures and increasing the probability of them being systematically
programmed in the future (maybe even under an extension of an annual SANP global service
contract).
-
A rolling campaign of simple and repetitive conservation works which do not entail elaborate
site facilities or onerous health and safety implications and perhaps use this continuous
operational presence to introduce the possibility of integrating additional interventions on a
‘request’ basis to meet those less foreseeable needs of the archaeological site and those who
operate there.
In the case of decorative features, the situation has proved more elaborate for a number of
reasons: their fragility and importance always requires specialist contractors, much work still needs
to be done to increase the lifespan of conservation interventions (see Section 4.0); for obvious
reasons, project resources to date have been directed primarily at eliminating the causes of decay
of decorative features (with roofing, drainage measures, etc.) in recent years and it is only now we
are addressing the decay of the wall paintings and floor decorations properly; furthermore, the
campaign to stabilize and better protect the site and reinstate drainage infrastructure is inevitably
leading to a critical period of ‘drying out’ for the delicate decorative features and this means we are
a long way off being able to think in terms of routine, highly repetitive maintenance interventions.
As a result, the HCP/BSR trial works for surfaces will focus on perfecting and standardizing the
approach for carrying out and maintaining a series preliminary interventions (such as consolidation,
structural pins, filling of cracks and lacunae for outdoor surfaces etc.) on wall paintings. For this
reason the research programme is currently focusing on delivering more clarity on more elaborate
interventions that can later inform the creation of standardized approaches. In parallel, proposals
have been developed by the HCP team for SANP to implement within HCP Joint Programming an
extensive campaign of conservation interventions on mosaic flooring in all areas accessed by
visitors (see Appendix II and Figs 15-16). This, along with similar campaigns for other features, will
constitute the capital investment that allows us to reach a status quo where routine repetitive
interventions are sustainable.
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Figs 15-16: before and after work to fill lacunae in mosaics in areas open to the public
4.0
Studies, conservation science research & model interventions
4.1
Archaeological and geological research
Advances in the archaeological and geological understanding of Herculaneum have once again
proved a predominant feature of the last year of conservation activity, allowing us to extend our
knowledge of Herculaneum and its values but also informing conservation decision-making.
Appendix I offers a systematic overview of these ‘discoveries’ but highlights include: the completion
of the ancient shoreline excavation of the roof of the Salone dei Marmi of the Casa del Rilievo di
Telefo; excavations carried out in various areas of the Insula Orientalis II in conjunction with the
establishment of water outlets for new roofing; the excavation of the east side of the peristyle of
the Casa dell’Albergo for the laying of a branch of the Cardo III sewer (see Appendix I).The new
knowledge being thrown up archaeological and geological investigation driven by conservation
work can be broadly divided into three types: urban layout and how the city was formed, the daily
lives of those who inhabited it and the dynamic processes that continued to take place during the
two millennia of burial. The recent shift in the project from planning works for implementation by
HCP/BSR to planning works for a different client to take forward, i.e. SANP implementation, has
further underlined the important role of the archaeologist in all stages of archaeological
conservation activity and a series of recommendations and guidelines will emerge from the
experience of the HCP Joint Programming to clarify what the public system needs to set as the
minimum requirement to guarantee a sufficiently interdisciplinary approach in all project stages.
4.2
New site plan and other surveys
The creation of the new site plan for Herculaneum has reached its final chapter with the
completion in 2009-2010 of the survey and cadaster of the ‘Nuovi Scavi’, that is the Villa of the
Papyri and the western insulae of the city excavated in the 1990s. This phase of work is vital for
relating the various parts of Herculaneum’s heritage which lie in different archaeological areas. The
new plan is already being integrated into the project GIS database as the last minor updates take
place (such as changes due to recent Regionally-funded POR projects to the north escarpment), and
is now being widely used as the basis for all planning. Publication and promoting access to the new
site plan and cadaster for academics will be a priority in 2010-2011.
As in previous years, the survey teams have offered precious input into ongoing activities by
offering periodic survey support on a request basis. The results of this work are coming together to
form in themselves an interesting body of different and subsidiary documentation from that one
recorded by the site plan for many contexts of the site that merit dissemination together with other
project results. In 2009-2010 areas surveyed in more detail on this basis included, amongst others:
the partially excavated urban blocks on the north side of the Decumanus Maximus, the eastern end
of the ancient shoreline, the mosaic in room 23 in the Casa dell’Albergo.
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Scientific research and trials to improve conservation approaches
With the ‘emergency’ phase behind us and sustainability and ‘effective use of resources’ the order
of the day, the project is increasing its focus on the creation of a body of knowledge regarding the
conservation of the site in partnership with numerous local and international specialist
organisations. This growing wealth of guidelines and technical specifications which are emerging
from these alliances will facilitate the future care not only of Herculaneum but also the other
Vesuvian sites. The project team has made a concerted effort in the last year to introduce more
structure and clarity in research activity by creating specific strategic programmes to address
certain pressing themes.
Two programmes entitled ‘Experimentation and study days’ bring together teams of renowned
scientists and conservators from Italy and abroad in what promises to be a winning mix of research,
site trials, exchange, peer review and communication: the first is dedicated to conserving
Herculaneum’s wall paintings and to resolving problems of failure of adhesion and cohesion of
paint layers and after a prolific year of site trials is fast approaching its conclusion (Figs 17-18); the
second is in the planning stage and will be dedicated to the finding solutions for the difficult
technical challenges raised by the site’s unique features in carbonized or waterlogged – and
sometimes also polychrome – wood.
Figs 17-18: two conservator-restorers involved in the SGS initiative “Trials and study days on
remedial treatments of cohesion failures in paint layers” at work on the decorative features of the
Casa del Salone Nero – left: Werner Schmid; right: Sabino Giovannoni.
Systematic campaigns of sampling and analysis continue to consolidate our understanding of the
mix of original construction techniques and twentieth-century restoration and inform remedial
measures we take today: the ‘100 Mortars Project’ is a good illustration of this and its importance
has been recognized by the organizing committee of a Historic Mortars conference (to be held in
Prague in September 2010) who are interested in the site-wide sampling approach (Fig. 19).
Capacity building of the research programme is also manifest in the increase in activity within
certain partnerships such as that with the Getty Conservation Institute. Thanks to the success of the
first two years of collaboration (success being measured on the ability of research to not be an end
in itself but feed in directly to site conservation measures and vice versa), planning is underway to
extend the joint venture from a portfolio of specific scientific research initiatives (Fig. 20) to an
ambitious and more structured programme of research and field projects.
A comprehensive overview of the conservation research programme and the external partners
involved is available in Appendix III. The richness of this network of partners becomes increasingly
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clear as HCP seeks sustainable models which draw on new forms of support, models that SANP can
take forward in the future.
Figs 19-20: left – detail of the facade plaster of the Casa del Genio with brick fragments and black
volcanic sand particles visible, sampled during the “100 Mortars” campaign; right – the Getty
Conservation Institute science team working in the nymphaeum of the Casa di Nettuno e Anfitrite.
4.4
Pilot projects and model solutions
Two areas of activity are the critical link between the research programme and routine planning of
conservation interventions for the site.
Pilot projects take the conclusions of specific research initiatives and their associated localized site
trials (see 4.3) and test them at a larger scale in a more comprehensive and interdisciplinary
context, to further guarantee the quality and applicability of the guidelines for conservation
practice developed. Two examples prevail in the last year: the completion of a conservation
strategy for the nymphaeum of the Casa di Nettuno e Anfitrite (Fig. 5) and the first stages of
implementation, a project aimed at testing the challenges of a truly interdisciplinary approach to
planning, implementation and monitoring; the pilot project for the detachment, removal of
previous backing and relaying of the mosaic in room 23 of the Casa dell’Albergo (Figs 21-22) which
is nearing completion and has forced the team to address the issues raised by remedying
problematic past approaches to the conservation of mosaics (on panels) and ensuring the survival
of a mosaic that will be exposed to the elements long into the future. Planning is underway for new
pilot projects in the Casa del Salone Nero, the Taberna Vinaria, the Suburban Baths and the College
of the Augustali to put into practice and improve upon new information for the care of wall
paintings emerging from the research programme.
Figs 21-22: mosaic pilot project – detachment of the mosaic in the Casa dell’Albergo, room 23 (left)
and the first trials at replacing it in situ on a more suitable support (right) (Martelli Castaldi)
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In addition, wider needs highlighted by the research initiatives lead to the development and testing
of prototypes for certain architectural features which, when successful, can become model
solutions to be implemented widely across the site and contribute substantially to the
management and conservation of the site in terms of protection, environmental control, security,
access, visitor management etc. Examples this last year are the studies and development of
prototypes for an array of security and safety fittings - doors, gates, fixed and flexible barriers (Figs
23-24) and for protective measures that aid environmental control such as new rooflights for the
Suburban Baths and solutions to raise wall heights without compromising the integrity of the
Roman/Maiuri masonry fabric below.
Figs 23-24: preliminary designs for moveable barriers to temporarily control visitor access to areas
of site (left) and the prototype proposed for the doors to close the arched spaces on the ancient
shoreline (Studio Rizzi)
5.0
Sustainable site management
5.1
HCP Joint Programming 2010-2012 & the ‘2010-2020 Exit Strategy’
The site’s future prospects depend on maintaining and further advancing HCP’s results, and this is
dependent on:
-
The development of sustainable strategies for a rolling programme of site conservation
(sustainable both in terms of cost and technical and administrative simplicity);
-
A long-term commitment by SANP to this rolling conservation programme which depends on an
intensive period of joint planning, implementation and review;
-
Recognising the changing status of Italian heritage which requires new approaches to
communication and involvement of wider interest groups to support management objectives.
To achieve these it has been necessary to already undergo a major operational shift in 2009-2010.
This began with the drafting of a joint 3-year conservation programme included in the July 2009
renewal of the BSR-SANP sponsorship contract and then translating this into a detailed proposal for
2010-2012, illustrated in the table in Appendix V (and already shared in a preliminary form with
Committee members during the 2009 meeting).
In this new phase of the project, SANP is already directing substantial financial resources to
Herculaneum for conservation works in the following way:
-
A commitment to dedicate 1 million euros of their annual ticket income to the rolling
maintenance programme on an annual basis hereafter,
-
A pledge of approximately 4.8 million euros dedicated to more substantial conservation,
infrastructure and enhancement projects in the next 2-3 years as part of the Emergency
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Commissioner’s specific funding programme, of which some 2 million euros have already been
committed.
Instead, the experience of the HCP team is being used to plan and supervise these works and to
develop long-term strategies for sustainable management approaches.
A two phase approach to the close down of the HCP conservation programme has thus been
proposed:
-
Phase 1: a handover phase in the period 2010-2012;
-
Phase 2: a second and final consolidation phase 2012-2020.
The tables below attempt to summarizes this two phase exit strategy.
BSR/PHI works in the context
of HCP
The past
HCP Joint
Programming /
1st Phase Exit Strategy
2011
2012
BSR/PHI planning &
supervision in the context of
HCP
2nd Phase
Exit
Strategy
The past
2012
2020
2009
2010
2010
2011
2011
2012
HCP Joint
Programming /
1st Phase Exit Strategy
2nd Phase
Exit
Strategy
2009
2010
2010
2011
Infrastructure
•
•
•
•
•
Maintenance
•
•
•
•
•
•
House by house
conservation
Conservation
practice
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
SANP works in the context of
HCP
The past
HCP Joint
Programming /
1st Phase Exit Strategy
2012
2020
SANP planning & supervision
in the context of HCP
2nd Phase
Exit
Strategy
The past
2012
2020
2009
2010
2010
2011
2011
2012
•
•
•
HCP Joint
Programming /
1st Phase Exit Strategy
2nd Phase
Exit
Strategy
2009
2010
2010
2011
2011
2012
•
•
•
Maintenance
•
•
•
•
•
•
House by house
conservation
Conservation
practice
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Infrastructure
2012
2020
In the new framework created by the exit strategy, two aspects are of great interest in terms of
broader positive outcomes of HCP’s 10 to 20 years of activity. In the first phase of the exit strategy,
HCP is offering archaeological support to all SANP works thereby retaining the opportunity to push
knowledge of the site further and greatly enrich the material to be shared via publications, archive
web portals etc.
Similarly, the continued investment in improving conservation practice, in this case in the first and
in the second phase of the exit strategy, will produce substantial material for publication for the
heritage conservation and management sector. In addition, it will help establish Herculaneum as:
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-
an open-air classroom and reference point for issues raised by the safeguarding of
archaeological heritage world over and,
-
a model for Italy when it comes to heritage being seen as a shared responsibility and accessible
to all.
And this is thanks to the numerous partnerships forged with local organisations and research
institutions all over the world, many of which will survive beyond the lifetime of the project.
5.2
Information management for future planning, implementation and monitoring
The broad ambition of HCP is to leave lasting change in terms of how the heritage authority and its
partners go about managing and conserving the site and not risk a return to the mistakes of the
past. Guaranteeing rolling maintenance programmes and guaranteeing access, physical and
intellectual, are perhaps the most significant areas in reaching this objective. The role of
information management in achieving this end is proving ever more vital given the elaborate
analytical relationship it allows between data referring to physical places, administrative aspects
(cost and timeframes) and qualitative parameters.
The relationship between the HCP team and the archaeological site with its conservation issues to
resolve can be measured by the amount of documentation produced over the last years of activity.
Information management has a role to ensure that information is accessible and that tools are
provided for a critical approach to the gathered data. The current database is based on a general
principle of georeferencing information of all types allowing observation and analyses to be carried
both on a sufficiently detailed scale or in terms of evaluating general characteristics. The efforts of
the last year of activity have focused on implementing old data into the new plan of the
archaeological site, as well as creating software for the management of data emerging from works
carried out on structures and decorative surfaces. The management applications created allow
operations to be monitored and together make up a georeferenced digital archive of HCP activities
on site. The database structure reflects the project with the gathering of existing information in
order to understand the site’s conservation problems, the effort to find solutions to structural
issues and the creation of a shared management system which allows the planning of rolling
maintenance programmes.
Objectives for the coming years will be:
•
•
•
5.3
to provide the tools necessary for wider sharing of information through the creation of
digital “containers” with standardized and structured data (CMS web portal);
to provide access to data through visual interfaces, such as WebGIS, which allows spatial
interrogation of information;
to provide models for archiving data ante and post operam for the conservation activities
on structures and surfaces which will ensure reliability, flexibility and meet recognized
standards.
Communicating HCP results: participation and access
Communication has played a key role in HCP since project inception, as it was quickly recognized
that dialogue with others helped improve strategic thinking and conservation approaches.
However, possibilities were limited as long as the team was intensely absorbed with tackling
emergency situations. More recently, however, it has been possible to develop a more structured
programme for communicating project processes and results and this is particularly vital now that
HCP is moving into a handover phase where long-term sustainability is the prime objective. Indeed,
communication on various levels and with different media is required in order to:
-
share the HCP experience of creating a temporary management system to reinforce the ability
of the existing management framework to tackle serious management and conservation issues
and how this can be applied to other heritage management scenarios;
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ensure that the accumulated data on Herculaneum (in particular the GIS) continues to be useful
and useable for future practioners working on the site;
-
share HCP results that offer potential conservation approaches and methodologies applicable
elsewhere;
-
gain broader support for site conservation by provoking an awareness of Herculaneum’s values,
the site’s fragility and the need for wide commitment by many stakeholders;
-
give the archaeological heritage a more dynamic role in the local community and interface with
the wider cultural landscape.
Alongside a continuing commitment to sharing results by publishing articles in journals and
presenting conference papers, this year a more structured approach was drawn up for publications,
which includes:
-
a series of thematic studies based on HCP as a interdisciplinary conservation project (principle
audience: heritage practioners) and recounting results as they emerge;
-
a series of monographs based on key archaeological areas/themes and conservation issues
(principle audience: scholars);
-
website based on a series of hypertexts that communicate the work of the project so far and
indicating key areas where results are/will be shared (principle audience: heritage practioners,
interested general public);
-
web portal to evolve from the basis created by the website as copyright issues are resolved and
HCP results are translated into versions that are useful/understandable by others.
Finally new methods of communicating with visitors are being analysed and tested where possible,
based on the latest research in the field of heritage interpretation, where the key feature of, for
example, site panels and other interpretive media is to raise awareness so that visitors choose to
support conservation efforts. This approach is a particularly important tool in visitor management, as
there is often a negative impact of raising a site’s profile as is happening in Herculaneum where
increased visitor numbers cause increasing anthropic damage. These early initiatives support HCP’s
sustainability agenda and may be of great importance should the Basilica (see Part B) and the
museum (see Part C) projects go ahead.
5.4
Herculaneum Centre
While the HCP team is becoming increasingly proactive in terms of communication and the
participation of a broader range of stakeholders in Herculaneum’s conservation, an important ally in
this work is the Herculaneum Centre. While HCP is preparing to handover to the Soprintendenza and
gradually scale down operations, the Centre is envisaged as a long-term presence in Ercolano which
will take forward HCP’s work on several fronts: creating positive learning environments for issues
relating to archaeological heritage; promoting Herculaneum as an open classroom, broadening the
scope and diversity of support which archaeological heritage attracts, taking forward partnerships
that HCP has created beyond the finite lifetime of HCP (Getty, Courtauld etc.). As a result it is being
supported by the HCP team as an integral part of the sustainable future strategy (see Appendix IV).
Indeed, not only does the Herculaneum Centre bring its institutional partner – the town council – to
dialogues on the future of Herculaneum within Ercolano, but it has established a network of local and
international partners that are bringing valuable support. These partners range from ICCROM – who,
since working with the Centre, has made an increased commitment to using Herculaneum as a case
study – to a network of local schools who have ensured that 100 school children have become
“young ambassadors” of Herculaneum helping to spread the message of its need for protection.
Other initiatives have directly contributed to HCP, such as the support given to work in Via Mare next
to the Basilica are (see Part B) and the oral history project that has shed light on Maiuri-period site
practices which have informed conservation approaches.
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These initiatives often go beyond HCP’s remit but have demonstrated the great value that HCP
results have for other partners and how a broader participatory approach can bring much greater
support for the site long-term survival.
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Part B. Edges of site – Basilica Noniana
1.0
Introduction
The importance given to the issue of the edges of the archaeological site, and in particular to the
Basilica Noniana over the last couple of years, has already had a catalytic affect in drawing
attention to this area. While the feasibility study has been written regarding the possibility of
excavating the Basilica and enhancing the site edges, other partners have expressed a will to help
protect the area and ensure positive repercussions for the neighbourhood of the modern town
bordering the site. In particular, in 2009-2010 the town and regional council have shown their
commitment to tackling the area of Via Mare (the street running alongside the site) by taking on
board HCP proposals for its insertion in the city-wide urban regeneration project and designating
significant amounts of EU funding for its requalification within two different programmes.
The elimination of the last dilapidated buildings (after the first 2007 campaign of demolitions) and
urban regeneration and enhancement initiatives will improve the relationship of the ancient city
and the modern town (see B.2.0) and free up the north-east corner of the site for future excavation
(see B.3.0). These diverse initiatives promise to come together to deliver an important new model
for better integrating an archaeological site into its surroundings in a new way that benefits the site
and those who visit it and also benefits the local community who can play a key role in the longterm future of the site. This approach will also prove vital for the development of museum facilities
in the south-east corner of the site (see Part C). This initiative constitutes a stepping up in scale
from the Conservation Programme (Part A) in as much as it pulls in numerous new partners and
addresses wider social and urban issues. This multilateral and participatory approach has been
made possible thanks to the HCP team working side-by-side with colleagues from the Herculaneum
Centre, building on existing partnerships and links to the local community to achieve consensus for
a series of changes to the existing problematic status of the site edges, changes which can actively
contribute to the long-term sustainability of the site of Herculaneum in conservation and
management. Thanks to a period of planning and negotiation in 2009-2010, conditions are now
favourable to push this initiative forward intensively and at the same time root it and other
enhancement initiatives (e.g. new museum facilities, see Part C) in a global vision for
Herculaneum’s archaeological heritage.
2.0
Via Mare and the area around the archaeological site
The interest generated by project team discussion, planning and negotiations in 2009-2010 to
improve the edges of the archaeological site and evaluate the feasibility of excavating the Basilica
Noniana after the Basilica investigative work in 2008-2009 (see B.3.0) have led to increased dialogue
between SANP and the Town Council and the Town Council in conjunction with the Regional Council
confirming their commitment by inserting the Via Mare and Via dei Cortili as target areas for urban
and social regeneration within two EU funded programmes: PIU Europa (for Via dei Cortili and the
town centre end of Via Mare) and the Accordo di Reciprocità (for the section of Via Mare from Villa
of the Papyri to the sea). This is an important sign that improvements and new excavation in the
archaeological site and the consequent public attention placed on the area can and should have a
positive impact on the local community. Many case studies have shown how the presence of heritage
resources can attract financial and other forms of support in order to improve socio-economic
conditions and it would seem to be the right moment for Ercolano to take advantage of its rich
archaeological heritage in ways that are sustainable.
In 2009-2010, the project team offered concrete support to the town council by drawing up a
preliminary project for urban improvements to Via Mare/Via dei Cortili (Figs 27-30) in conjunction
with the Herculaneum Centre, ensuring in this way that strategies adopted are entirely compatible
with broader ambitions to improve the relationship between the modern and ancient towns and to
complete excavation of the Basilica. In addition, the project team has played a key role in bringing
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together the various partners whose support will be needed for future stages of activity and
encouraging dialogue between them (including the Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di
Napoli e Pompei, Soprintendenza B.A.P.S.A.E. di Napoli, Comune di Ercolano, Ministry of Culture).
HCP has been supported in this area by the Herculaneum Centre which has dedicated particular
attention to the involvement of the local community. In order to ensure that new developments are
shared and supported by local residents – essential in ensuring long-term, positive impact – a more
participatory approach to planning has been pursued for both the urban regeneration initiative and
the potential archaeological project. Exploring new ways of promoting dialogue with residents has
been a key factor over the last year, and a mix of informal and formal approaches have been used to
speak to as many people and interest groups as possible (Figs 25-26). The immediate aim is to
develop trust between community members and the various partners involved in order to establish a
healthy working relationship to embrace the changes afoot for the edges of the north-west corner of
the site. However, this project marks the beginning of a healthy debate among a wide range of
stakeholders about the future and longer-term aims include:
-
creating an enduring relationship where the local community is interested and actively involved
as a stakeholder in their heritage and its conservation;
-
establishing a good precedent for improvements to other areas around the archaeological site
which build bridges with the modern town and open up the site to the community and the
modern town to visitors;
-
using the experience of this specific project to inform a global vision of the site and its
relationship to the modern town and ensure new initiatives for other areas of the site’s
boundaries, such as on-site museum facilities (see Part C), are rooted in a collective vision of
positive change;
-
ensuring improvements to the site work together to reinforce Herculaneum’s status as an
extraordinary site to visit for diverse target groups. An example is the need for new museum
facilities to respond to requirements created by a major Basilica excavation campaign (labs,
open-storage, research centre, educational facilities e etc.)
Figs 25-26: various meetings have been organized with the residents of Via Mare and Via dei Cortili
to involve them in the development of the regeneration project, gathering their opinions and
drawing on their knowledge of the area (Centro Herculaneum)
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Fig. 27: the area around the archaeological site, including the area of Via Mare and Via dei Cortili (outlined
in red) which is the target of the regeneration project to be financed within PIU’ Ercolano (Studio Pesaresi)
Fig. 28: initial design ideas for the regeneration of the Via Mare and Via dei Cortili area – general plan
(Studio Pesaresi and Studio Barbieri Negri)
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Fig. 29: initial design ideas
for the regeneration of the
Via Mare and Via dei Cortili
area – elevation showing
the vertical relationship
between Via Mare and the
archaeological site (Studio
Pesaresi and Studio
Barbieri Negri)
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Fig. 30: initial design ideas for the regeneration of the Via Mare and Via dei Cortili area –images
from the proposal compared with the current situation (Studio Pesaresi and Studio Barbieri Negri)
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The feasibility study for excavating the Basilica Noniana and adjacent areas
3.1
Conclusions of the feasibility study
Following the conclusion of investigative works in the Basilica area in 2009, efforts have focused on
writing up the feasibility study and defining the realistic options for potential excavation in that
area.
Thanks to exploratory works in the Bourbon tunnel, and recent experiences in the Villa of the
Papyri led by SANP, the team is now in a good position to predict the conditions that await them in
the event of full excavation. The architects and conservators have also had the opportunity to
examine the potential conservation conditions and the needs of both structures and decorative
features, which will need to be taken into consideration in any proposed project. Furthermore,
there is now a greater archaeological understanding of the way in which the Basilica fits into the
ancient town’s urban fabric, particularly as it is now evident that it was not entirely free-standing
but that other structures were built up against the Basilica. This has major implications for deciding
the extent of the area to excavate.
The extent of any potential excavation is in fact one of the main themes discussed by the feasibility
study, as it has significant implications on finances, archaeological and organizational complexity
and on the relationship with the surrounding urban area. The study has been structured to allow a
parallel understanding of the issues raised by extending the archaeological area and regenerating
the urban area above, so as to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of the various options
(in terms of the scope of new excavation) set within the broader context of the relationship
between the site and the modern city.
The recommended option that will be submitted in the feasibility study is that excavation should go
slightly beyond the Basilica to the west, in order to refill that area and stabilize the escarpment
behind the Basilica. However, to the south a spur of unexcavated material would be left in Insula VII
(Casa di Galba) in order to help support a protective shelter. Such a shelter is considered necessary
for conserving the newly excavated area, but would also be advantageous for extending the area
available above the site adjacent to Via Mare – this could be used as part of the initiatives for
improving the edges of site and the relationship with the modern town.
To the north, excavation could end in line with the Decumanus Maximus and the monumental arch
and so clear the area recently ‘rediscovered’ (thanks to the tunnel clearance works), contribute to
future underground connection of the main site and the Theatre and also permit the high walkway
on the north escarpment above the area to become a site exit in the long-term (thereby bringing
visitors into the Via Mare district).
The feasibility of excavation has been studied in detail with the various options highlighted for the
clearance of the area above the Basilica. This is one of the most crucial issues to consider in the
immediate future since clearing the area would both allow excavation to take place, but would also
ensure that the regeneration project can be carried out with the EU funding.
As for technical issues related to excavating and conserving the Basilica, the feasibility study favours
an extremely conservation approach, with minimal post-excavation integration and reconstruction.
The feasibility study also highlights the need for a shelter over the excavation works to reduce the
impact of microclimatic variations, the opportunity of bringing together all the relevant disciplines
during works (for studying and conserving finds, structures and decorative features) and allowing
visits to the works in progress.
3.2
Surveys and documentation
The survey work carried out in the Bourbon tunnels in the Basilica area have been completed (Figs
31-32, 34). In addition, to support the planning that needed to be done both for excavation and
requalification proposals, further surveys have been carried out of the escarpments and in the
Basilica area, and extending into Via Mare and Via dei Cortili.
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Furthermore, the newly excavated tunnels were the subject of laser scanning with the subsequent
creation of a 3D-model based on point clouds, providing the team with highly accurate graphic
documentation (Figs 33, 35-36).
Figs 31-33: survey work under way within the Basilica tunnels (left) and in the area above (centre)
(Studio Brizzi); 3D laser scan of the tunnels (right) (Akhet)
Fig. 34: an example of the graphic documentation created by the survey team of the Basilica tunnels
(Studio Brizzi)
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Figs 35-36: graphic documentation created by the 3D laser scanner in the Bourbon tunnel leading to the
Theatre (Akhet)
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Part C. Museum facilities
1.0
Introduction
In 2006, Dr Packard shared a vision for Herculaneum’s
archaeological site that went beyond the conservation
programme underway and extended project scope to
include improving the edges of the site, exploring
opportunities for excavation and upgrading on-site
museum facilities.
The measures necessary to allow the opening of the
existing on-site museum building was a challenge that
the heritage authority had already been tackling for
some time. Additional support from the Packard
Humanities Institute to make the best of the existing
facilities has so far taken the form of commissioning a
feasibility study and preliminary proposals (July 2009),
placing priority on finding a way of opening the museum
and its collection of Roman artefacts as soon as possible
without compromising quality. The results of the study
are summarized in section 2.0.
Over the last year as the feasibility study was being
prepared, the possibility emerged of a more ambitious
project to actually create new museum facilities. This
shift in ambitions responded to Dr Packard’s own
conviction on visiting in late 2009 that the recently
liberated SANP-owned area adjacent to the site (Figs 37,
39-40) opens the door to an extraordinary opportunity
to create a new museum complex that houses the
twentieth-century site collection and its future growth
(in the case of excavation of the Basilica Noniana this
would be major, see Part B) and offers cutting edge
facilities. Section 3.0 explores the issues this could raise.
2.0
Fig. 37: the existing museum building
(centre right) on the south side of the
archaeological site, to its left the area
of greenhouses owned by SANP and
recently liberated, opening up
possibilities for more ambitious
proposals for museum facilities
Existing museum facilities
2.1
The existing situation which SANP are facing
The main museum building on site at Herculaneum was built in the 1970s but has never been
opened to the public (Fig. 38). As years have passed is has become increasingly evident that the
building is no longer (and perhaps was never!) suitable for housing a museum collection and that it
requires major revisions in order to be used. The relatively new boat pavilion adjacent to the 1970s
building also poses some technical problems demanding resolution. While SANP gratefully accepted
PHI’s offer of a feasibility study, they are now under pressure to open the museum collection even
if that requires compromise or temporary solutions to be found. The authorities would also find it
very difficult to demolish the existing building without having at least demonstrated that public
money was not wasted, and therefore without having at least used it temporarily. However, SANP
also have the opportunity to regain a significant amount of land on the south side of site which is
currently used for flower-growing – this provides additional opportunities for more ambitious
plans.
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The feasibility study and preliminary proposals for the existing museum buildings
The specialist interdisciplinary company Hydea Srl was commissioned to examine the existing
museum buildings and give a thorough report
on technical issues that needed resolving and
architectural opportunities and constraints
and use these to outline the options available
for the future use of the complex. The study
reveals that the main building requires major
works to bring it up to various legally
requirements (environmental, health and
safety etc.), highlights the limitations of the
existing structure for public access and
exhibition use and identifies possible changes
to overcome them problems both in terms of
compatible architectural intervention and Fig. 38: the existing museum building
display options.
Analysis by the team from Hydea has led to two very tangible options presented in the July 2010
submission of the Feasibility Study and Preliminary Plans for the Existing Museum Buildings:
Option 1: upgrading the existing main building, but only the minimum necessary needed in order to
open a basic exhibition of the collection to the public within a short time frame (approx. 1 year) and
for limited financial outlay (approx. €2million) but without addressing some of the more substantial
problems of the building to allow it usage long into the future. To quote Hydea’s report:
“Option 1 (least cost/minimum design option): the first scenario would fit‐term
a short
development strategy, whereby light maintenance and repair works would be undertaken on
the building. The works would be limited to the overhaul or mandatory replacement of the
existing E&M equipment, without encompassing any architectural upgrading. This ‘quick win’
alternative would likely allow the museum to open in 1 year or so, at an estimated cost of
€2million (incl. design supervision and contingencies, and the cost of communication and site
presentation activities).”
Option 2: upgrading the existing main building seizing numerous architectural opportunities to
improve the fabric and make it an effective long-term on-site museum facility. This option would
require a longer time frame (approx. 2 years) and a more substantial financial outlay (approx.
€4million) but would deliver a building that could respond to needs long into the future;
“Option 2 (more expensive, medium design option): the second option would cater to the
medium‐ or even the long‐term, whereby full renovation works (architectural and E&M works)
would be undertaken on the building, that eventually would be totally renovated. This option
would take not less than 24 months for the Antiquarium to open, and at a considerable cost, in
the order of €4.2million (incl. design supervision and contingencies, and the cost of
communication and site presentation activities)”.
Clearly Option 2 must be pursued if plans to create a new museum complex are not pursued.
However, both options could be valid in the case of the new museum complex being created. Low
cost, temporary use of the building (Option 1) would allow immediate public access to the
collection and would have the advantage of allowing museum strategies to be tested before the
creation of a permanent display in a new complex. The minimum cost outlay now would make
demolition or radical restructuring of the building for diverse uses justifiable in the future. Similarly,
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a more substantial renovation of the existing building (Option 2) could be identified as compatible
with the creation of new museum facilities to the east since the existing building may work with
those new buildings to offer a complete complex.
With the feasibility study and preliminary proposals on the existing museum delivered to PHI and
SANP in early July 2010, decisions need to be made swiftly to ensure work aimed at some form of
use (temporary or long-term) of the existing building begins in autumn 2010 in order to display
Herculaneum’s unique collection to the public in a short a timeframe as possible, ideally while more
ambitious plans to improve on-site museum facilities in the future are taken forward.
3.0
Evaluating issues raised by the creation of a new museum complex
3.1
Opening discussions with the authorities involved
Though the HCP team doesn’t have a specific mandate for involvement in plans for a new museum,
the key contribution to the museum initiative made to date, in conjunction with the SANP Site
Director, has been to use its existing network of project partners to start preliminary discussions
about the issues raised by the creation of a new on-site museum complex at Herculaneum,
especially with those authorities who would release the necessary permissions to allow the
initiative to proceed, with a view to signing a Memorandum of Understanding in the near future.
SANP, the Town Council and representatives of the Ministry of Culture have expressed enthusiasm
for such an ambitious project from the outset, with some foreseeable observations and conditions
raised informally at this stage, such as:
-
the need for the collection to somehow be made accessible in the interim period, possibly
through temporary use of the existing building;
-
the new complex would have to be designed to have as light an impact as possible in terms of
running costs for the initiative to be successful;
-
any bi- or multilateral agreement forged for the new museum complex would have to in some
way address not just the creation of the complex but long-term management costs that would
be incurred above and beyond those of simply completing and opening the existing facilities
(the State only has resources to cover managing this more modest option in the long-term).
It was also important to understand the opinion of the Soprintendenza B.A.P.S.A.E. di Napoli both
on the realistic prospects of demolishing or modifying the exterior of the existing building and the
implications of creating new architectural volumes above and below ground adjacent the
archaeological site. A first site visit with the area officer and then with the Architectural
Superintendent himself established a series of important parameters to consider in developing
proposals for the new complex (height and boundary proximity limits etc.) to ensure authorizations
can be issued and also the Soprintendenza’s broad support for the demolition of the existing 1970s
building given that in 30 years of renovations has lost much of architectural merit it might have
once had. However, the real difficulties of getting buildings demolished in Italy was highlighted in
discussions given the large number of influential lobby groups that might defend the structure as
an important example of twentieth century architecture.
3.2
Initial design ideas
In meetings at the Ministry in November 2010 and consecutive site visits with his architect advisor,
Robert Arrigoni, in December 2010, David W. Packard already began to outline some hopes for a
new museum complex in terms of its potential relationship to the site, its low visual impact on the
topography of the site edges and the necessity to include facilities in the complex that offer
something to the local community and the wider heritage sector and not just visitors to the site, all
approaches that are compatible with the priorities of SANP and other authorities that would be
involved.
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In the hope that it is useful for taking the dialogue forward, we summarise here some observations
and initial design ideas that have come out informally from the various meetings that have taken
place over the last six months (see Section 3.1):
-
the proposed combination of various functions within the museum complex has proved to
be of great interest, as a multi-purpose facility would not only support the legacy of the
Packard Humanities Institute’s conservation project and its ongoing management aims but
would also bring in much broader audiences to Herculaneum;
-
these facilities could support the care and promotion of ancient Herculaneum but also the
wider archaeological heritage of the Gulf of Naples through the creation of cutting edge
laboratories, workshops, open-storage and temporary exhibition spaces and provision for
research and training hosting library and archive resources and the educational and
research programmes of the Herculaneum Study Centre long after HCP has closed down;
-
the on-site nature of the complex would help the desire to make Herculaneum an openclassroom for practitioners work with archaeological sites long into the future;
-
important collections such as that of the National Archaeological Museum of Naples could
benefit enormously from such a nearby facility that turnaround the conservation,
documentation and temporary exhibition of its collections in an extraordinarily mutually
beneficial way;
-
in addition, the possibility of including a museum project within more global thinking about
Herculaneum’s heritage resources would allow it to play a key role as a catalyst with an
inevitably positive impact on the local socio-economic situation;
-
should a new museum facility be built on the south side of the archaeological site, it would
be an opportunity to revisit the ticketing system and move turnstiles to the very edge of the
archaeological area. This would open up a large area of land around the museum building(s)
for public access, park usage, etc. and encourage a healthier inclusion of the site within the
modern town;
-
in turn new access around the southern edge of site, which would tie into the recent
opening of the path to the new ticket office to the east, could also be developed into a
route following right around the site which would allow it to be appreciated even by nonticket visitors and outside opening times. A route of this nature would also reduce the
isolation that the site currently suffers from the modern town and its wealth of cultural
and natural attractions, including the historic centre of Resina, the Pugliano market and
sanctuary, Via Mare leading to the sea, the Golden Mile with the Vesuvian Villas, the
Vesuvius Natural Park etc.
With new governance at the Regional and the Town Council levels after March elections, the
conditions will be right in the autumn of 2010 for the organizations involved, public and private, to
sign a memorandum of understanding for the new museum complex.
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Fig. 39: survey carried out with the 3D laser scanner of the southern area of the archaeological park,
including the existing museum building and the area of land available for more ambitious proposals (Akhet)
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Fig. 40: the southern
area of the
archaeological park
with the existing
museum building and
the land available for
new enhancement
projects (Akhet)
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Part D. The HCP team
Massimo Brizzi, HCP Survey Archaeologist (background: archaeologist)
[email protected]
Brizzi heads the survey team who ensure that documentation of site is accurate,
detailed and updated. Alongside the creation of a new site plan which brings together
all Herculaneum’s archaeological heritage, they also carry out surveys on demand in
support of other colleagues’ work. In addition, for the Edges of Site and Basilica
Project they are tying in the surveys of archaeological areas to the modern town
above.
Domenico Camardo (Sosandra Srl), HCP Archaeologist (background: archaeologist)
d.camar[email protected]
Camardo leads the archaeological research programme and offers archaeological
support to the other team members in planning and supervising works. Where
appropriate, his team carries out more in-depth site investigations to increase
understanding of the site. In addition to his contribution to the Conservation
Programme, he is the archaeologist leading the Edges of Site and Basilica Project.
Sarah Court, HCP Communications Officer (background: archaeologist)
[email protected]
Court is responsible for communicating HCP work in progress and results with others
(the local community, heritage practioners, scholars and visitors). The aim of such
work is to ensure activities at Herculaneum benefit from broader exchange, that the
lessons learnt at Herculaneum are not lost and that others become involved in
conserving the site for the future. Court also acts as the bridge between HCP and its
sister initiative, the Herculaneum Centre. She also contributes to work on the Edges of
Site and Basilica Project and the initiatives to improve on-site museum facilities.
Ascanio D’Andrea (Akhet Srl), HCP Information Manager (background: archaeologist)
[email protected]
D’Andrea ensures that all the project results produced by the HCP team are safely
stored, made available for future consultation and managed in a way that ensures the
data continually feeds back into project development. Alongside a digital archive
housing all HCP results, he has developed a GIS database which allows more userfriendly access to and analysis of data which constitutes a vital tool for planning
works. He has worked on other initiatives for HCP (cadaster, 3D GIS database of Insula
Orientalis I, laser scanning, Edges of Site and Basilica Project) using IT applications.
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Alessandra De Vita, HCP Coordinator of Scientific Research with External Partners
(background: conservator-restorer)
[email protected]
De Vita coordinates the project’s conservation science research programme carried
out in conjunction with a rich array of external partners from all over the world.
Activities include scientific analysis, site investigation and conservation trials and De
Vita is the point of contact for the external partners, ensuring research agendas
complement project objectives and offering specialist expertise and logistical support.
Maura Giacobbe Borelli, HCP Procurement Advisor (background: conservatorrestorer)
[email protected]
Giacobbe Borelli joined the project to direct site works on decorative features. Thanks
to her consolidated experience of legal and administrative aspects of conservation of
cultural heritage, her role has evolved to that of supporting the project in the
preparation a series of resources that will aid future approaches to procurement,
including tendering procedures, pricelists, technical specifications etc.
Maria Paola Guidobaldi, SANP Site Director (background: archaeologist)
[email protected]
Guidobaldi has been Site Director of Herculaneum for the Soprintendenza since 2000,
shortly before HCP began. Within this role, she is specifically responsible for
overseeing the innovative HCP sponsorship agreement on behalf of the public partner
and works closely with the Head of the SANP Technical Office and the HCP Project
Manager to ensure this international collaboration reinforces SANP’s capacity to
manage and conserve Herculaneum long into the future.
Monica Martelli Castaldi, HCP Conservator-Restorer (background: conservatorrestorer)
[email protected]
Martelli Castaldi planned, and with her specialist company, carried out the campaign
on decorative features in areas of the site at risk in the early years of the project. In
recent times, her role has shifted to planning and overseeing conservation work on
decorative features at the site, contributing to the creation of a rolling programme of
maintenance and carrying out focused pilot projects to push forward methodological
approaches and define procedures.
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Studio Massari,
engineer/architect)
Page 38 of 74
HCP
Water
and
Humidity
Specialists
(background:
[email protected]
Ippolito and Alessandro Massari and their team investigate the movement of water
through the archaeological site and its impact and advise on measures for rainwater
collection and disposal and humidity reduction. Their specialist consultancy, taken
forward in an annual campaign of works by Pesaresi, has led to the reinstatement of
an almost complete primary drainage network for the ancient city.
Carlo Monda, HCP Health and Safety Officer (background: architect)
[email protected]
Monda is an architect who has qualified as a health and safety coordinator under Italian
law and is responsible for ensuring the planning and implementation stage of all HCP
conservation work fully comply with regulatory standards. His consolidated experience
in the archaeological sector has helped him respond to the particular risks raised by
work at Herculaneum and the conflict often created by the need for ongoing site
operations to be visited by groups as part of the HCP communications strategy.
Valerio Papaccio, Head of SANP Technical Office and Servizio II (background:
architect)
[email protected]
Papaccio is the architect in charge of the SANP Technical Office for all of the Vesuvian
sites but in his long career with SANP he has been particularly involved with works at
Herculaneum. Involved in HCP since the project’s inception in 2001, he works closely
with the SANP Site Director and the HCP Project Manager to ensure this international
collaboration reinforces SANP’s capacity to manage and conserve Herculaneum long
into the future.
Paola Pesaresi, HCP Architect (background: architect)
[email protected]
Pesaresi has led the site-wide campaign for the conservation of structures from the
outset of the project, overseeing its translation from a series of emergency
operations to programmed maintenance. As well as working towards the
establishment of standard procedures of intervention and optimizing strategies for
using resources and communicating works methodologies, today she is involved in
planning future SANP works for site conservation and enhancement. In addition to
her contribution to the Conservation Programme, she is the architect leading the Edges of Site and Basilica
Project.
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Valentina Puglisi, HCP Assistant Project Manager (background: architect)
[email protected]
As part of the project management team, Puglisi pulls together management
expertise and specialist technical experience to ensure the project achieves defined
conservation objectives before the exit of HCP from Herculaneum . These range from
reducing site management costs through capital investments in infrastructure,
establishing effective models of continuous care and creating a body of knowledge
that can inform future conservation practice.
Gionata Rizzi, HCP Architect for Special Projects (background: architect)
[email protected]
Rizzi is the architect in charge of finding appropriate solutions when new elements
need to be inserted into the archaeological site. This work has included a series of
trials for protective shelters in the Insula Orientalis I. Current priorities include trials
for wall integrations and replacement fixtures and fittings across the site (including
closing the arches on the ancient shoreline, rooflights for the suburban baths and
doors and fixed and moveable barriers throughout the site).
Jane Thompson, HCP Project Manager (background: architect)
[email protected]
Thompson has managed the HCP since its inception, ensuring project communication
routes, decision-making and financial management tie into well-defined objectives
that respond to the needs of the site. She has developed an approach of using a
temporary management system in order to forge change within an existing
management environment and is now working closely with SANP colleagues, the
project team and partners to ensure HCP reinforces SANP’s capacity to manage and
conserve Herculaneum long into the future. She is also contributing to work on the Edges of Site and
Basilica Project and plans to improve on-site museum facilities.
Giorgio Torraca, HCP Consultant for Scientific Research (background: chemist)
[email protected]
Torraca brings his consolidated experience of scientific research applied to resolving
conservation issues for cultural heritage to Herculaneum. He has been central to the
development of the project’s conservation science research programme both in terms
of his own direct research contribution and through the recruitment of external
partners to identify and investigate key questions.
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Gianni Vercelli, HCP Structural Engineer (background: engineer)
[email protected]
Vercelli’s consolidated experience of working with the elaborate structural problems
raised by existing buildings, and in particular archaeological structures, has
allowed him to work effectively with HCP architects on planning and
supervising structural aspects of the more technically elaborate conservation
interventions. In addition, he has contributed to measures for consolidating
the site boundary escarpments.
Giuseppe Zolfo, SANP Conservation Coordinator
[email protected]
Zolfo oversees all conservation work on decorative features and finds at Herculaneum
for SANP and, as a result, is a key point of reference for the HCP team. His long-term
commitment to conservation issues at Herculaneum has meant he offers an
extraordinary overview of conservation approaches employed in the past at the site,
present constraints that can affect work on decorative features and future
possibilities.
This is not a complete list – it does not include many other people who contribute to the project, such as:
colleagues from the Soprintendenza and other local public bodies; colleagues from the Herculaneum Centre;
the various teams who support the colleagues listed above; specialists who are involved periodically; the
numerous external partners for research projects; specialist companies with responsibility for carrying out
the conservation work for the Herculaneum Conservation Project, and the various financial and legal
specialists who have supported the project over the years.
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Appendices
Appendix I:
Panoramica delle ‘scoperte archeologiche’ nel 2009-2010
Domenico Camardo
Appendix II:
Panoramica dei lavori conservativi nel 2009-2010
Paola Pesaresi, Monica Martelli Castaldi & Valentina Puglisi
Appendix III:
Lo sviluppo del programma di ricerca scientifica nel 2009-2010
Alessandra De Vita & Valentina Puglisi
Appendix IV:
Il contributo del Centro Herculaneum alla sostenibilità HCP
Christian Biggi (Manager del Centro Herculaneum) & Sarah Court
Appendix V:
La Programmazione Congiunta HCP per il biennio 2010-2012
Maria Paola Guidobaldi, Valerio Papaccio & Jane Thompson
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Reports for the Scientific Committee 2010
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Appendix I
Panoramica delle ‘scoperte archeologiche’ nel 2009-2010
I.1
Conclusione dei lavori di scavo archeologico nel settore orientale dell’Antica Spiaggia
Nell’ultima fase dei lavori si è proceduto alla rimozione dei legni del crollo del tetto del Salone dei Marmi
della Casa del Rilievo di Telefo rinvenuto sull’antica spiaggia. Prima di avviare la rimozione dei reperti si è
proceduto alla numerazione di tutti i reperti ed alla realizzazione di un rilievo tridimensionale dell’intero
crollo con uno scanner laser 3d. Nel lavoro di rimozione dei reperti siamo stati affiancati dalle restauratrici
del Consorzio Pragma. I singoli reperti sono stati ripuliti, stati trattati con biocida e chiusi in sacche di
plastica nera che non permettono il passaggio di luce. I reperti sono stati poi stoccati in una scaffalatura in
tubi metallici all’inizio della rampa Martusciello, dove si è verificato che esistevano adeguate condizioni di
umidità e di temperatura. I dati di ogni frammento sono stati registrati in una scheda opportunamente
creata, nella quale sono riportate la descrizione, le misure, le decorazioni, lo stato di conservazione, il
rapporto stratigrafico con altri legni, le foto digitali, ecc. Queste schede saranno estremamente importanti
nella fase di studio per la ricostruzione delle dinamiche del crollo ma anche e soprattutto per formulare
un’ipotesi ricostruttiva del tetto.
Al di sotto dei legni è stato riportato in luce il crollo del manto di copertura in tegole e coppi del tetto del
salone dei marmi. Le tegole erano in uno stato estremamente frammentario, ma la loro rimozione ha
permesso il recupero di alcune antefisse in terracotta che costituivano la decorazione della falda del tetto
(Figg. 41-42).
Figg. 41-42: Due frammenti di antefisse che decoravano le falde del tetto crollato sull’antica spiaggia.
Rimosso il crollo del tetto, sono stati individuati blocchi di muratura di medie dimensioni e alcuni grossi
frammenti di pavimentazione in cocciopesto riferibili al parapetto del piccolo balcone che dal terrazzo delle
Terme permette l’accesso al primo piano sottostante dell’Ala meridionale della Casa del Rilievo di Telefo e
grandi frammenti di un massetto in cocciopesto attribuibili al balcone che girava intorno al salone dei
marmi e di cui nello scavo a cielo aperto degli anni ’30
furono rinvenute soltanto le travi portanti (Fig.43).
Nell’ultima fase dell’intervento i lavori di
sottomurazione della scarpata hanno consentito il
recupero di altri legni del tetto ed in particolare di altri
frammenti di cornici e pannelli del controsoffitto con
elementi a rilievo caratterizzati da un’accesa
policromia, in tutto simili a quelli rinvenuti nel 2009
(Fig. 44-45)
Fig.43. Frammenti di muratura e pavimentazione in
cocciopesto del balcone crollati sulla spiaggia nelle fasi
precedenti l’eruzione.
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Fig. 44. Cornice in legno con esagoni applicati dipinti in Fig. 45. Dettaglio di cornice a triangoli
azzurro appartenente alla controsoffittatura del tetto dipinta in azzurro con dentelli rivestiti da
sfoglia d’oro.
rinvenuto sull’antica spiaggia.
I.2
Indagine archeologica nel braccio Est del peristilio della Casa dell’Albergo
Dopo aver realizzato nell’ambito dell’HCP i lavori di pulizia e
messa in funzione della fogna antica che corre sotto il basolato
del III Cardo sono stati eseguiti i lavori riguardanti la rete
fognaria secondaria nel braccio Est (amb. 57 ex 66) del
peristilio della Casa dell’Albergo (Fig. 46).
Si è decisa la creazione di un nuovo ramo di fognatura per
convogliare nella fogna del III Cardo le acque piovane di questa
zona della casa e quelle provenienti dai solai delle case
adiacenti (Casa dello Scheletro, Casa dell’Ara Laterizia, Casa
dell’Erma di Bronzo).
La creazione di questo ramo secondario con il posizionamento
dei tubi di scarico e dei pozzetti d’ispezione ha richiesto il
preventivo scavo archeologico del tracciato.
La fase di pulizia iniziale nel braccio Est del peristilio della Casa
dell’Albergo ha permesso di mettere in luce uno strato di
preparazione, che è quello che rimane della pavimentazione in
uso nel 79 d.C. Si è proceduto alla rimozione del citato livello di
preparazione che ha restituito materiali databili in epoca
Flavia.
Fig. 46. Planimetria generale della
Al di sotto è stato rinvenuto un piano di calpestio più antico Casa dell’albergo con evidenziata in
costituito da un battuto di terra di colore marrone, molto rosso l’area d’intervento.
compatto. Questo strato poggia contro il muro perimetrale della
Casa dell’Albergo, che è in opera incerta di ciottoli calcarei e
pietra lavica legata con malta. Nel piano di battuto fu realizzato un pozzo circolare di circa 1,80 m di
diametro (individuato solo per metà nella trincea di scavo), che serviva probabilmente per attingere acqua
dalla falda. Questa ipotesi sembra essere suggerita anche dalla presenza, proprio in prossimità della bocca,
di tre buche, una con all’interno pietre di rincalzo, che dovevano servire ad alloggiare dei pali,
probabilmente funzionali alla messa in opera di un verricello (Fig. 47).
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Fig. 47. Il battuto di terra marrone in cui è tagliato il pozzo e i
tre buchi di palo presso lo stesso.
Il pozzo era tappato da un conglomerato di pietre di tufo
legate con malta povera di calce.
La rimozione del battuto di terra marrone in cui era stato
realizzato il pozzo ha restituito frammenti ceramici e di
intonaco dipinto databili alla metà del I sec. d.C.
Quindi nell’area di quello che sarà il peristilio della Casa
dell’Albergo, alla metà del I sec. d.C. esisteva già il muro
perimetrale che divideva la casa dal III Cardo e che in questa
zona recingeva uno spazio, probabilmente scoperto,
pavimentato con un battuto di terra nel quale era stato
scavato un pozzo. Questo fu riempito quando fu realizzato il
piano pavimentale d’età Flavia in fase con la realizzazione del
portico, forse in un momento di complessiva ristrutturazione
della casa.
Al di sotto del battuto di terra è stata riportato in luce un
sottile strato bruno che è il risultato della pedogenizzazione del deposito di cinerite compatta dell’eruzione
vesuviana delle “Pomici di Avellino” (1760 a.C.). Unica altra presenza antropica tagliata in questo sottile
strato è una fossa poco profonda nella quale era presente uno strato di bruciato e di concotto, con alcune
grosse pietre poste sul margine Sud. Dallo scavo di questo focolare vengono alcuni frammenti di ceramica a
vernice nera di fine III- inizi II sec. a.C. che appaiono come le più antiche tracce di presenza umana restituite
dallo scavo.
I.3
Scavi e controlli archeologici legati alle realizzazione delle tracce per la rete di scarico dei pluviali
dai nuovi solai nell’area dell’Insula Orientalis II
Scavo di una trincea negli ambienti 4 e 5 del civico 2 dell’Insula Orientalis II
La necessità di regimare le acque meteoriche raccolte sui nuovi solai costruiti nell’ambito del progetto HCP
sugli ambienti 1 e 7 del civico 2 dell’Insula Orientalis II, ha portato allo scavo di una trincea lungo il muro
perimetrale Ovest degli ambienti 4 e 5 (Fig. 48).
Le attività archeologiche hanno evidenziato che
la zona era stata già oggetto in epoca romana di
un netto innalzamento dei piani pavimentali,
realizzato con materiali di riporto tra i quali
intonaci, ceramica e laterizi. La quota originaria
è a circa -2m dal piano di calpestio attuale ed è
stata raggiunta soltanto grazie alla realizzazione
di un piccolo saggio di approfondimento
posizionato nell’ambiente 5 (Fig. 49). Il piano
originario è composto da un semplice battuto di
terra scura che fu tagliato per mettere in opera
la fondazione di una possente muratura in opera
reticolata, di forma semicircolare, costruita con
cubilia di tufo rossiccio di dimensioni 10 x 10 cm.
Fig. 48. Planimetria della zona meridionale
dell’Insula Or.II. In rosso l’area d’intervento.
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Fig. 49. Il saggio di approfondimento realizzato Fig. 50. La sala absidata con ampie finestre, realizzata in
nell’ambiente 5. Si noti in basso lo strato di terra opera reticolata con cubilia di tufo giallo napoletano,
battuta del precedente piano di calpestio in cui sulla struttura in opera reticolata di tufo rossiccio.
è stata realizzata la fondazione e la struttura in
opera reticolata.
Come accennato, il piano di calpestio inferiore dell’ambiente 5 fu già abbandonato in epoca romana,
verosimilmente dopo l’evento sismico del 62 d.C., tant’è che il tamburo inferiore della struttura
semicircolare nell’ultima fase non era a vista, ma fungeva da fondazione alla parete dell’ambiente 10 del
pistrinum dell’Insula Orientalis II (Fig. 50).
Lo strato di riempimento antico infatti risultava, almeno per la parte da noi indagata, rimescolato con
materiale moderno fino alla quota di circa -2m. a causa di interventi di verifica delle fondazioni realizzati
durante gli scavi del Maiuri.
In sintesi possiamo ricostruire con buona certezza che al momento dell’eruzione gli ambienti 4 e 5 erano già
stati colmati con strati di riempimento e soltanto al momento dello scavo parte di questo riempimento fu
scavato per permettere interventi di restauro. Al termine delle operazioni la parte scavata fu nuovamente
ricolmata, utilizzando lo stesso materiale rimosso in precedenza.
I.4
Scavi e controlli archeologici legati alle realizzazione delle tracce per la rete di scarico dei pluviali
dai nuovi solai nell’area dell’Insula Orientalis II
Scavo della negli ambienti 4 – 6 – 7 - 9 del Collegium e nel braccio Ovest del portico della Palestra
Nel corso di questi mesi sono stati seguiti gli scavi per la realizzazione di tracce necessarie alla messa in
opera dei pluviali dei nuovi solai realizzati nell’Insula Orientalis II.
Il principio generale è stato quello di cercare di riutilizzare le tracce di vecchi impianti idraulici o elettrici
ormai in disuso, e di evitare di bucare i muri utilizzando passaggi già esistenti. Nel caso di scavo di nuove
tracce l’indagine è stata eseguita con il metodo dell’indagine archeologica stratigrafica che ha permesso di
accumulare dati sulla storia dell’Insula.
Una prima trincea è stata realizzata negli ambienti 4-6-7-9 del Collegium e nel braccio Ovest del portico
della Palestra (Fig. 51).
Lo scavo della trincea nell’ambiente 4 ha permesso di riportare in luce ad una quota di – 20 cm dal piano di
calpestio attuale, dopo aver rimosso gli strati di accumulo moderno ed un residuo di fango vulcanico
dell’eruzione del 79 d.C., il pavimento dell’ambiente e la sua preparazione.
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Fig. 51. Planimetria dell’area con
evidenziate le aree di intervento.
Tratteggiata in verde e in rosso la
trincea eseguita nel corso dei nostri
lavori negli ambienti 4 e 7 e nel
braccio Ovest del portico. Segnalata
con la linea blu continua una traccia
già realizzata prima delle nostre
indagini e da noi riutilizzata per il
passaggio delle tubazioni. Con la linea
blu tratteggiata è segnalata una
canaletta realizzata durante gli scavi
del Maiuri.
Page 46 of 74
amb. 4
amb. 1
amb. 7
amb. 2
amb. 8
amb. 9
Braccio Ovest
Portico Palestra
amb. 6
Il pavimento è costituito da un
cocciopesto molto fine di colore
rosato e si presenta, almeno per la
parte da noi indagata, molto usurato
presentando verso il centro un forte
avvallamento, dovuto al fatto che esso
è realizzato su strati di riempimento, i quali hanno ceduto sotto il peso del materiale piroclastico che ha
coperto la città.
Un piccolo saggio realizzato per la messa in opera di un pozzetto in una zona in cui era assente il pavimento
ha evidenziato come sotto lo strato preparatorio del pavimento fossero state poggiate, su uno strato di
riempimento, pietre di tufo giallo di forma irregolare di diversa dimensione (Fig. 52). Questa sorta di
vespaio era funzionale a limitare il fenomeno dell’umidità di risalita
Una simile situazione si è riscontrata anche nell’adiacente nell’ambiente 7 a dimostrazione che, come
l’ambiente 4, in una primo momento questa stanza doveva funzionare ad una quota più bassa,
corrispondente a quella oggi visibile nell’aula centrale della Palestra (Fig. 51).
Allo stato attuale della ricerca non possiamo stabilire con certezza in che periodo sia avvenuto
l’innalzamento del piano di calpestio, visto che il nostro scavo ha raggiunto soltanto la quota di -50 cm e
non ha restituito materiale cronologicamente inquadrabile in un arco cronologico ristretto. Tuttavia è
possibile fare alcune considerazioni. Quando il piano d’uso dell’ambiente 7 era a quota con quello dell’aula
centrale absidata della palestra si apriva su quest’ultima con un’ampia apertura e non era in comunicazione
ne con l’attuale ambiente 4 ne con gli attuali ambienti 8 e 9, come sembrano suggerire i setti murari
scoperti ad Ovest e a Sud (Fig. 51).
Solo con l’innalzamento del piano pavimentale avvenne una totale riorganizzazione degli spazi oggi
identificati come Collegium. L’ambiente fu completamente trasformato e collegato tramite nuove aperture
agli ambienti 4–8 e 9. Nell’ambiente 7 fu addirittura ricavata nell’angolo Sud-Est una piccola latrina, poi
dismessa nell’ultima fase di vita della stanza (Fig. 53).
La riapertura di una vecchia trincea realizzata alla meta degli anni 30 del secolo scorso nell’ambiente 9 ha
permesso di verificare che anche il pavimento in cocciopesto di questa stanza fu realizzato su strati di
riempimento e quindi che la quota d’uso dell’ambiente in una prima fase doveva essere più bassa, forse a
livello con quella del braccio Ovest del portico.
Tale situazione fu poi radicalmente cambiata con un innalzamento dei piani di calpestio di questi ambienti e
un completo riordino degli spazi, situazione che trova una sua naturale spiegazione con una mutata
destinazione d’uso di quest’area.
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Fig. 52. La sezione di scavo nel saggio eseguito per Fig. 53. La latrina scoperta nell’angolo Sud-Est
la messa in opera del pozzetto. Dall’alto verso il dell’amb.7.
basso: 1 Materiale moderno, 2 Pavimento, 3
Preparazione, 4 Vespaio di pietre di tufo.
I.5
Scavi e controlli archeologici legati alle realizzazione delle tracce per la rete di scarico dei pluviali
dai nuovi solai nell’area dell’Insula Orientalis II
Scavo della traccia nell’ambiente 2 del civico 10 dell’Insula Orientalis II e negli ambienti 5 e 9 della
Palestra
Nel corso delle attività di conservazione del sito archeologico di Ercolano previste dal progetto HCP si è reso
necessario lo scavo di una traccia per la regimazione delle acque piovane provenienti dai solai
recentemente realizzati nell’ambiente 2 del civico 10 dell’Insula Orientalis II (Fig. 54).
18,55
19,42
18,33
18,32
0
,1
r II
.O
Ins
17,35
20,33
18,39
19,10 19,83
18,89
18,54
19,34
18,85
18,51
18,29
17,70
18,68
18,46
19,11
19,35
18,65
18,69
17,98
18,69
17,91
18,66
18,31
19,58
18,46
19,04
18,30
18,30
20,46
18,28
18,88
18,60
17,49
18,49
18,29
17,90
18,27
18,29
19,47
17,50
19,71
18,29
19,32
17,87
20,26
18,24
17,91
17,47
17,41
18,34
18,25
19,08
17,59
17,01
19,00
18,30
17,97
18,43
18,26
17,00
17,58
17,95
18,60
15,19
18,39
17,13
17,56
14,57
18,54
18,38
17,97
17,56
17,60
16,97
17,95
18,56
18,37
14,91
17,56
19,19
17,93
16,94
18,62
17,56
16,89
16,88
16,91
16,23
18,38
16,92
Fig.54. Insula Orientalis
II,10.
Planimetria
di
dettaglio con evidenziato in
rosso il tracciato della rete
di smaltimento delle acque
piovane.
17,48
17,12
17,91
18,43
17,56
17,39
17,60
14,51
14,88
17,38
17,55
17,92
14,51
16,18
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5
18,44
17,53
16,22
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16,80
14,44
14,50
14,90
14,51
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14,58
14,49
14,27
14,47
14,43
14,48
14,47
16,68
15,04
15,54
13,74
14,30
16,71
13,81
14,24
14,51
14,47
14,43
16,67
14,47
14,22
15,08
14,44
14,46
14,45
13,70
13,75
15,07
14,24
14,45
15,53
14,32
15,32
14,40
14,32
14,45
14,24
13,73 13,77
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14,93
14,43
15,56
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14,24
13,83
14,43
14,43
14,36
14,40
15,51
14,90
14,33
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L’intervento ha previsto lo scavo di una trincea sia nell’ambiente 2 che nel peristilio della palestra, grazie
alla quale è stato possibile installare i pozzetti e i tubi previsti dal progetto dello studio Massari. Per il
passaggio a valle e nel portico della palestra si è potuto sfruttare il taglio di una piccola trincea realizzata
per permettere il passaggio di alcuni cavi di un impianto elettrico oggi non più in uso. Vista la necessità di
sottopassare con il tubo in pvc i blocchi che costituiscono lo stilobate del portico è stato necessario
approfondire lo scavo fino alla quota di -70 cm dal piano di calpestio attuale. Questa operazione ha
permesso di indagare diversi strati di lavorazione legati alla costruzione del portico.
Terminato lo scavo a valle le operazioni sono continuate nell’ambiente 2 del civico 10 dell’Insula Orientalis
II. Come prima attività è stato necessario liberare l’ambiente dai materiali moderni qui accumulati nel corso
degli anni e spostare i numerosi frammenti di marmi antichi che erano stati accatastati nell’angolo NordOvest e dei quali purtroppo non si conosce la provenienza (Fig. 55).
Lo spostamento dei marmi ha permesso una documentazione fotografica dettagliata dei singoli pezzi che
ammontano a 388 frammenti tra cui spiccano alcuni elementi architettonici come capitelli e cornici, 6 basi
di pilastrini e tantissime schegge di marmi di vario tipo (Figg. 56-57). Ripulito l’ambiente è subito apparso
chiaro che il pavimento antico in cocciopesto era conservato soltanto nell’angolo Sud-Est e che la restante
parte era già stata oggetto di diversi interventi di ripresa ed integrazione. Anche in quest’ambiente è stata
rinvenuta e riutilizzata la traccia realizzata per la messa in opera dei cavi del vecchio impianto elettrico .
Fig. 55. L’ambiente 2 prima Figg. 56-57. Alcuni degli elementi in marmo che erano depositati
dell’intervento di pulizia e spostamento nell’ambiente 2 del civico 10.
marmi.
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Appendix II
Panoramica dei lavori conservativi nel 2009-2010
II.1
Campagna di lavori sulle strutture e infrastrutture
II.1.1
Infrastrutture, ridurre l’impatto del degrado causato dall’acqua
Tra l’estate del 2009 e quella del 2010 il lavoro sulle infrastrutture fognarie è stato diretto al
completamento della rete primaria (creando due nuovi rami in Insula III e Insula VI), alla raccolta finale
(terminando i lavori nella sezione est dell’antica spiaggia) e all’avvio della rete secondaria (creando gli
sbocchi fognari per le nuove coperture realizzate da HCP). Tali lavori si confermano come interventi
estremamente impegnativi a causa delle interferenze archeologiche (si veda Appendice I) e dei continui
imprevisti che costringono a una costante revisione progettuale in corso d’opera. Infatti tali interventi
godono pienamente della flessibilità dell’approccio HCP mentre risultano tra i più difficili da inserire nella
programmazione SANP.
In particolare, la realizzazione dei rami ‘secondari’, cioè quelli che dalle singole coperture vengono
ricondotti alle fognature principali, è stata sperimentata in modo sistematico solo durante l’ultimo anno.
Sono stati creati i tracciati per 14 coperture (18 ambienti) realizzati entro la fine del 2009 e quelli per altre 7
coperture (9 ambienti). Questi rami, passando attraverso pavimenti di case e botteghe, necessitano di una
pianificazione interdisciplinare e molto spesso hanno dovuto subire modifiche di tracciato in corso d’opera,
a causa di ritrovamenti archeologici, vecchie canalette da riutilizzare, tracce di pavimenti non visibili prima
dell’inizio dei lavori. La soluzione è spesso di compromesso e non soddisfa pienamente i criteri estetici, ma
salvaguarda il più possibile le testimonianze e le superfici di pregio.
Per quanto riguarda la rete principale, il lavoro svolto durante l’ultimo anno ha visto la connessione tra la
fognatura del III cardo e due piccoli rami laterali, in corrispondenza del peristilio della casa dell’Albergo e
del corridoio di servizio delle Terme centrali. Mentre il corridoio di servizio possedeva già in antico una
fognatura che è stata ripulita e rimessa in funzione, il braccio della casa dell’Albergo è stato realizzato ex
novo, per consentire la raccolta delle acque nell’Insula III. Per concludere i lavori alla rete primaria è oggi
necessario solo il collegamento ad un ulteriore ramo, da creare nell’area della Palestra (intervento da
realizzarsi con fondi SANP).
II.1.2
Antica spiaggia
Tra il 2008 e l’estate 2009 è stata completata la lunga fase di ricerca e sperimentazione nell’area dell’antica
spiaggia e al principio del 2010 si sono poste le condizioni per il passaggio successivo, cioè per la
realizzazione di un grande intervento di smaltimento delle acque nel loro punto di raccolta maggiore, la
spiaggia appunto (si veda Sezione 2.2). Da una parte infatti sono state pianificate, appaltate e realizzate le
opere per il completamento della regimazione delle acque nel settore est della spiaggia (quella già
interessata da lavori HCP 2008-2009) mentre dall’altra sono state messe a studio le opere necessarie non
solo per la sistemazione idrica dell’area nel suo complesso ma anche per la sua valorizzazione. Infatti, la
ricerca e la sperimentazione eseguite nella porzione est della spiaggia hanno indotto delle riflessioni sulle
potenzialità che emergerebbero a seguito del completamento degli interventi di raccolta delle acque.
Grazie a tali considerazioni e al lavoro di co-programmazione portato avanti con la SANP, è stato quindi
possibile mettere a punto una progettazione per opere di raccolta, riempimento, sistemazione e
valorizzazione dell’intera area della spiaggia, a partire dai suoi accessi fino allo sbocco nell’area
archeologica di Villa dei Papiri. L’obiettivo principale dell’azione sulla spiaggia si è quindi spostato dalla
necessità della semplice raccolta e smaltimento delle acque ad uno più complesso e sfumato, che ha al suo
centro il desiderio di restituire l’accessibilità alla spiaggia (Fig. 58-60).
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Figg. 58-60: immagini
dalla progettazione
realizzata per la
valorizzazione
dell’Antica Spiaggia
La restituzione dell’accessibilità alla spiaggia al più largo numero di visitatori si accompagna alla necessità di
riqualificare e valorizzare l’intera area del fronte mare antico, in modo da contribuire ad un miglioramento
qualitativo della visita e alla maggiore comprensione delle dinamiche che hanno portato Ercolano al suo
seppellimento.
Le finalità dell’intervento possono essere quindi così riassunte:
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
−
Regimare le acque disperse e piovane della spiaggia e provenienti dalle fogne del sito in modo
sistematico e sostenibile;
Riportare la spiaggia al livello antico con un riempimento che sia drenante e che consenta la
percorribilità della spiaggia;
Permettere l’accesso alla spiaggia a tutti i visitatori;
Permettere l’accesso alla spiaggia a mezzi di manutenzione;
Valorizzare il fronte mare come luogo di visita e apprendimento;
Riconnettere il sito all’area di Villa dei Papiri in modo diretto;
Rendere l’ingresso al sito dalla spiaggia l’ingresso preferenziale alla visita del sito;
Collegare la visita dell’antica spiaggia a quella del sito e a quella del futuro museo;
Creare ulteriori accessi alla spiaggia dal sito;
Migliorare l’impatto visivo del sito in generale per i visitatori che arrivano.
Per quanto riguarda le opere realizzate durante il 2010 nel settore est, a completamento di quanto
eseguito in precedenza, i lavori sono stati diretti per lo più all’area del ritrovamento del tetto originale del
Salone dei Marmi della Casa di Telefo, area che era rimasta incompleta a livello di raccolta e smaltimento
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delle acque, a causa dell’interruzione necessaria appunto in seguito alla scoperta e ritrovamento del tetto.
In quest’area, oltre ad essere stato completato lo scavo delle tegole e della muratura riconducibili al crollo
del tetto, sono state realizzate opere di sottomurazione della scarpata e di drenaggio delle acque
superficiali, che si sono presentate abbondanti, anche a causa della presenza di tagli profondi nel banco di
tufo di fondo (antiche tracce di cava).
II.1.3
Coperture
Nel 2009 si è conclusa la prima grande campagna di interventi HCP sulle coperture e solai del sito
archeologico, con un approccio sistematico e ‘a tappeto’ di lavori di riparazione e sostituzione. Nonostante
le prevedibili difficoltà (dovute anche all’approccio rigido e poco flessibile adottato per conformarsi a quello
SANP), è stato possibile realizzare o sistemare le coperture di 18 ambienti, affinando contemporaneamente
le tecniche (sperimentate negli anni precedenti) e l’organizzazione di cantiere. Nel 2010, nell’ambito della
campagna di manutenzione ordinaria e straordinaria, sono state realizzate ulteriori opere sulle coperture
(per 9 ambienti), mirate a concludere gli interventi previsti sulle aree più degradate, come identificate dalla
mappatura del degrado del 2007. Contemporaneamente è stata portata avanti la progettazione delle
opere di riparazione, sostituzione e nuova messa in opera di coperture e solai per gli ambienti che
risultavano urgenti, in seconda battuta, sempre secondo la mappatura 2007. Questa progettazione è
diretta a SANP in quanto rientra nelle finalità della co-programmazione 2010-2011.
II.1.4
Manutenzione straordinaria: Decumano Massimo, Casa del Bicentenario
Rispetto alle campagne precedenti, durante il 2010 HCP ha sperimentato un lotto di lavori dedicato alla
manutenzione straordinaria, quindi ad interventi che si situano a metà strada tra la manutenzione e
l’emergenza da una parte e il restauro finale dall’altra. Si è ritenuto infatti che questo tipo di lavori possa
rappresentare un approccio vincente nella conservazione del sito per il futuro, specialmente laddove le
condizioni di degrado di ambienti o case siano gravi ma non sussistano le possibilità economiche per la
realizzazione di un restauro completo. I lavori di manutenzione straordinaria infatti presentano complessità
e problematiche tipiche del progetto di restauro completo, ma pur risolvendo i problemi principali, non
affronta ogni aspetto; d’altro canto può essere progettato e realizzato con tempi rapidi e metodologie già
sperimentate altrove (ad es. per le coperture). L’attenzione deve essere posta però sulla selezione degli
interventi strettamente necessari, evitando di cercare appunto una soluzione a tutti i problemi. Durante il
2009 sono state quindi progettate e nei primi sei mesi del 2010 realizzate le opere di manutenzione
straordinaria al Decumano massimo, e in particolare sulla struttura della Domus, solo parzialmente scavata
negli anni ’60 (Fig. 61). Dal punto di vista strutturale questa casa offriva numerosi spunti progettuali
interessanti e la necessità di agire in costante coordinamento con le opere sugli apparati decorativi. La casa
era stata appunto solo in parte scavata e oggi risulta inglobata parzialmente nella scarpata nord, con
conseguenti problemi diffusi di umidità; le strutture di copertura erano state realizzate solo in parte,
probabilmente per l’eventualità di un proseguo dello scavo. Alla poca protezione e difficile accessibilità e
comprensione della casa si aggiungeva anche la presenza massiccia di elementi in legno carbonizzato,
spesso frammisti a elementi moderni (in ferro o cemento armato). I lavori svolti sulle strutture hanno
permesso di mettere al coperto le decorazioni e gli elementi in legno carbonizzato, limitare i danni da
umidità, ripristinare gli accessi e la circolazione. I lavori, tuttora in corso, riguardano anche la restante parte
del Decumano massimo e permetteranno la sua riapertura al pubblico alla fine dell’estate.
Alcuni lavori di manutenzione straordinaria sono stati anche progettati e realizzati nella Casa del
Bicentenario, anche se con finalità diverse (Fig. 62). In questo caso infatti si tratta di un piccolo lotto di
lavori, esclusivamente di natura strutturale, che ha permesso di mettere in sicurezza l’atrio della casa e
quindi consentire nuovamente l’accesso alla casa stessa (la copertura dell’atrio era pericolante). Poiché la
casa rientra nella sperimentazione HCP/SANP di sottodivisione in stralci di progetti già esistenti (quello del
Bicentenario risale al 2004) si è deciso di realizzare alcuni lavori proprio nell’ottica di sperimentare la
possibile realizzazione ‘per gradi’ degli interventi, con l’approccio di manutenzione straordinaria,
modificando leggermente le scelte progettuali in base alle possibilità economiche (ad es. struttura di
copertura restaurata integralmente e manto di copertura temporaneo).
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Figg. 61-62: sinistra – il cantiere nella zona nord del Decumano Massimo; destra – la nuova copertura
temporanea sopra la Casa del Bicentenario
II.1.5
Manutenzione programmata
Durante il 2010 sono proseguite le opera di manutenzione ordinaria già avviate nel 2009, anche se sono
state organizzate in modo sistematico, in vista della traslazione nel regime programmatico della SANP. Si
tratta di opere che vanno da una maggiore complessità (opere murarie ma da realizzarsi a ‘livello terra’
quindi senza necessità di ponteggi) a quella minima possibile (messa in opera di ghiaia nelle aree di maggior
‘traffico’ di turisti, dissuasori per volatili, ecc.), ma che sono comunque essenziali per la conservazione, in
termini complessivi, del sito archeologico. A queste opere si sono affiancati gli interventi ‘a richiesta’ cioè
quelli che vengono segnalati dalla SANP stessa a seguito di situazioni impreviste o come assistenza ai vari
gruppi di lavoro (consulenti HCP, esperti esterni, altre imprese, ecc.). Questa sperimentazione sistematica
ha confermato la necessità di organizzare questa tipologia di lavori dividendo gli interventi in lotti tipologici
e con una somma a disposizione per assistenze e imprevisti, da svolgere in economia. Rimane invece da
studiare la metodologia del controllo.
II.2
Campagna di conservazione degli apparati decorativi
11.2.1 Visione d’insieme
Come illustrato nella Parte A, negli ultimi due anni la Campagna di conservazione degli apparati decorativi,
che era precedentemente stata condotta in maniera estensiva e continuativa su tutto il sito con le modalità
di campagna d’urgenza per le superfici a rischio, è stata ridotta in termini di impiego di risorse, avendo
risolto le principali situazioni di degrado avanzato, per lasciare più spazio agli interventi sulle strutture e
sulle infrastrutture del sito, senza i quali un ulteriore ingente investimento economico e tecnico sulle
superfici decorate sarebbe stato in parte vanificato dal permanere di condizioni ambientali avverse.
In questa fase, si è colta l’occasione per strutturare e definire in maniera più adeguata gli interventi da
eseguirsi nel prossimo futuro sugli apparati decorativi, interventi che, a seguito della generale
stabilizzazione delle condizioni del sito grazie alla rifunzionalizzazione della rete fognaria antica ed
all’importante investimento sulle coperture, dovranno rispondere ad esigenze non più tipiche di una
campagna di emergenza, ma a quelle di lavori di manutenzione straordinaria e ordinaria che siano in futuro
appaltabili direttamente dalla SANP.
E’ stata inoltre avviata una riflessione sull’approfondimento delle metodologie e dei criteri d’intervento per
il restauro completo delle superfici, grazie a diverse iniziative promosse da HCP nel settore della ricerca
scientifica, che porteranno a breve, tramite sperimentazioni ad hoc, alla messa a punto di metodologie
conservative specifiche per le superfici decorate di Herculaneum.
Nell’ottica del futuro trasferimento delle campagne di conservazione delle superfici decorate a SANP, i
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lavori sulle superfici decorate previsti nella programmazione HCP sono stati
come di consueto progettati e diretti dai consulenti HCP, ma sono stati
appaltati ad imprese esterne selezionate tramite gara informale, per
simulare il più possibile le condizioni operative della SANP e confrontarsi con
la realtà delle imprese di restauro disponibili sul mercato.
II.2.2 Interventi di stabilizzazione delle superfici decorate rinvenute nei
cunicoli della Basilica
La prima esperienza di progettazione e direzione lavori con una impresa
esecutrice esterna è avvenuta nell’estate del 2009, in occasione dei lavori di
svuotamento dei cunicoli borbonici nell’area della Basilica, dove era
necessario intervenire per stabilizzare le superfici decorate che man mano
emergevano durante i lavori di svuotamento dei cunicoli (Fig. 63).
Fig. 63: consolidamento
A seguito di una gara informale a invito, è stata selezionata come impresa degli apparati decorativi
esecutrice l’Officina Consorzio di Roma, che ha fornito ottime referenze dal nei cunicoli con iniezioni
punto di vista curricolare e buone garanzie di capacità tecniche e di malte fluide
organizzative. L’appalto si è svolto senza problemi e nei tempi previsti, grazie
ad un ottimo coordinamento con l’impresa Forte Costruzioni, incaricata dell’esecuzione delle opere
strutturali in questo appalto.
Un conservatore-restauratore è stato nominato Direttore Operativo ed è stato di supporto alla parte
progettuale e di direzione operativa dei lavori in coordinamento con la DL arch. Pesaresi. Una parte delle
risorse di questo appalto è stata dedicata a piccoli interventi di stabilizzazione di superfici decorate in tutto
il sito, relativi in particolare alle superfici musive pavimentali, sempre soggette all’impatto di importanti
flussi turistici nei periodi di alta stagione.
II.2.3
Lavori di manutenzione straordinaria nell’area del Decumano Massimo
In questo caso sia la Progettazione che la Direzione Lavori sono stati affidati separatamente ad un
architetto per la parte strutturale e ad un conservatore-restauratore per gli apparati decorativi. La
selezione delle imprese esecutrici ha portato ad un nuovo affidamento a L’Officina Consorzio, che è
risultata vincitrice grazie alla qualità delle specifiche tecniche proposte in sede di offerta economicamente
più vantaggiosa, che sono risultate le più idonee alle tipologie di intervento previste.
Anche in questo caso l’appalto si è svolto senza particolari difficoltà
e nei tempi previsti. Durante i lavori é stato necessario mettere a
punto diverse soluzioni tecniche complesse per far fronte a
particolari problemi emersi in corso d’opera, come ad esempio il
rimontaggio dei graticci in legno o particolari problemi di
consolidamento degli intonaci disgregati.
Nel complesso, l’appalto è stato soprattutto utile per capire la
successione delle operazioni e le tempistiche necessarie per il
coordinamento dei lavori sulle strutture e sugli apparati decorativi,
da prevedersi nella fase di progettazione. Il lavoro é stato anche
molto utile perché ci ha permesso di riprendere le attività sul legno
carbonizzato 1 con un intervento di emergenza propedeutico alla
protezione degli elementi lignei presenti in vista dell’esecuzione di
opere strutturali (Fig. 64). Questo è un settore di intervento molto
complesso che HCP intende affrontare nei prossimi anni
1
Fig. 64: applicazione di strati
protettivi sugli elementi in legno
carbonizzato durante i lavori sul
Decumano Massimo
“Studio preliminare sul degrado dei reperti in legno carbonizzato e valutazione dei sistemi di consolidamento “ a cura
di M. Martelli e A. De Vita, 2008. Era stato realizzato un primo studio preliminare su tutti gli elementi in legno
carbonizzato presenti nel sito con mappatura e classificazione delle diverse tipologie di degrado.
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nell’ambito di un programma di studi strutturato e ben coordinato con i rari specialisti stranieri che si
occupano della conservazione di questo materiale. Anche in questo appalto, una parte delle risorse è stata
destinata a piccoli interventi di stabilizzazione di superfici decorate diffusi in tutto il sito.
II.2.4
Progetto pilota per lo stacco e la ricollocazione del mosaico pavimentale della Casa dell’Albergo
(amb.23)
Come descritto nel Rapporto (si veda la sezione 4.4), è stato previsto quest’anno l’avvio di iniziative tese
all’approfondimento di problemi particolari e complessi con la realizzazione di “Progetti Pilota” per la
conservazione di specifiche tipologie di materiale o per l’approfondimento di temi di intervento particolari.
Il primo progetto pilota affronta il tema dello stacco e del rimontaggio su nuovo supporto di superfici
decorate musive pavimentali, in questo caso del mosaico dell’ambiente n. 23 della Casa dell’Albergo (Fig.
65-66). L’intervento era necessario in questo ambiente perché il mosaico era in condizioni conservative
estremamente precarie, oltre ad essere molto visibile per i visitatori.
La superficie inoltre offriva la possibilità di affrontare il tema degli interventi di restauro precedenti, che
non sempre hanno portato soluzioni valide nelle condizioni ambientali avverse e non sempre mitigabili del
sito. Il lavoro ha previsto una breve fase di documentazione e di ricerca sugli interventi di questo tipo
realizzati nel sito, una difficile analisi e identificazione delle diverse fasi di lavoro realizzate (confermata più
tardi dalla fortuita presenza, nell’impresa Forte Costruzioni, di uno degli operai che avevano partecipato
all’intervento e che, di sua iniziativa, ci ha raccontato ciò che ricordava del lavoro realizzato) seguita da una
attenta valutazione dei diversi fattori in gioco (pendenze, scarico delle acque, condizioni del substrato di
appoggio, ecc.) prima di elaborare la metodologia di intervento finale e di discuterla con gli altri consulenti
HCP.
Si è deciso di procedere nel modo più semplice possibile, per garantire al mosaico una ricollocazione in sito
durevole (pur nelle condizioni climatiche avverse alle quali sarà sottoposto) e ridurre le difficoltà tecniche
dell’intervento già importanti a causa della dimensione e del peso delle 21 sezioni, di circa 2,00 - 2,50 mq
ognuna. Le sezioni sono state staccate, è stato rimosso il vecchio supporto non idoneo perché realizzato in
vetro-resina, rete metallica e schiuma poliuretanica (tutti materiali sensibili sia alle variazioni termiche che
all’umidità), è stato pulito e consolidato il retro delle sezioni e sono state realizzate le prime prove di
montaggio in situ, con la ri-applicazione delle sezioni solo su un nuovo strato di malta opportunamente
valutata e preparata. Il lavoro è stato sospeso all’inizio di maggio e riprenderà in settembre.
Figg. 65-67. Sinistra: pulizia sul retro del mosaico staccato dalla Casa dell’Albergo. Destra: prove di nuove
malte per l’allettamento del mosaico.
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II.2.5
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Nuovo appalto di Manutenzione
Nell‘anno 2009-2010 è inoltre prevista la progettazione (preliminare e definitiva) relativa ad alcuni
interventi di manutenzione da realizzare su superfici disperse nel sito, da appaltare ad una impresa esterna.
La scelta delle superfici su cui intervenire è guidata dall’utilizzo sia dei dati raccolti dalle ispezioni regolari
sul sito realizzate periodicamente negli ultimi tre anni, sia da valutazioni diverse come il collegamento con
eventuali interventi eseguiti o da eseguirsi sulle strutture, l’esclusione di aree interessate da lavori SANP
ecc. La progettazione è in corso relativamente alla fase preliminare.
II.2.6
Supporto ai lavori sulle coperture
E’ in fase di avvio la progettazione di lavori di conservazione delle superfici decorate negli ambienti che
saranno interessati da una ulteriore campagna di riparazione e sostituzione di coperture e solai esistenti nel
sito. Tali lavori sono complessi in quanto in molti casi gli operatori non possono intervenire in condizioni di
sicurezza senza la predisposizione di opere provvisionali, che spesso può sono difficili da realizzare a causa
del cattivo stato di conservazione delle superfici pavimentali o parietali degli ambienti stessi. Si tratta quindi
di un delicato gioco di incastri nel quale, sia nella fase progettuale che nella fase esecutiva, architetto e
restauratore devono lavorare di concerto, sfruttando al meglio le proprie conoscenze e le risorse
disponibili.
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Appendix III
Lo sviluppo del programma di ricerca scientifica nel 2009-2010
III.1 PROGETTI DI RICERCA PROMOSSI DA HCP – 2009 - 2010
Denominazione del Progetto
“SGS 09/10” Sperimentazione
e giornate di studio 20092010
Tecniche di consolidamento
e fissaggio delle pellicole
pittoriche nel sito
archeologico di Ercolano
“SGS LA 10/11”
Sperimentazione e giornate di
studio sul legno archeologico
2010-2011
Tecniche di consolidamento
e restauro dei reperti lignei
nel sito archeologico di
Ercolano
“Progetto 100 malte”
Obiettivi del progetto
-
Sperimentare in situ tecniche di consolidamento e fissaggio delle superfici
pittoriche, per testarne l’efficacia in relazione alle forme di degrado presenti
ed ai trattamenti conservativi pregressi che sono stati messi in atto a seguito
dello scavo a cielo aperto del sito a partire dagli anni ’30 del Novecento. Le
sperimentazioni si svolgono sui dipinti murali del Salone Nero nell’omonima
casa.
-
Identificare l’approccio metodologico di intervento più adatto alla realtà del
sito archeologico di Ercolano
-
Incoraggiare il dialogo fra studiosi, conservatori e partner HCP e SANP.
-
Divulgare i risultati delle sperimentazioni e le conoscenze acquisite.
-
Eseguire indagini e prove tecniche sistematiche per identificare le
metodologie più adeguate alla conservazione ed al restauro dei reperti lignei
parzialmente o totalmente carbonizzati, trattati e non trattati, rinvenuti in
terreni umidi, decorati con policromia, promuovendo lo scambio di opinioni
fra specialisti del settore che si confronteranno su un campo di ricerca
innovativo.
-
Identificare l’approccio metodologico di intervento più adatto alla realtà
unica del sito archeologico di Ercolano.
-
Incoraggiare il dibattito fra studiosi, conservatori e partner HCP e SANP.
-
Divulgare i risultati delle sperimentazioni e le conoscenze acquisite.
-
Studiare la tipologia delle varie malte presenti nel sito archeologico di
Ercolano nella costruzione delle murature originali e di restauro, negli
apparati decorativi parietali e pavimentali, negli interventi di restauro post
scavo.
-
Eseguire indagini diagnostiche sui campioni prelevati (più di 100) per
approfondire la conoscenza dei materiali,delle tecniche di esecuzione e
dello stato di conservazione relativi alle malte romane.
-
Contribuire, attraverso le nuove conoscenze acquisite, ad un adeguato
approccio metodologico per il miglioramento delle tecniche conservative
per le murature e gli apparati decorativi presenti nel sito di Ercolano e negli
altri siti vesuviani.
-
Elaborare strategie conservative che prendano in considerazione qualità,
costi e tempi di lavorazione relativi alle diverse tipologie di malte
identificate.
-
Raccogliere una solida base di dati per sperimentare e mettere a punto
malte di restauro che siano dotate della massima compatibilità fisicomeccanica con le malte originali.
-
Divulgare i risultati delle sperimentazioni e le conoscenze acquisite.
Conoscenza dei materiali e
delle tecniche di esecuzione
delle malte romane
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III.2 PROGETTI DI RICERCA NELL’AMBITO DI COLLABORAZIONI CON PARTNER ESTERNI DI HCP 2009-10
Università o Istituto di ricerca
Responsabile
della
collaborazione e
colleghi
che
partecipano alla
ricerca
Principale
oggetto
studio
Giacomo Chiari
Dipinti murali
Progetti di ricerca
di
Stucchi
The Getty Conservation Institute
Francesca Piqué
Los Angeles
Beril Bicer Simsir
Leslie Rainer
David Carson
Susan
Donald
Mac
Principale partner esterno di HCP,
il GCI, collabora dal 2007 in
progetti
finalizzati
al
miglioramento delle tecniche
conservative ed alla creazione di
protocolli relativi alle corrette
metodologie
di
intervento
(esempio:
“grouting”,
sperimentazione, supportata da
analisi e test scientifici per la
valutazione delle malte più idonee
per il consolidamento degli
intonaci). GCI fornisce la sua
consulenza
ed il supporto
analitico nell’ambito dell’iniziativa
SGS-09/10 (si veda pagina 55).
E’ in corso di definizione la coprogettazione
con SANP e
BSR/HCP in una o più case per le
quali esistono progetti in stralci
funzionali.
Karl
Heussner
Uwe
Legno
archeologico
Collaborazione attiva dal 2007 per
una ricerca dendrocronologica nei
siti vesuviani. Un gran numero di
campioni è stato prelevato ad
Ercolano,
principalmente nei
magazzini della Villa dei Papiri,
nella Casa di Granianus e nei
Fornici dell’Antica Spiaggia. Nel
2010 è stata eseguita la prima
parte di una serie di indagini non
distruttive sui legni provenienti dal
crollo del tetto del Salone dei
Marmi della Casa del Rilievo di
Telefo. La seconda parte delle
indagini
è
prevista
per
settembre/ottobre 2010.
Legno ed altro
materiale
organico
carbonizzato
E’ in corso dal 2007 una ricerca
sulla
temperatura
di
carbonizzazione del legno di
Ercolano e sul pH del materiale
vulcanico. Nel 2009 la ricerca si è
collegata alle ricerche geologiche
in corso da parte di Aldo Cinque e
Linda Irollo per stabilire una
possibile influenza geologica nel
Pia Kastenmeier
Deutsches
Zentrale
Archälogische
Institut
Sebastian Vogel
Alexander Müller
Berlin
Freek
Braadbaart
Radbout Universiteit
Nijmegen
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processo di carbonizzazione del
legno. Nel 2010 la ricerca si è
estesa
agli
effetti
dell’alta
temperatura sulle ossa umane.
Gaetano
Pasquale
Di
Legno
archeologico
E’ in atto una collaborazione
finalizzata alla creazione di un
atlante delle specie arboree
presenti ad Ercolano in epoca
romana.
Bernhard
Blümich
Mosaici
parietali
Agnes Haber
Dipinti murali
Con strumentazione portatile
sperimentale per la Risonanza
Magnetica Nucleare, sono in corso
Indagini
non
invasive
per
determinare contenuto di umidità,
porosità e stratigrafia del mosaico
parietale del Ninfeo di Nettuno e
Anfitrite, depth profile dei dipinti
murali della Casa del Salone Nero.
Le indagini sui dipinti murali sono
condotte nell’ambito dell’iniziativa
SGS-09/10 (si veda pagina 55) in
collaborazione con E. Del Federico
(Pratt Institute) e D. Capitani
(CNR).
Donatella
Capitani
Dipinti murali
Le indagini con NMR sui dipinti
murali del Salone Nero sono
condotte nell’ambito dell’iniziativa
SGS-09/10 (si veda pagina 55) in
collaborazione con E. Del Federico
e B. Blümich.
Mosaici
parietali
Nel 2009 sono state eseguite
indagini non invasive con XRF,
Raman, FTIR portatili sul mosaico
parietale del ninfeo della Casa di
Nettuno e Anfitrite, su reperti in
vetro e ceramica, su alcuni legni
del tetto del Salone dei marni della
Casa del Rilievo di Telefo, sulle
tubature in piombo, sui dipinti
dell’ambiente nord della Villa dei
Papiri e del Salone Nero
nell’ambito dell’iniziativa SGS09/10 (si veda pagina 55). Le
indagini sul mosaico parietale del
ninfeo della Casa di Nettuno e
Anfitrite e sui dipinti del Salone
Nero e della Villa dei Papiri
saranno completate nel 2010 in
collaborazione con D. Capitani e B.
Blümich.
Daniela Moser
Università di Napoli Federico II
Dpt. Arboricoltura, Botanica e Patologia
Vegetale - Portici (Napoli)
Rheinisch-Westfaelische
Hochschule
Technische
Aachen
CNR- Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche
Noemi Proietti
Roma
Eleonora
Federico
Pratt Institute
New York
Del
Carola
Garcia
Manzano
Daria Souvorova
Vicki Bordman
John Horner
Samantha Barnes
Maria
Daizo
Belen
Penelope Currier
Dipinti murali
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Marco Giamello
Malte
E’ stata avviata una collaborazione
per la lettura petrografica delle
sezioni sottili ottenute dai
campioni di malta
raccolti
nell’ambito del “Progetto 100
malte” (si veda pagina 55).
Philip Kevin
Legno
archeologico
E’ in corso di definizione una
collaborazione per un progetto di
ricerca e per il restauro di alcuni
reperti lignei provenienti dal sito
archeologico, in vista della Mostra
su Pompei ed Ercolano che si terrà
presso il British Museum nel 2013.
E’ inoltre in corso di definizione
una collaborazione all’iniziativa
“SGS LA 2010/2011” (si veda
pagina 55).
Attualmente (2010) è in corso una
collaborazione
per
indagini
(Termogravimetria
e
Cromatografia Ionica) sui campioni
prelevati nell’ambito del “Progetto
100 malte”. E’ in corso di
definizione una collaborazione
all’iniziativa “SGS LA 2010/2011”
(si veda pagina 55).
Giuseppe
Sabatini
Università di Siena
Dpt .Scienze Ambientali “G.Sarfatti”
Siena
Paul Roberts
The British Museum
London
Claudio Rossi
Malte
Antonio Tognazzi
Legno
archeologico
Nicola
Macchioni
Legno
archeologico
E’ in corso di definizione una
collaborazione all’iniziativa “SGS
LA 2010/2011” (si veda pagina 55).
Maria
Perla
Colombini
Legno
archeologico
E’ in corso di definizione una
collaborazione all’iniziativa “SGS
LA 2010/2011” (si veda pagina 55).
Gianna Giachi
Legno
archeologico
E’ in corso di definizione una
collaborazione all’iniziativa “SGS
LA 2010/2011” (si veda pagina 55).
Christoph Herm
Dipinti murali
C. Herm collabora all’iniziativa
“SGS- 09/10” ((si veda pagina 55)
per la rimozione dei protettivi
superficiali e per il consolidamento
delle pitture murali con nanocalce.
Le prove sono eseguite dal
conservatore
A.
Daehene,
Università di Siena
Dpt. Farmaco Chimico Tecnologico
Siena e Colle val d’Elsa
IVALSA
Sabrina Palanti
Firenze
Università degli Studi di Pisa
Pisa
Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici
della Toscana
Firenze
Stucchi
Arnulf Daehene
Thomas Köberle
Hochschule fur Bildende Künste
Gerald
Materiali
lapidei
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Ziegenbalg
Mauro Matteini
coadiuvato dal geologo T. Köberle.
G. Ziegenbalg collabora alla messa
a punto di una particolare
formulazione
di
nanocalce
(Calosil).
Dipinti Murali
Mauro
Matteini
collabora
all’iniziativa “SGS- 09/10” (si veda
pagina 55) per la rimozione dei
protettivi superficiali per il
consolidamento delle pitture
murali con idrossido di bario. Le
sperimentazioni sono eseguite dal
conservatore Sabino Giovannoni.
Dipinti Murali
Marisa Laurenzi Tabasso collabora
all’iniziativa “SGS- 09/10” (si veda
pagina 55) per la rimozione dei
protettivi superficiali e per il
consolidamento delle pitture
murali con silicato di etile ed altri
metodi
alternativi.
Le
sperimentazioni sono eseguite dal
conservatore Werner Schmid.
Sharon Cather
Dipinti murali
Sharon
Cather
collabora
attualmente con HCP come peer
reviewer
nell’iniziativa
“SGS09/10” (si veda pagina 55).
Luigi Dei
Dipinti murali
Luigi Dei collabora attualmente
con HCP come peer reviewer
nell’iniziativa “SGS- 09/10” (si
veda pagina 55).
Jan
Stubbe
Østergaard
Scultura
policroma
Jan Stubbe Østergaard fornisce la
sua consulenza sulle metodologie
scientifiche per lo studio di
sculture policrome.
Graeme Earl
Scultura
policroma nel
suo
contesto
architettonico
L’Università di Southampton ha in
corso un progetto per la
ricostruzione virtuale della testa di
Amazzone scoperta ad Ercolano
nel 2006
e per ricreare
virtualmente
una
rappresentazione del contesto
archeologico nel quale erano
inserite le statue romane.
Paul Arenson
Conservazione
La biblioteca dell’ICCROM, nella
persona di Paul Arenson, fornisce
supporto nella ricerca bibliografica
inerente alla conservazione e ad
altri temi connessi con il sito
archeologico di Ercolano.
Sabino
Giovannoni
Marisa Laurenzi
Tabasso
Werner Schmid
The Courtauld Institute of Art
London
Università degli Studi di Firenze
Firenze
Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek
Copenhagen
University of Southampton
Southampton
ICCROM, Roma
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Appendix IV
Il contributo del Centro Herculaneum alla sostenibilità HCP
Nella sfida per rendere il lavoro di conservazione svolto dall’Herculaneum Conservation Project sostenibile
nel prossimo futuro il Centro Herculaneum (creato dall’Associazione Herculaneum i cui partner sono la
Soprintendenza Speciale per i Beni Archeologici di Napoli e Pompei, il Comune di Ercolano e la British
School at Rome), lavora per agire come punto di riferimento per l’inclusione della comunità locale ed
internazionale nella conservazione del patrimonio storico di Ercolano, attraverso lo sviluppo di partnership,
facilitando fisicamente ed intellettualmente l’accesso all’ambiente storico e stimolando interesse nel
patrimonio culturale ed archeologico di Ercolano.
Il Centro Herculaneum persegue questa missione nelle seguenti aree:
-
Partecipazione
-
Formazione
-
Ricerca
-
Condivisione di informazioni / accessibilità
-
“Think tank”
In particolare, i seguenti quattro box illustrano le aree dove l’equipe del Centro sta già collaborando con
l’HCP per contribuire alla durabilità dei risultati ottenuti negli ultimi anni, per i quali il Centro può avere un
ruolo importante dopo la chiusura dell’HCP.
IV.1 CUSTODIRE I DATI HCP
Il Centro Herculaneum erediterà l’esperienza consolidata nell’ultimo
decennio dall’Herculaneum Conservation Project in termini di
conservazione, salvaguardia e disseminazione dei beni archeologici di
Ercolano. Il Centro intende diventare uno dei futuri custodi/depositari dei
dati archeologici, conservativi, architettonici, ecc dell’HCP, adottandone il
GIS e l’archivio e garantendone la sostenibilità nel lungo termine. I dati
raccolti non saranno soltanto conservati digitalmente ma sopratutto resi
fruibili al pubblico accademico e non, nella futura sede del Centro
Herculaneum nella Villa Maiuri ad Ercolano.
IV.2 DISSEMINARE I RISULTATI HCP
Oltre ad essere un deposito per i risultati HCP è di fondamentale
importanza consolidare e portare avanti l’obiettivo dell’HCP e del Centro
di incrementare la disseminazione dei risultati ottenuti finora dai lavori di
conservazione sul sito e di coinvolgimento degli stakeholder. La fruizione
e la disseminazione dei risultati ottenuti porterà ad un maggiore
apprezzamento del sito e sopratutto ad una maggiore comprensione dei
lavori e dei risultati portati avanti dal progetto di conservazione. La
condivisione dei risultati aiuterà altresì a sviluppare nuove strategie
conservative e soprattutto sulla gestione dei siti archeologici, sulla base
delle esperienze pratiche maturate ad Ercolano. In particolare, qui si
punta sulla possibilità di usare Ercolano come un’aula all’aperto per una
serie di iniziative.
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IV.3 INCORAGGIARE LA PARTECIPAZIONE DI PARTNER E GRUPPI DI INTERESSE
L’esperienza accumulata dall’HCP e dal Centro dimostrano che la futura
sostenibilità del sito archeologico di Ercolano ed in generale dei beni
presenti sul territorio possa essere garantita soltanto dal coinvolgimento
e dalla partecipazione democratica della collettività locale nella cura e
nella salvaguardia dei beni culturali. Il Centro, in collaborazione con
l’HCP, negli ultimi anni ha posto in essere una serie di attività e di
programmi con membri della comunità internazionale e locale, residenti,
professionisti dei beni culturali, studenti e docenti, in cui il sito di
Ercolano ed i beni culturali del territorio fossero il punto focale delle
attività, allo scopo di incrementare la conoscenza dei beni, della loro
fragilità e dell’importanza della loro conservazione e salvaguardia.
La filosofia che sta dietro al coinvolgimento della comunità locale ed
internazionale nella conservazione dei beni culturali trae origine dalle
seguenti constatazioni:
-
la conservazione dei beni culturali ha un senso solo se ha un
valore per i cittadini;
-
la concezione dei beni culturali è molteplice e multivocale, può
avere un senso differente per ogni persona, dallo studioso al
cittadino comune;
-
il patrimonio culturale è uno strumento potente che può
contribuire allo sviluppo di comunità sostenibili.
Una volta che il progetto di conservazione sarà stato completato, la
sensibilizzazione accresciuta della collettività locale ed internazionale
contribuiranno alla conservazione e alla salvaguardia del sito
archeologico.
IV:4 DIMOSTRARE LA RIAPPLICABILITÀ DEL MODELLO HCP ALTROVE
il modello sperimentato dall’HCP stà già riscuotendo notevole interesse
nel mondo dei beni culturali a livello nazionale ed internazionale. Sono
pervenute richieste di informazioni:
-
sul perché tale modello fosse integrato nella manutenzione
programmata nel nuovo piano di gestione UNESCO WHS per
Pompei;
-
allo scopo di fornire consulenza tecnica sul modello HCP/Centro
per la gestione multidisciplinare e partecipatoria al sito
archeologico di Efeso (Turchia)
-
con l’obiettivo di includere l’approccio partecipatoriocomunicativo HCP/Centro nelle raccomandazioni per il piano per
il sito Patrimonio dell’Umanità del Vallo di Adriano (Regno Unito)
-
da parte della Commissione Europea per studiare il lavoro del
Centro sull’inclusione sociale.
Compito del Centro sarà quello di portare avanti queste istanze e di
disseminare sempre di più il potenziale della riapplicabilità del modello
HCP/Centro per la gestione e conservazione dei siti archeologici.
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Appendix V
La Programmazione Congiunta HCP per il biennio 2010-2012
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Future proposals
An extract from the ‘Exit Strategy’ narrative presented to PHI in March 2010:
A strategy for the final phases of HCP conservation work at Herculaneum
In bringing an ambitious conservation project launched in 2001 towards closure, our priorities are as
follows:
1. The completion of programmes of work, especially on infrastructure, on which we have already
embarked. Much of this will be undertaken jointly with SANP.
2. An effective ‘handover’ to SANP to ensure that all lessons learnt by the project are translated into
future good practice, both by working alongside SANP in a phase of co-programming and cofinance, and by the definition of a programme of ongoing maintenance or ‘continuous care’ which
will ensure that all necessary basic work is done to sustain the site into the future.
3. A programme of scientific research and trials to improve conservation practice, and a programme
of publication, workshops and other forms of dissemination to ensure that lessons learnt at
Herculaneum have an impact in other Vesuvian sites and more widely in Italian heritage.
Our proposal envisages a final ‘season’ of 24 months in which we complete all building work, and work in
parallel with SANP. The bulk of the building work envisaged is to be undertaken by SANP, with a
provisionally agreed budget of 6,750,000 euros, of which an element of 1 million per year is foreseen as an
annual maintenance budget stretching into the future. The crucial function of our own team will be to
provide detailed plans for SANP projects and to offer technical and archaeological support in their
execution. We thus envisage a progressive shift from an entity which both plans and carries out projects to
a function purely of planning , consultation and monitoring.
This phase thus leads to the possibility of a longer follow-up phase in which a slim-line team offers
consultancy, advice and support to SANP, and the coordination of scientific experimentation—the
inescapable delays in all SANP programming make this continuity particularly desirable. This much-reduced
activity could also interface with and feed into other projects as required, particularly the Basilica and the
Museum.
Completion of programmes and handover
Infrastructure, water management. The provision of effective drainage has been seen throughout as the
most urgent improvement to site infrastructure. We aim to complete the primary drainage network by
2012, either via direct action (BSR works contracts) or via planning and supervising SANP works, especially
the west portion of ancient shoreline. Re-instating the secondary network is being brought under the
rolling programme of site care; a portion is to be completed by direct action in a trial phase (2010) and
thereafter by SANP, initially with HCP planning and supervision (Fig. 67).
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Fig. 67: water management – drainage network and ancient shoreline
Ancient shore line. Major work has been completed in providing drainage, division of foul and clean water,
and an improved pumping system at the lowest point of the Ancient Shoreline. The western half is to be
completed, though SANP will finance the work, and our role is in archaeological and technical backup (Fig.
67).
Site edges. We identified at an early stage as a major problem the instability of the site edges and the
wholly inadequate relationship of the site to its surrounding area, including lack of access. One principal
area of difficulty in the NW corner will be addressed by the Basilica project. It is proposed that a joint
initiative for the east escarpment (SANP and BSR works contracts) can make the area safe, complete the
missing palaestra branch of the primary drainage network, improve access for site-works and begin to
address the challenges of water and vegetation management of escarpments for application elsewhere by
SANP thereafter.
Roofing. A major campaign of the last two years has been the repair or replacement of the most common
type of leaking roofs. Another major phase of this campaign will be commissioned by SANP with our
planning and supervision; with this completed, all such basic roofing will have been brought to a state
which will only need routine maintenance thereafter. Within the 2010-2012 co-programming, a third phase
is envisaged, again commissioned by SANP with our planning and supervision. It will be more modest and
will begin to address those areas of the site that have no roof and need some form of protection, applying
the lessons learnt in Gionata Rizzi’s 2006 experiments of provisional shelters in Insula Orientalis I. (Fig. 68).
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Fig. 68: repair and substitution of roofing and creation of new protective shelters
House by house conservation. Rather than undertake full-scale restorations, we have adopted a policy of
intervening in targeted and limited ways in order to render the situation stable and sustainable. In the next
season we plan to work alongside SANP, producing packages of work for six houses in urgent need of
attention. This involves developing a more realistic approach to restoring entire houses which takes on
board the lessons learnt from the research programme and pilot projects and breaks up existing SANP
projects into manageable phases (our planning and supervision, SANP works) which target interventions
such as roofing and drainage (Fig. 69).
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Fig. 69: restoring houses.
Maintenance programme. We have gradually shifted from the initial phase of emergency interventions to
stabilize decorative surfaces and structures across the site to the development of a rolling maintenance
programme. We propose for the coming season limited work under our own control on decorative and
structural features. We will also plan packages of work for SANP to carry out (Figs 70-71).
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Fig. 70: a rolling programme of site care – structural works
a. Conservation of structures. Unlike the 2005-2007 emergency campaign on decorative features , the
campaign on structures already began to carry out more lasting conservation interventions (lintel
substitution, masonry consolidation, wall crest repair etc.). Thanks to momentum maintained in the last 2
years, the site has undergone a radical transformation with numerous areas liberated of barriers and once
again made safe for visitor access. With the site in a more manageable state, the 2010-2012 proposal
places emphasis on:
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lintel substitution, masonry consolidation, wall crest repair etc. in those spaces made accessible
again thanks to the ongoing roofing campaign (our planning and supervision, SANP works),
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science and pilot projects in order to improve conservation methods campaign (our planning,
supervision and works),
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establishing a rolling programme of routine to maintain the status quo (our planning and
supervision, SANP & BSR works).
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Fig. 71: a rolling programme of site care – works on decorative features
b. Conservation of decorated surfaces. The 2005-2007 emergency campaign on decorative features
stabilized wall paintings and decorative flooring sufficiently to allow us to place greater emphasis on
improving water management and the state of the archaeological structures (reinstating decaying roofs,
consolidating walls etc.) in 2008-2009. With the site in a more manageable state and with the causes of
decay of the decorative features gradually being reduced, the 2010-2012 proposal places emphasis on
decorative features once again in the form of:
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urgent preliminary conservation measures in those spaces made accessible again thanks to the
ongoing roofing campaign (our planning and supervision, SANP works),
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and, similar to work on structures, science and pilot projects and a rolling programme of routine to
maintain the status quo (see above).
Survey and Documentation. We have resurveyed the entire site (including the Villa of the Papyri) creating a
new site plan with a substantial level of detail in terms of decorative flooring. The only detail missing at this
stage is the roads and this can be completed using a helium air balloon. In addition, there is also the
pressing need to re-establish the survey base-points identified by Di Grazia in 2002 with more robust in situ
bases. The need for surveying support to broader project activity will remain in 2010-2012, particularly with
regard pilot projects and SANP commissioned work. If funds allow , it would be valuable to complement the
site plan with several site sections.
Scientific research and trials and dissemination of results
Information management system and the programme of continuous care. We have developed an
integrated information management system which is already proving central to works programming and
monitoring. (The illustrations accompanying this proposal have all been drawn off the project GIS
database.) The value of this database as tool in future site management is recognized by SANP colleagues.
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We envisage that with 2 years further investment, it will allow the planning of the annual maintenance
programme to be easily extracted and realistic for an over burdened SANP technical office. Indeed the
proposal for the future places importance on completing past data entry and ensuring the system evolves
to allow documentation processing for all work in progress by the specialists or works companies directly
into the system. (B1)
Research programme. An initial series of scientific tests on materials (salts, carbonized wood, mortars etc)
has turned into an ambitious series of collaborations with over a dozen institutes across the world,
including the Getty Conservation Institute, the Courtauld and universities in Germany and Italy. Most of the
costs of personnel, lab costs etc are borne by the collaborating institutions. A detailed programme of
research will lead to much valuable information on which to base future conservation (Fig. 72).
Fig. 72: research programme
These joint research initiatives will be accompanied by HCP trials and the preparation and review of
guidelines (‘protocolli’). Some examples follow:
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Monitoring aimed at increasing the durability of interventions: wear & tear, microclimate, wall
humidity, aging of interventions, protective layers etc. (in conjunction with the Courtauld Institute,
London);
‘HCP Experimentation & Study Days II: Wood’ - carbonized treated and non-treated, not carbonized
& waterlogged;
Managing soluble salt efflorescences;
Grouting (in collaboration with the Getty Conservation Institute) ;
Cleaning & consolidation of wall paintings;
Conserving paint layers (follow on from "HCP Experimentation & Study Days I: Paint Layers");
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Stuccoes (in collaboration with Hochschule fur Bildende Kunste, Dresden, Germany as part of
EU_Stonecore) ;
Biodeterioration (in collaboration with, amongst others, the Soprintendenza per il Polo Museale
Veneziano) ;
Reducing humidity in decorative features on retaining walls;
Opus sectile, including presentation (in collaboration with Laboratorio di Ricerca sui Materiali
Antichi dello IUAV, Venezia) ;
"Battuti" (beaten floors) & opus signinum;
Reducing visitor impact on mosaics;
New mortars (follow on from the "100 Malte" project);
Masonry conservation;
Restoring twentieth century concrete;
New building materials: e.g. sourcing structural timber & maintenance.
Recruiting new forms of support for SANP in the long-term: Small initiatives in the following two years
could prepare the ground for long-term partnerships that outlive the present project and support SANP
long into the future. These include the preparation of preliminary proposals for conservation projects for
areas of the site attractive to outside partners (e.g. the Suburban Baths) and offering support to new
partners as they establish themselves on site.
Examples follow:
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'Cantiere scuola' with ISCR: maintenance Insula Orientalis I;
'Cantiere scuola' with the Opificio delle Pietre Dure, Florence, and the Scuola per il Restauro del
Mosaico, Ravenna: mosaic conservation;
Research and conservation trials with the Getty Conservation Institute, USA: Villa of the Papyri &
Casa del Bicentenario.
Pilot projects. We have already identified a number of areas of particular difficulty, especially the
nymphaeum of the house of Neptune and Amphitrite, and the suspended ceilings and hollow flues of the
Suburban baths. Experimental interventions here, coupled with experimental design of architectural
features like porches, windows , doors and screens, will provide templates for future work by SANP.
Dissemination. Publication of results of specialist studies and reporting on work in progress in a new
electronic series of studies, coupled with workshops and use of website, will ensure that lessons learnt in
Herculaneum can be applied elsewhere.
AWH & JT 01.03.2010
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Scarica

Annual report 2009-2010 - Herculaneum Conservation Project